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NITAAI-Veda.nyf > All Scriptures By Acharyas > Biographical Works > All Biographies > G

G

 

S.L.NO.         NAME                                                                     SOURCE

 

G. 1.   GADADHARA                                                            GVA

G. 2.   GADADHARA                                                            GVA

G. 3.   GADADHARA BHATTA                                                         GVA,CCU

G. 4.   GADADHARA BHATTA                                                         GVA

G. 5.   GADADHARA BHASKARA                                                      GVA

G. 6.   GADADHARA DASA (DASA GADADHARA)                       GVA,CCU,GPC

G. 7.   GADADHARA DASA                                                             GVA

G. 8.   GADADHARA DASA                                                             GVA

G. 9.   GADADHARA PANDITA GOSVAMI                                 GVA,CCU,GPC

G. 10.GAJAPATI PRATAPARUDRA DEVA                                            GVA,GPC

G. 11.GAJENDRA MATHURA DASA                                         GVA

G. 12.GALIMA                                                                             GVA

G. 13.GANDHARVA KUMUDANANDA                                                GVA

G. 14.GANDHARVA RAYA                                                               GVA

G. 15.GANDHARVAVARA KHAN                                                       GVA

G. 16.GANESA CAUDHURI                                                             GVA

G. 17.GANESA RAJA                                                                     GVA

G. 18.GANESA RAYA                                                           GVA

G. 19.GANGADASA                                                                       GVA

G. 20.GANGADASA                                                                       GVA

G. 21.GANGADASA                                                                       GVA

G. 22.GANGADASA                                                                       GVA,CCU

G. 23.GANGADASA DATTA                                                             GVA

G. 24.GANGADASA NIRLOMA                                                         GVA

G. 25.GANGADASA PANDITA                                                          GVA,CCU,GPC

G. 26.GANGADASA RAYA                                                               GVA

G. 27.GANGADHARA BHATTACARYA                                                GVA

G. 28.GANGADHARA DASA                                                   GVA

G. 29.GANGA DEVI                                                                       GVA

G. 30.GANGA DEVI                                                                       GVA

G. 31.GANGAGOVINDA SIMHA                                                       GVA

G. 32.GANGAHARI DASA                                                               GVA

G. 33.GANGAMANTRI                                                                   GVA,CCU

G. 34.GANGAMATA GOSVAMINI                                                     GVA,GPC

G. 35.GANGANARAYANA CAKRAVARTI                                             GVA

G. 36.GANGANARAYANA (RAMA) CAUDHURI                                     GVA

G. 37.GARUDA                                                                            GVA,CCU

G. 38.GARUDA AVADHUTA                                                   GVA,CCU

G. 39.GARUDA PANDITA                                                               GVA,CCU

G. 40.GATIGOVINDA (GOVINDAGATI)                                             GVA

G. 41.GAUDAPURNANANDA CAKRAVARTI                               GVA

G. 42.GAURACARANA DASA BABAJI (SIDDHA)                                   GVJ

G. 43.GAURADASA (GAURAMOHANA)                                              GVA

G. 44.GAURADASA BABAJI                                                             GVJ

G. 45.GAURAGANADASA                                                                GVA

G. 46.GAURAGOPALA                                                                   GVA

G. 47.GAURAGOVINDANANDA BHAGAVATASVAMI                    GVJ

G. 48.GAURAGUNANANDA THAKURA                                               GVA

G. 49.GAURAKISORA DASA BABAJI                                        GVJ,GPC

G. 50.GAURAKISORA SIROMANI                                                     GVJ

G. 51.GAURANGA                                                                         GVA

G. 52.GAURANGA DASA                                                                GVA

G. 53.GAURANGA DASA                                                                GVA

G. 54.GAURANGA DASA                                                                GVA

G. 55.GAURANGA DASA                                                                GVA

G. 56.GAURANGA DASA BABAJI                                                      GVJ

G. 57.GAURANGA DASA GHOSALA                                         GVA

G. 58.GAURANGA DASA VAIRAGI                                                    GVA

G. 59.GAURANGA DASI                                                                 GVA

G. 60.GAURANGA PRIYA                                                               GVA

G. 61.GAURANGAVALLABHA                                                 GVA

G. 62.GAURASUNDARA DASA                                                         GVA

G. 63.GAURIDASA                                                                        GVA

G. 64.GAURIDASA KIRTANIA                                                         GVA

G. 65.GAURIDASA PANDITA                                                 GVA,CCU,GPC

G. 66.GAURIMOHANA DASA                                                 GVA

G. 67.GHANASYAMA                                                           GVA

G. 68.GHANASYAMA                                                           GVA

G. 69.GHANASYAMA                                                           GVA

G. 70.GHANASYAMA CAKRAVARTI (NARAHARI DASA)               GVA

G. 71.GHANASYAMA DASA                                                             GVA

G. 72.GHANASYAMA DASA                                                             GVA

G. 73.GHANASYAMA DASA                                                             GVA

G. 74.GIRIDHARA DASA                                                                GVA

G. 75.GIRIDHARA DASA                                                                GVA

G. 76.GIRIDHARA DASA                                                                GVA

G. 77.GIRIDHARA DASA                                                                GVA

G. 78.GIRIDHARI DASA BABAJI                                                      GVJ

G. 79.GIRIDHARI DASA BABAJI (Navadvipa)                                   GVJ

G. 80.GITAPATHI BRAHMANA                                                        GVA

G. 81.GOKULA CAKRAVARTI                                                          GVA,CCU

G. 82.GOKULA DASA                                                           GVA

G. 83.GOKULA DASA                                                           GVA

G. 84.GOKULA DASA                                                           GVA

G. 85.GOKULA DASA                                                           GVA

G. 86.GOKULA DASA (GOKULANANDA)                                            GVA

G. 87.GOKULA DASA MAHANTA                                                      GVA

G. 88.GOKULANANDA VAIRAGI                                                      GVA

G. 89.GOKULANANDA                                                                   GVA

G. 90.GOKULANANDA                                                                   GVA

G. 91.GOKULANANDA DASA (GOKULA KAVINDRA)                             GVA

G. 92.GOKULANANDA DASA CAKRAVARTI                               GVA

G. 93.GOKULANANDA SENA                                                 GVA

G. 94.GOPALA                                                                             GVA,CCU

G. 95.GOPALA                                                                             GVA

G. 96.GOPALA                                                                             GVA

G. 97.GOPALA                                                                             GVA

G. 98.GOPALA                                                                             GVA

G. 99.GOPALA ACARYA                                                                 GVA,CCU

G. 100.         GOPALA ACARYA                                                      GVA

G. 101.         GOPALA ACARYA                                                      GVA

G. 102.         GOPALABHANJA RAYA                                               GVA

G. 103.         GOPALA BHATTA GOSVAMI                              GVA,GPC

G. 104.         GOPALA BHATTACARYA                                             GVA

G. 105.         GOPALA BHUINYA                                                    GVA

G. 106.         GOPALA CAKRAVARTY                                               GVA

G. 107.         GOPALA CAKRAVARTY                                               GVA

G. 108.         GOPALA CAKRAVARTI                                               GVA

G. 109.         GOPALA DASA                                                          GVA,CCU

G. 110.         GOPALA DASA                                                          GVA

G. 111.         GOPALA DASA                                                          GVA

G. 112.         GOPALA DASA                                                          GVA

G. 113.         GOPALA DASA                                                          GVA

G. 114.         GOPALA DASA                                                          GVA

G. 115.         GOPALA DASA                                                          GVA

G. 116.         GOPALA DASA                                                          GVA

G. 117.         GOPALA DASA                                                          GVA

G. 118.         GOPALA DASA                                                          GVA

G. 119.         GOPALA DASA                                                          GVA

G. 120.         GOPALA DASA                                                          GVA

G. 121.         GOPALA DASA                                                          GVA

G. 122.         GOPALA DASA                                                          GVA

G. 123.         GOPALA DASA ADHIKARI                                           GVA,CCU

G. 124.         GOPALADASA BAHADURA                                           GVA

G. 125.         GOPALADASA THAKURA                                             GVA

G. 126.         GOPALA DATTA                                                        GVA

G. 127.         GOPALA HODA                                                         GVA

G. 128.         GOPALA KSATRIYA                                                   GVA

G. 129.         GOPALA MANDALA                                                   GVA

G. 130.         GOPALA MISRA                                                        GVA

G. 131.         GOPALA MISRA                                                        GVA

G. 132.         GOPALA NARTAKA                                                    CCU

G. 133.         GOPALA PURI                                                 CCU

G. 134.         GOPALA SADIPURIA                                        CCU

G. 135.         GOPALA SIMHA                                                        GVA

G. 136.         GOPALA THAKURA                                                    GVA

G. 137.         GOPALA VALLABHA                                         GVA

G. 138.         GOPALA GURU                                                         GVA,CCU

G. 139.         GOPALAKRSNA PATTANAYAKA                                    GVA

G. 140.         GOPENDRA ASRAMA                                        GVA

G. 141.         GOPICARANA DASA                                         GVA

G. 142.         GOPIDASA                                                               GVA

G. 143.         GOPIJANAVALLABHA                                       GVA

G. 144.         GOPIJANAVALLABHA                                       GVA

G. 145.         GOPIJANAVALLABHA                                       GVA

G. 146.         GOPIJANAVALLABHA DASA                               GVA

G. 147.         GOPIJIVANA                                                            GVA

G. 148.         GOPIKANTA                                                             GVA,CCU

G. 149.         GOPIKANTA ACARYA                                       GVA

G. 150.         GOPIKANTA DASA                                                    GVA

G. 151.         GOPIKANTA MISRA                                                   GVA

G. 152.         GOPIKRSNADASA                                                      GVA

G. 153.         GOPIKRSNADASA                                                      GVA

G. 154.         GOPINANDALALA                                                     GVA

G. 155.         GOPIMOHANA                                                          GVA

G. 156.         GOPIMOHANA DASA                                        GVA

G. 157.         GOPINATHA                                                            GVA

G. 158.         GOPINATHA                                                            GVA

G. 159.         GOPINATHA                                                            GVA

G. 160.         GOPINATHA ACARYA                                       GVA,CCU,BMO

G. 161.         GOPINATHA ACARYA (PASUPATI or GOPINATHA THAKURA CCU

G. 162.         GOPINATHA PATTANAYAKA                              GVA,CCU,GPC

G. 163.         GOPINATHA PUJARI                                        GVA

G. 164.         GOPINATHA SIMHA                                         GVA,CCU

G. 165.         GOPINATHA THAKURA                                              GVA

G. 166.         GOPINATHA VASU                                                    GVA

G. 167.         GOPINATHADASA PATTANAYAKA                       GVA

G. 168.         GOPIRAMANA                                                 GVA

G. 169.         GOPIRAMANA CAKRAVARTI                              GVA

G. 170.         GOPIRAMANA CAKRAVARTI                              GVA

G. 171.         GOPIRAMANA CAKRAVARTI                              GVA

G. 172.         GOPIRAMANA KAVIRAJA                                            GVA

G. 173.         GOPIRAMANA DASA VAIDYA                                       GVA

G. 174.         GOPIVALLABHA                                                        GVA

G. 175.         GORACAND DASA BABAJI                                           GVJ

G. 176.         GORAI KAZI                                                            GVA

G. 177.         GOSAIN DASA                                                          GVA

G. 178.         GOSAINDASA PUJARI                                                GVA

G. 179.         GOVARDHANA BHANDARI                                 GVA

G. 180.         GOVARDHANA BHATTA                                              GVA

G. 181.         GOVARDHANA DASA                                        GVA

G. 182.         GOVARDHANA DASA                                        GVA

G. 183.         GOVARDHANA DASA                                        GVA

G. 184.         GOVINDA                                                                GVA

G. 185.         GOVINDA                                                                GVA

G. 186.         GOVINDA                                                                GVA

G. 187.         GOVINDA                                                                GVA

G. 188.         GOVINDA                                                                GVA

G. 189.         GOVINDA                                                                GVA

G. 190.         GOVINDA                                                                GVA

G. 191.         GOVINDA ACARYA                                                    GVA

G. 192.         GOVINDA ACARYA                                                    GVA

G. 193.         GOVINDA ACARYA                                                    GVA

G. 194.         GOVINDA ADHIKARI                                        GVA

G. 195.         GOVINDA ADHIKARI                                        GVA

G. 196.         GOVINDA BHADUDI (BARUDI)                                    GVA

G. 197.         GOVINDA BHAKATA                                        GVA

G. 198.         GOVINDA BHANJA                                                    GVA

G. 199.         GOVINDA DASA                                                        GVA

G. 200.         GOVINDA DASA BABAJI MAHARAJA                    GVJ

G. 201.         GOVINDA DASI                                                        GVA

G. 202.         GOVINDA DATTA                                                      GVA

G. 203.         GOVINDA DEVA KAVI                                                GVA

G. 204.         GOVINDA DVIJA (See `SUGRIVA MISRA')                     GVA,CCU

G. 205.         GOVINDA GHOSH                                                     GVA,CCU

G. 206.         GOVINDA GOSVAMI                                        GVA

G. 207.         GOVINDA KARMAKARA                                              CCU

G. 208.         GOVINDA KAVIRAJA                                        GVA

G. 209.         GOVINDA KAVIRAJA                                        GVA,CCU,GPC

G. 210.         GOVINDA PURI                                                        GVA,CCU

G. 211.         GOVINDARAMA                                                        GVA

G. 212.         GOVINDARAMA RAJA                                       GVA

G. 213.         GOVINDA RAYA                                                        GVA

G. 214.         GOVINDA RAYA                                                        GVA

G. 215.         GOVINDANANDA                                                      GVA,CCU

G. 216.         GOVINDANANDA CAKRAVARTI                                    GVA

G. 217.         GOVINDANANDA THAKURA                               GVA

G. 218.         GUMPHANARAYANA                                         GVA

G. 219.         GUNAMANJARI                                                         GVA

G. 220.         GUNANANDA GUHA                                         GVA

G. 221.         GUNANIDHI                                                             GVA,CCU

G. 222.         GUNARAJA KHAN (MALADHARA VASU)                         GVA

G. 223.         GUNARNAVA MISRA                                        GVA

G. 224.         GUPTA BEJHA                                                 GVA

G. 225.         GURUCARANA DASA                                        GVA

G. 226.         GURUDASA BHATTACARYA                               GVA

G. 227.         GURUPRASADA SENGUPTA (PRASADA DASA)                 GVAGADA

 

 

G. 1. GADADHARA:

 

          A devotee from Barahanpura, he installed the Deity of Lalvihari (Bhaktamala 25.3)

 

G. 2.   GADADHARA:

 

          He was a disciple of Syamananda Prabhu and belonged to Shripata Gopiballavpura. (Premavilasa 20)

 

G. 3.   GADADHARA BHATTA:

 

          He was Rangadevi in a past incarnation (Gaura-ganoddesa-dipika 165). His Shripata is located at Hanumanpura in Andhra Pradesh.

 

G. 4.   GADADHARA BHATTA:

 

          He was a disciple of Raghunatha Bhatta Gosvami.  Gadadhara Bhatta composed the work entitled Mohinivani.  According to Bhaktamala 23, he was a pious, warm-hearted, sober person and his talks on Shrimad-Bhagavatam were very lucid.  It is said that Jiva Gosvami was so overjoyed to hear a pada composed by Gadadhara that he dispatched two of his messengers to deliver a letter to Gadadhara at his native village containing the following sloka:

 

anaradhya radhapadambhijarenumanashritya

vrndatabim tatpadankam,

asambhasya tadbhavagambhiracittam kutah

syamasindhoh rasasyavagahah?

 

          The messengers arrived at Gadadhara's village and happened to meet Gadadhara, who was having his morning bath.  Assuming that Gadadhara was a local resident, they inquired where they could find the residence of Gadadhara.  When Gadadhara asked the messengers where they had come from, they replied "Siramora Vrndavanadhama."  Simply by hearing the name of Vrndavana, Gadadhara was filled with ecstacy and fell unconscious.  When he regained consciousness the messengers, being convinced of the identity of Gadadhara Bhatta, handed over Jiva Gosvami's letter.  After touching the letter to his forehead, Gadadhara read the contents and immediately thereafter rushed to Vrndavana.  There he met Jiva Gosvami and ultimately surrendered himself at the feet of Raghunatha Bhatta. (See Namamrtasamudra)

 

G. 5.   GADADHARA BHASKARA:

 

          His Shripata was at Dainhata, where his family descendants continue to live and worship a beautiful stone Deity which they installed there.

 

G. 6.   GADADHARA DASA (DASA GADADHARA):

 

          A close associate of Nityananda Prabhu.  His Shripata stands at the village Ariadaha on the bank of the river Ganges about eight miles north of Calcutta.  Gadadhara lived at Puri with Lord Chaitanya, but later, on the instruction of the Lord, left for Gauda along with Nityananda Prabhu, Ramadasa, and some other devotees to preach the message of love of God.

 

          Lord Nityananda Prabhu organized the event of "Danalila" in the house of Gadadhara.  The temple founded by Gadadhara, the site of the "Danalila", Gadadhara angana, and the memorial samadhi are still in existence at Ariadaha. 

 

          Gadadhara was a remarkably enthusiastic disciple.  One day he approached the local Kazi and commanded him to chant Harinama.  Strangely enough, the Kazi willingly accepted the instruction and became a devotee of Hari. 

 

          According to Gaura-ganoddesa-dipika 154-155, Gadadhara was, in his past incarnations, Shri Radha-vibhuti Candrakanti and Purnananda Gopi.  The Kalna edition of Cc. refers to Dasa Gadadhara as a Kayastha by caste, whereas his descendants at Ariadaha declare themselves to be brahmanas (Also see Cc. 1.10 and 1.11).  In Atulkrishna Gosvami's edition of CBh. it is recorded that the Deity of Balagopala was worshipped by Gadadhara dasa. BBM notes in CCU that during his visit to Ariadaha he found the Deity lying in a state of utter neglect and was no longer being worshipped.

 

          One Balaicand Mallik of Calcutta is the present owner of the Gadadhara temple property.  He spent a considerable amount to renovate the entire area, including all the holy sites.  The disappearance day of Gadadhara is celebrated on the eight day of the dark fortnight in Kartika (late October).

 

          Gadadhara, who was senior to Shrinivasa Acarya by age, attended the Danda-mahotsava celebration at Panihati.  He lived for sometime at Shripata Katoa.  When he first stayed at Navadvipa Gadadhara took care of Mother Saci and Vishnupriya-devi.  After they both passed away, Gadadhara went to Katoa where he installed the image of Lord Gauranga.  At present the temple of Gadadhara is situated at the residential abode of Lord Gauranga at Katoa.  Gadadhara had a brahmana disciple named Yadunandana Cakravarti. (Bhaktiratnakara 9.352, 9.362)

 

          Shrinivasa Acarya presided over the festival held at the death of Dasa Gadadhara, which was attended also by Mahantas from several other places. The Vaishnavas regard this festival as a memorable event, similar to the one held at Kheturi.

 

          Gadadhara's samadhi lies near the samadhi of Kesava Bharati at the abode of Lord Chaitanya at Katoa.

 

G. 7.   GADADHARA DASA:

 

          He was a resident of Vrndavana (Vaishnavavandana 70).

 

G. 8.   GADADHARA DASA:

 

          He hailed from the village Ganisimha close to Indrani on the bank of the river Bhagirathi in the neighborhood of Agradvipa.  Gadadhara stayed with his father, Kamalakanta dasa, in Puri.  His elder brother, Kasirama, translated the Mahabharata into Bengali.  Krishnadasa was Gadadhara's other brother.

 

          Around 1778 AD., while staying at the village of Makhanpur in the district of Puri, Gadadhara wrote the book entitled Purusottama Mahatmya (later named Jagat mangala).  Therein he sings the praises of Lord Gauranga at the very beginning of the book, which leads one to believe that he was a devotee of Lord Gauranga.  In this book Gadadhara presents a collection of Puranic evidence in support of the divinity of Lord Gauranga and concludes the book by noting the merits accrued from devotion to Lord Gauranga.

 

G. 9.   GADADHARA PANDITA GOSVAMI:

 

          Gadadhara Pandita (also known as Pandita Prabhu and Gadai) was included amongst the Pancatattva.  He was born of Madhava Misra and Ratnavati-devi in 1486 AD., on the new moon day of Vaisaka (Apr-May), in the village Beliti.  However, according to Jayakrishna dasa's article "Shri Chaitanya-Parisada-Janmasthana-Nirnaya", published in the Sahitya Parisat Patrika 4, 1377 BS, Gadadhara hailed from Shrihatta.  Whereas Premavilasa 24, records his birth place at Chittagong.  His younger brother was Vaninatha.  In past incarnations Gadadhara was Radhika and Lalita.

 

          A brahmana of the Varendra clan and Kasyapa gotra, Gadadhara, at the age of thirteen, migrated with his parents to Navadvipa to stay at his maternal uncle's house, nearby the residence of Jagannatha Misra.  Some say that a wealthy person of Kandipura, named Suraraja, was instrumental in bringing Gadadhara from Beliti to Navadvipa.  Gadadhara remained a bachelor throughout his life. He received mantra from Pundarika Vidyanidhi.

 

          Gadadhara was a constant companion of Lord Gauranga and always read the Shrimad-Bhagavatam to Him.  After the Lord took sannyasa and went to Nilacala, Gadadhara also went with Him.  Gadadhara passed away in Puri on the new moon day in the month of Jaistha (May-June) in 1534 AD. at the age of forty-seven, eleven months after the disappearance of Lord Chaitanya.

 

          Lord Chaitanya wrote a sloka in His own handwriting on the personal copy of Gadadhara's The Gita.  According to Sadhanadipika 9, Gadadhara composed Premamrtastotra.

 

          In the biographies of Lord Chaitanya, Gadadhara has been referred to in the following places:

 

1.       Gadadhara Pandita as Isa-sakti, Cc. 1.1.41, 1.4.227, 1.6.48.

2.       Meeting with Isvarapuri and others at Navadvipa, and study of Isvarapuri's book entitled Krishnalilamrta, CBh. 1.11.99-100.

3.       Gadadhara faints to hear the kirtana sung by Lord Gauranga at the house of Suklamvara, CBh. 2.1.56-108.

4.       Arguments with Lord Gauranga on Nyaya, CBh. 1.12.20-27.

5.       Gadadhara's counsel to Advaita Prabhu to abstain from witnessing the worship performed by Lord Gauranga, CBh. 1.12.126-142.

6.       Viraha-stricken Lord Gauranga comforts Gadadhara, CBh. 2.2.202-209.

7.       Betel-leaf offered to Lord Gauranga, CBh. 2.6.65, 2.20.27, 2.22.19.

8.       Doubts creeping into Gadadhara's mind when seeing Pundarika in the attire of an aristocrat, and Mukunda's explanation to clear these doubts, then Gadadhara receiving diksa, CBh. 2.7.44-112.

9.       Gadadhara's reaction upon seeing Nityananda Prabhu without garments, CBh. 2.11.23, 2.13.159.

10.     Water sports with Lord Gauranga after the conversion of Jagai and Madhai, CBh. 2.13.341.

11.     Gadadhara dancing as a Gopika in the drama staged at the house of Candrasekhar, CBh. 2.18.101-116.

12.     Gadadhara stands on the left of Lord Gauranga at the dance-recital celebrating the conversion of the Kazi, CBh. 2.23.211, 491.

13.     In constant association with Lord Gauranga, CBh. 2.24.31.

14.     Receiving the command in the house of Lord Gauranga to offer Vishnu puja, CBh. 2.25.91.

15.     Gadadhara with reference to sannyasa, CBh. 2.28.44.

16.     Gadadhara residing in the same house with Lord Gauranga on the night before the Lord took sannyasa, CBh. 2.26.166-171.

17.     Gadadhara as a companion of Lord Chaitanya after sannyasa, CBh. 2.28.104, 3.1.52.

18.     Gadadhara accompanies Lord Chaitanya to Nilacala, CBh. 3.2.35.

19.     Gadadhara staying with Lord Chaitanya at Nilacala, CBh. 3.3.228-231.

20.     Ksetra sannyasa, CC. 2.1.252.

21.     Meeting with Nityananda Prabhu at Tota Gopinatha and Lord Chaitanya, Nityananda Prabhu, and Gadadhara enjoying their meals, CBh. 3.7.112A 164.

22.     Water sports in Narendra-sarovara, CBh. 3.8.122.

23.     Reference to the subject of siksa from Lord Chaitanya, CBh. 3.10.22A 27.

24.     Gadadhara's recital of Shrimad Bhagavatam on the bank of the NarendraA sarovara, CBh. 3.10.22-26.

25.     Gadadhara's refusal to give diksa when Vallabha Bhatta attempts to coax him, CC. 3.7.86-148.

26.     "The life and soul of Gadadhara Pandita" and "The Lord Gauranga of Gadadhara Pandita," CC. 3.7.163-164.

27.     Gadadhara argues with Lord Chaitanya upholding the view that service to Lord Chaitanya is the supreme duty, CC. 2.16.130-143.

28.     Gadadhara's reaction in seperation of Lord Chaitanya, Bhaktiratnakara 3.135-143.

29.     Meeting with Shrinivasa Acarya, Bhaktiratnakara 3.147-152.

 

          Also see Dhyanacandra Gosvami's Shri Gauragovindarcana Paddhati  for details regarding Shri Gadadhara Mantra, Dhyana, Gayatri, and Shri Gaura Gadadhara Mantra.  Texts 37-44 of the above text notes the existence of Gadadhara image on the left of Lord Gauranga at Yogapitha as extracted from Chaitanyarcana-candrika.

 

          The following are the `astakas' composed on Gadadhara Pandita:

 

1. By Sanatana Gosvami

2. By Rupa Gosvami

3. By Svarupa Gosvami

4. By Lokanatha Gosvami

5. By Bhugarbha Gosvami

6. By Paramananda Gosvami

7. By Sivananda Cakravarti

 

          Other writings on Gadadhara Pandita are as follows:

 

1. Shri Shri Gauragadadharastaka,  a) by Acyutananda, b) Nayanananda Misra.

2. Rati-janaka-dvadasa-namastotra, by Sarvabhauma

3. Astottarasatanama stotra, by Sarvabhauma

4. Sakhanirnayamrta, by Jadunatha

5. Premamrtastotra, by Gadadhara Pandita

 

 

G. 10. GAJAPATI PRATAPARUDRA DEVA:

 

          An independent King of Orissa who belonged to the disciple-line of Lord Chaitanya (See "Prataparudra Deva").  According to Sakhanirnayamrta he descended from the disciple-line of Gadadhara Pandita.  He was Indradyumna in his past incarnation.  GVA mentions the following references:

 

1. Preparation for his meeting with Lord Chaitanya, Cc. 2.11.59

2. Meeting with the devotees of Gauda, Cc. 2.11.236.

3. Critical condition just prior to the meeting and later the actual meeting Cc. 2.12.5, 52.

 

G. 11. GAJENDRA MATHURA DASA:

 

          He was a disciple of Rasikananda Prabhu (Rasikamangala Pascima 14.134).  GVA questions if this is a combined name representing two persons.

 

G. 12. GALIMA:

 

          In Cc. 1.10.112 his name his mentioned, but no further information is available on him.  It is not known for certain whether Galima was a title or the name of a particular person.

 

G. 13. GANDHARVA KUMUDANANDA:

 

          He has been described as "Dasama Gopala" in some books and as "Upagopala" in others.  He was originally from Chittagong and his Shripata was at Dainhat village in the district of Burdwan, where he installed the Deity Rasikaraja.  This Shripata, however, is no longer in existence.  The Pathavadi is presently located within a local householder's compound.  The Deity Rasikaraja is now served by Gosvami's descending from the family of Ramacarana Cakravarti of Dainhat village.

 

G. 14. GANDHARVA RAYA:

 

          He was a disciple of Narottama Thakura. (Premavilasa 20, Narottamavilasa 12)

 

G. 15. GANDHARVAVARA KHAN:

 

          He was a devotee of Lord Gauranga. His real name was Govinda Vasu and he lived at Siakhala in the Hugli district.  Gandharvavara was a senior royal employee in the court of Emperor Hussain Shah, and his brother, Purandara Khan, was the Prime Minister in the same court.

 

G. 16. GANESA CAUDHURI:

 

          He was a disciple of Narottama Thakura. (Premavilasa 20, Narottamavilasa 12)

 

G. 17. GANESA RAJA:

 

          He was the Zamindar of Bhaturia Pargana in north Bengal.  During the reign of Azam Shah, the King of Gauda, Ganesa was the head of the department of Revenue and Administration.  It is quite likely that the appointment of Padmanabha, a renowned scholar and the great-grandfather of Rupa and Sanatana, as a very high official at the royal court, was arranged by Ganesa. 

         

          Narasimha Nadial, the grandfather of Advaita Prabhu, migrated from Shrihatta to Ramakeli and after acquiring profound knowledge in the Sanskrit and Persian languages, also joined the council of ministers under Ganesa. After the death of Emperor Azam, his son, Hamza Shah, ascended the throne, followed by Azam's grandson, Samsuddin.  Hamza and Samsuddin, however, were both mere tools in the hands of Ganesa, who actually wielded the power. Eventually, in 1407 AD., under the guidance of Narasimha, Ganesa arranged to have Samsuddin eliminated and afterwards ascended the throne of Gauda himself (Valyalilasutra, Advaitaprakasa 1).  The royal court of King Ganesa included, among others scholars, Padmanabha and Narasimha.  During that period Kavi Krittivasa received a court award. (Bangabhasa-O-Sahitya 4th ed. p. 130-131)

 

G. 18. GANESA RAYA:

 

          He was a disciple of Narottama Thakura. (Premavilasa 20)

 

G. 19. GANGADASA:

 

          He was a companion of Nityananda Prabhu and the youngest of the three sons of Caturbhuja Pandita of Radha desa.  Vishnudasa and Nandana were the other two brothers of Gangadasa.  He lived at Navadvipa and CBh. mentions that Nityananda Prabhu stayed at their house (Cc. 1.11.43).  In Krishnalila he was Durvasa.

 

G. 20. GANGADASA:

 

          He was a disciple of Rasikananda Prabhu. (Rasikamangala Pascima 15.118, 149)

 

G. 21. GANGADASA:

 

          He was a disciple of Rasikananda Prabhu. (Rasikamangala Pascima 15.118, 149)

 

G. 22. GANGADASA:

 

          Gangadasa was a brahmana by caste and a resident of Anadi. (See Vaishnavavandana by  Shri Jiva, Devakinanadana, and Vrndavana)

 

G. 23. GANGADASA DATTA:

 

          He was a disciple of Narottama Thakura. (Premavilasa 20, Narottamavilasa 12)

 

G. 24. GANGADASA NIRLOMA:

 

          He lived at Nilacala and belonged to the disciple-line of Lord Chaitanya (Cc. 1.10).  In his Chaitanyamangala p. 12 Jayananda mentions the names of two devotees as Kata Gangadasa and Bhagai Gangadasa.  It is stated that Lord Chaitanya, in a playful mood, named a dog after Gangadasa.

 

G. 25. GANGADASA PANDITA:

 

          He belonged to the lineage of Lord Chaitanya (Cc. 1.10).  In GauraA ganoddesa-dipika 53 it is stated that Gangadasa was Sandipani in a past incarnation.  It is said that the sage Vasistha, the guru of Ramacandra (of Ayodhya), manifested in Gangadasa.  Gangadasa lived in Navadvipa where he was a teacher of Lord Gauranga.

 

          The following are the biographical references relating to Gangadasa Pandita:

 

1.       As a favorite teacher of Lord Gauranga, CC. 1.10.29.

2.       Lord Gauranga studying Sanskrit grammar under Gangadasa, CC. 1.15.5.

3.       Joy of Gangadasa when witnessing the supernatural power of Lord Gauranga, CBh. 1.8.31-37.

4.       Gangadasa cheers, blesses and advocates for a proper interpretation of the events he heard of Lord Gauranga, CBh. 2.1.120-284.

5.       Meeting with Nityananda Prabhu at the house of Gangadasa, CBh. 2.8.25.

6.       Rescue of Gangadasa at "Ferry-ghat", CBh. 2.9.109-120.

 

          (See also Shri Chaitanya-charitamrita Kavya 3.3. of Karnapura;  Shri Krishna Chaitanya-charitamrita 1.9.1. of Murari; Chaitanyamangala p. 18 of Jayananda.)

 

G. 26            GANGADASA RAYA:

 

          He was a disciple of Narottama Thakura. (Premavilasa 20)

 

G. 27. GANGADHARA BHATTACARYA:

 

          He was the father of Shrinivasa Acarya.  Later Gangadhara came to be known as Chaitanyadasa. (See "Chaitanyadasa Bhattacarya")

 

G. 28. GANGADHARA DASA:

 

          He was a disciple of Syamananda Prabhu. (Rasikamangala Purva  1.79)

 

G. 29. GANGA DEVI:

 

          This Ganga Devi was the mother of Pundarika Vidyanidhi and wife of Banesvara Brahmacari. (See "Pundarika Vidyanidhi")

 

G. 30. GANGA DEVI:

 

          Ganga was the daughter of Nityananda Prabhu.  She married a brahmana from Jirat named Madhava Cattopadhyaya. Ganga's son was named Gopivallabha, whose family-line became well-known in Jirat as the Gosvami-line descending from Gangadevi.

 

          She was highly advanced in spiritual life, so much so, that Abhirama Gosvami failed to harm her even after offering his humble obeisances to her twelve times.  This convinced Abhirama that Ganga devi was extremely powerful, thus he composed the "Shri Gangastotra" consisting of 20 slokas.

 

          CCU notes that Devakinanadana in his Vaishnavavandana does not mention Ganga separately but right at the end of the book he refers to Madhavacarya, the husband of Ganga devi.  Shri Jiva's Vaishnavavandana refers to Ganga on pages 55-60.  Krishnadasa Kaviraja mentions the name of Virabhadra in Cc. but omits Ganga totally.  BBM wonders whether the longA drawn out dispute between the family-line of Ganga and that of Nityananda Prabhu had surfaced at the time when Cc. was being written.

 

G. 31. GANGAGOVINDA SIMHA:

 

          The founder of the royal family of Kandi (Mursidavad), Gangagovinda acted as the chief adviser (or Dewan) of Lord Hastings.  He was a great Vaishnava and an ardent devotee of Lord Chaitanya.  He became so amazed and inspired upon seeing the virtuous character of Siddha Totarama that he bequeathed his entire property to his grandson, Lalababu, and left for Navadvipa accompanied by a few hundred Vaishnavas.  In Navadvipa Gangagovinda pioneered the task of re-locating the site where the ancestral house of Lord Gauranga originally stood.  Many local residents, who had personally seen the house of Lord Gauranga, were still alive at that time. After gathering the relevant information from them and corroborating it with authentic evidence, the actual location of Lord Gauranga's house was identified.  This place, which is in the neighborhood of Navadvipa, was called Ramacandrapura.

 

          On first Agrahayana 1199 BS (Dec-Jan 1792 AD.) Gangagovinda built a temple which was more than sixty feet high, there he introduced the worship of Deities; Govinda-Gopinatha-Krishna-Madanamohana.  This temple was still in existence in 1819 but disappeared sometime in 1821 AD., due to erosion caused by the river Ganges.

 

          He also built a Tola house for the benefit of the students.  There he provided the students with money and clothing for their maintenance at the beginning of each month.  Apart from rendering service to the Panditas of Navadvipa, he also arranged for giving meals to Vaishnava sages and pilgrims. (See "Navadvipa-Mahima" pp 407-408.)

 

G. 32. GANGAHARI DASA:

 

          He was a disciple of Narottama Thakura. (Premavilasa 20)

 

G. 33. GANGAMANTRI:

 

          A resident of Orissa who belonged to the lineage of Gadadhara (Cc. 1.12).  According to Gaura-ganoddesa-dipika 196 and 205 he was Candrika in a past incarnation.  Gangamantri was also known as Mamuthakura or Shrikanthabharana (Cc. 1.12.80).  However, Yadunatha dasa states in Sakhanirnayamrta 11, that Mamuthakura was a different person.

 

G. 34. GANGAMATA GOVAMINI:

 

          She was the only daughter of King Naresanarayana of Puntiya in the district of Rajsahi (now in Bangladesh).  During her childhood she was called Saci.  She was endowed with a religious temperament from youth and within a short time Saci became conversant with Vyakarana, Kavya and various scriptures.  When Saci grew up, her beauty and grace charmed everyone.  However, Saci felt no attraction for any man however handsome or wealthy he may be.  Her heart belonged to her Madanagopala.  When she came to know that her parents were concerned about her marriage, Saci very firmly told them that she would never marry a mortal being.  The king and queen were so disturbed by their daughters decision that they both passed away, leaving Saci to shoulder the responsibility of running the royal administration.  She performed her royal duties for some time, but after a short while she set out on a pilgrimage, leaving the royal administration in the charge of her relatives.

 

          Saci could not find peace of mind anywhere.  Finally in her search for a sat-guru, she came to Puri.  She felt inspired after spending a few days there and then left for Vrndavana.  There Saci had the good fortunate to meet Haridasa Pandita, an ardent devotee of Gaura-Nitai and a disciple of Ananta Acarya.  Saci fell prostrate at the feet of Haridasa and with tears in her eyes prayed for his refuge.

 

          Haridasa tested Saci's conviction; "Since it is not possible for a princess to practice bhajana in Vrndavana without relinquishing all worldly possessions, it would be better for you to go back and perform your bhajana at your own house."

 

          Although Saci understood the significance of Haridasa's remark, she did not pay and heed to his words and instead, continued performing her bhajana with great renunciation.  Gradually she gave up wearing costly garments and refrained from using any ornaments.  One day Haridasa said to Saci, "If you can give up your sense of pride, dignity, and fear and go out in Vraja with a begging bowl (madhukari), then and then only the divine grace shall be showered upon you."

 

          Saci was very pleased to hear Haridasa's advice and from then on went out regularly on madhukari, covering herself with only a tattered garment. Despite being dressed as vairagi, when she went from door to door in Vraja, her graceful appearance led people to believe that she was not a common woman.  Saci gradually became very thin and looked emaciated. Nevertheless, she went on with her daily routine; bathing in the Yamuna, cleaning the temple yard, parikrama, attending arati and religious discourses.  

 

          Seeing Saci meticulously carrying out his instructions, Haridasa became compassionate towards her.  One day he called Saci before him and said:  "Although you are a princess, your personal sacrifice and devotion to Krishna has pleased me greatly.  You may prepare yourself to receive mantra diksa right now."  Thus Saci devi was initiated in Radha Krishna mantra from Haridasa on the thirteenth day of the bright fortnight in the month of Chaitra, and thereafter devoted herself fully to the service of guru and Govinda.  Everyday she attended discourses on Gosvami sastra given by Haridasa and listened with rapt attention.  Within a short period of time, to everyone's pleasure, Sacidevi became thoroughly conversant with Gosvami-siddhanta.

 

          Around that time Laksmipriya, an ardent devotee of Haridasa who was known to regularly chant Harinama three lakhs daily, arrived in Vrndavana. Under Haridasa's instructions, Laksmipriya and Sacidevi began regularly practicing bhajana at Radhakunda.  They also performed Govardhana parikrama together daily.  When Haridasa was convinced of Saci's purity in bhajana and total devotion, he called her one day and instructed her to move to Puridhama to perform her bhajana there and to preach the teachings of Lord Chaitanya among the respectable residents of Puri. 

 

          By the time she arrived at Puri the majority of Lord Chaitanya's companions had disappeared from the world.  In Puri Saci devi lived and performed her bhajana in the dilapidated house of Sarvabhauma Pandita.  Of all the Deities worshipped during Sarvabhauma's time only the Damodara salagrama still remained there.  Everyday Sacidevi would recite from Shrimad Bhagavatam in the presence of the respectable residents of Puri.  Very shortly she became well-known as an accomplished commentator of Shrimad Bhagavatam.

 

          One day Mukunda-deva, the Maharaja of Puri, came to hear Saci devi's recital from Shrimad-Bhagavatam.  He was very impressed by her speaking and felt inspired to offer her something as a token of his appreciation.  That very night Lord Jagannatha appeared to the Maharaja in a dream and commanded him to award Saci devi a site close to Sveta-ganga. Accordingly, Mukunda-deva met Saci devi the following morning, explained his dream, and requested Saci to accept his humble offering of the land near Sveta-ganga. At first Saci devi declined, but later, in consideration of the command of Lord Jagannatha, and repeated requests of the Maharaja, Saci devi accepted the offer and the land was eventually turned over to her.  Incidentally, the fact that Saci devi was a princess by birth was generally known to the people of Puri.

 

          Once Saci devi expressed her desire to take a bath in the Ganges on the auspicious day of Varuni.  However, she gave up the idea as it was her guru's order that she stay at Shriksetra.  That night Lord Jagannatha appeared in her dream and said, "Saci, do not worry, on the day of Varuni you take your bath in Sveta-Ganga, the Ganges will flow to meet you at your bathing place."

 

          When the auspicious day came Saci devi went out alone at midnight to take a dip in Sveta-Ganga.  As soon as she touched the water, Saci felt herself being swept away by swelling waves, similar to that of the Ganges. Saci devi was carried along in the current until she finally found herself inside the private restricted bathing place within Lord Jagannatha's temple premises.  Therein Saci devi saw herself amidst thousands of people of Puri taking bath in great joy while the chanting of hymns filled the air. 

 

          Hearing unusual sounds emanating from within the temple, the security staff of the temple woke up.  The Maharaja was informed of the incident and under his order the temple door was opened. To everyone's surprise they found the well known reader of Shrimad Bhagavatam, Saci devi, standing alone inside the temple.  The sevaka pandas of the temple suspected that she had intended to steal the ornaments of Lord Jagannatha, although some others thought the idea of Saci devi being a thief was incredible.  Ultimately, Saci devi was taken away and locked up in prison.  Saci devi, completely oblivious to the external circumstances, simply chanted Krishna nama happily.

 

          Very late that night Maharaja Mukunda-deva saw Lord Jagannatha in a dream.  This time the Lord angrily commanded him:  "It is I who brought the Ganges, under My feet, in order to enable Saci to take a bath in the Ganges as she desired.  Go and release Saci immediately.  Also you, along with your priests and pandas, pray at her feet for forgiveness and receive mantra-diksa from her."

 

          Early the following morning Maharaja took his bath and went to Saci devi. After releasing her from prison he fell prostrate at her feet, begging for mercy.  He explained his dream to her and sought refuge at her feet.  In compliance with the Lord's wish, on the next auspicious day Saci devi gave Mukunda, and numerous priests, Radha Krishna mantra diksa.  From that day Saci devi came to be known as Gangamata Gosvamini.

 

          As a token offering to his guru, Maharaja Mukundadeva expressed his desire to donate some land to Gangamata.  At first she declined to accept any material gift, but after repeated humble requests from Mukundadeva, Gangamata had to relent.  She permitted the Maharaja to offer certain items and nothing else; two vessels full of mahaprasada of Lord Jagannatha for the Vaishnavas to relish, one vessel of vegetable, one piece of cloth first offered to the Lord, and 160 paise.  These items were to be sent to the Matha of Gangamata daily after the noon offering.  This custom is still continued today.

 

C. 35.  GANGANARAYANA CAKRAVARTI:

 

          He was a brahmana by caste from the Varendra clan, and a disciple of Narottama Thakura.  He was also known as "Thakura Cakravarti." Ganganarayana's Shripata is situated at the village Gambhila, now known as "Gamla", falling within Baluchar of the Mursidavad district.  He was a highly respected erudite scholar.  It is said that he provided his five hundred students with food daily.  His wife was Narayani devi and daughter Vishnupriya, both of whom were deeply religious and received their diksa from Ganganarayana.  As he had no son of his own, Ganganarayana adopted Krishnacarana, the youngest son of his God-brother, Ramakrishna Acarya (alias Cakravarti).  Ganganarayana's exemplary performance of sadhana, bhajan, and austerity made him popular amongst the devotees of Vrndavana.  The wellA known Visvanatha Cakravarti was one of Ganganarayana's students.  Books such as Bhaktiratnakara, Premavilasa, and Narottamavilasa provide references on Ganganarayana.

 

          During the earlier stages of Ganganarayana's life he was an arrogant scholar, so much so, that he even had no respect for Narottama Thakura. However, through the association of Harirama Acarya, a disciple of Narottama Thakura, Ganganarayana was eventually convinced of the spiritual excellence of Narottama.  Later Narottama showered his blessings upon Ganganarayana (Narottamavilasa).

 

          When Ganganarayana approached Narottama for diksa the latter remarked: "You are a brahmana by caste, if you behave like this (i.e. if you seek diksa from a Kayastha who is considered lower than a brahmana) then what will be the reaction of the brahmanas of the land?"

 

          At this Ganganarayana replied, "Does he, on whom you choose to shower your mercy, care about what a brahmana who is devoid of bhakti thinks?"

 

          Because he took diksa from a Kayastha, Ganganarayana, who had a large number of disciples, had to bear the criticisms hurled at him by countless brahmanas. However, in due course of time, all those brahmanas who had previously antagonized Ganganarayana, eventually surrendered at his feet and received diksa from him. (See also "Narottama Thakura")

 

G. 36. GANGANARAYANA (RAMA) CAUDHURI:

 

          He was the grandson of Cakrapani from the lineage of Raghunandana Thakura (See "Cakrapani").  Ganganarayana had two grandsons named Madana and Ramagopala.  The son of Ramagopala, Pitamvara, wrote Rasamanjari (Bangabhasa O Sahitya).  Madana translated Govindalilamrta.  Ramagopala himself wrote Rasakalpavalli. The descending-line from Ramagopala is as follows:

 

Ramagopala

__________|__________

Mahananda                       Cakrapani

___________|____________

Janananda                        Nityananda

|

Gangarama

|

Syamaraya

______|________

Madana                  Ramagopala

|

Pitamvara

 

 

G. 37. GARUDA:

 

          He was from Gauda and an associate of Lord Gauranga.  In a past incarnation he was Vaikuntha-parsada Kumuda. (Gauraganoddesadipika 116).

 

G. 38. GARUDA AVADHUTA:

 

          He was a great devotee and sannyasi-companion of Lord Chaitanya.  He was Kumudanidhi in a past incarnation. (Gauraganoddesadipika 98-101)

 

G. 39. GARUDA PANDITA:

 

          A brahmana by caste, he was also known as "Garuda" and "Garudai".  He belonged to the disciple-line of Lord Chaitanya (CC. 1.10.75).  As a resident of Akkna, Navadvipa, he survived the venom of a snake by chanting the holy name.  In his past incarnation he was Garuda. (Gauraganoddesadipika 117)

 

G. 40. GATIGOVINDA (Govindagati):

 

          The youngest son, as well as disciple, of Shrinivasa Acarya (Karnananda 1 and Premavilasa 20).  He lived at Jajigrama.  According to the biography of Viracandra Prabhu, he wrote Viraratnavali.  The manuscript of Gatigovinda's other work, Jahnavatatvamarmartha, is preserved in the collection of Varahanagar Pathavadi mss. no. B62 Ka.  His contribution to Padavali literature can be found in the Ksanadagita-cintamani, Baharampur ed. 15.2, 20.2.

 

          Krishnaprasada was the son of Gatigovinda, and Radhamohana Thakura, the compiler of Padamrtasamudra, was the grandson of Krishnaprasada.

 

G. 41. GAUDAPURNANANDA CAKRAVARTI:

 

          A Nyaya scholar of Bengal, he appeared in the 18th century AD. and later became a disciple of Narayana Bhatta.  He wrote Tatvamuktavali or Mayavadasatadusani.  According to Catalogus Catologorum, he wrote two more books entitled Yogavasistasuratika and Satadusaniyamuna.

 

G. 42. SIDDHA GAURACARANADASA BABAJI (Dauji, Kunjara):

 

          He was a descendant from the family of Lokanatha Gosvami and was born in Talakhadi village in the district of Jessore (Bangladesh).  At a very young age he had the good fortune of hearing the glories of Lokanatha Gosvami and Narottama Thakura which greatly inspired him.  Shortly thereafter he left home and traveled to Navadvipa where he took shelter under Siddha Chaitanyadasa babaji (Some say that he took shelter under Siddha Bhagavandasa babaji of Kalna).  He stayed with Chaitanyadasa for a long time, until the desire to visit Vrndavana arose in his heart. Gauracarana asked the approval of Siddha baba and received this reply: "You may go, but remember, if you become to attached then you will never want to come back here."

 

          Upon reaching Vrndavana, Gauracarana went alone to Caurasi Krosa. Later, when he arrived at Dauji of Gokula Mahavana, he thought to himself: "As soon as the sun rises I shall cross the boundary of Vraja and return to Gauda."  He then lay down on the open ground and fell asleep.  That night Dauji appeared to Gauracarana in his dream and said:  " Look Gauracarana, I am really quite fond of you, I would like you to practice bhajan residing in the nearby cave.  You shall attain your goal at this very place."

 

          Gauracarana protested saying that he must return to Gauda as Siddha baba had directed.  After some argument, Gauracarana hurriedly got up, placed his bag on his shoulder, and rushed out onto the road.  He walked quickly along the road thinking that he would be crossing the boarder of Vraja at any moment.  To his dismay, however, at the break of dawn he realized that he had been going around and around Baladeva-kunda throughout the night.  Remembering the words of Siddha baba Chaitanyadasa he returned to the cave as directed by Baladeva.  There he sat tight in one position, chanting the name of Radha Krishna (Ramakrishna?).

 

          Gauracarana was absorbed in sakhyarasa and took pride in calling himself the younger brother of Shridama and the elder brother of Radharani. He chanted the holy name on a very long rosary and remained in that cave for twenty consecutive years.  His daily routine was to rise early in the morning, go for ablutions and then enter the cave for bhajan.  In the afternoon he went for another ablution and returned to study sastra until dusk, when he went go out on madhukari.  He went nowhere else,  nor did he talk to anyone.          It is said that Dauji, being deeply moved by the love and devotion of Gauracarana, personally appeared before Gauracarana to fed him butter and sugar-crystal.

 

          During this time a lower caste Bengali arrived in Vrndavana and came to the cave of Gauracarana, hoping to receive his blessings.  On his way to madhukari, Gauracarana saw him standing near the cave but did not take any notice.  The stranger, however,  continued to wait for one year.  Finally, one afternoon Gauracarana asked the stranger:  "My son, who are you and what have you come here for?"  The devotee introduced himself briefly and sought the grace of Gauracarana.  The devotee carried an old CC. manuscript tied to his waist.  Upon discovering the manuscript, Gauracarana allowed the devotee to enter the cave and requested him to read from CC. Gauracarana listened intently for one year as the devotee read. 

 

          During that time Gauracarana gave him diksa and vesasraya and named him Dayala dasa.  Dayala was the first disciple of Siddha baba Gauracarana dasa.  While listening to the CC., Siddha baba shed incessant tears which soaked the upper portion of his garment.  As his meditation on Lord Gauranga deepened, he gradually gave up chanting the name of Radha Krishna and began to chant: "Shri Gauranga Nityananda Shri Advaitacandra.  Gadadhara Shrivasadi Gaurabhaktavrnda."  He gave up the practice of contemplating Radha Krishna and concentrated on Nitai-Gauranga bhajan.

 

          After one year passed Dayala dasa sought permission from Gauracarana to visit Navadvipa.  Since he himself was unable to carry out the command of Siddha baba Chaitanya dasa, Gauracarana could not prevent Dayala from going.  Soon after Dayala's departure, Gauracarana became somewhat unbalanced and roamed around aimlessly in the forest, calling out "Dayala", "Dayala."  Because Gauracarana had previously been unaware of the glories of Lord Gauranga, he was convinced that Dayala dasa was a manifestation of Lord Gauranga who had come to teach him Gaurabhakti.

 

          After six years Gauracarana came to Kunjara village where he lived in a hut which was offered to him by the local residents of Vraja.  He stayed there for a long time and gathered a large number of followers, one of the foremost of his followers was Jagannathadasa babaji.        

 

          During his visit to Vrndavana he stayed at Dulala Saha near Dhirasamira and later the final days of his life where spent with his disciple, Kailasadasa (alias Krishna Chaitanyadasa) at Manipuri kunja, where he breathed his last.

 

          Once when Gauracarana was absorbed in the mood of sakhyarasa, he went to the temple of Govindaji, stretched his leg out towards the deity, and asked the Lord to offer His humble obeisances at his feet.  Taking him to be a crazy person, the priests drove him out of the temple compound. Standing outside Gauracarana spoke with deep anguish:  "You cannot get away by driving me out with Your own men.  You will have to come out soon and touch my feet, otherwise I shall not allow you to participate in our play."

 

          Gauracarana was extremely enthusiastic to hear kirtana recital which was based on sakhyarasa.  On one occasion a kirtana singer happened to insert rasabhasa within his recital of Gosthalila.  This infuriated Siddha baba and he slapped the singer on the face to teach him a lesson.

 

          Once, during Rajarsi Bahadur's stay at Shrikunda, Gauracarana favored him with a visit.  In the presence of a spiritual circle of devotees (gosthi) he spoke about the love of Radhamadhava.  Before commencing his discourse, Gauracarana warned the audience that discussion on that specific subject should normally be avoided, but then continued to deliver a fascinating and unique discourse regarding the love of Radhamadhava.

 

          Gauracarana was known to chant the holy name very audibly even in a state of deep sleep.  He died in Vrndavana at a fairly advanced age.

 

G. 43. GAURADASA (GAURAMOHANA):

 

          The Vaishnava poet who wrote Karnananda (See Bhanita of pada no. 377 of Padakalpataru).  Gauradasa was a devotee of Yadunandana and also wrote padas in Vrajavuli.

 

G. 44. GAURADASA BABAJI (Nandagrama):

 

          Around 1873 AD. Gauradasa Babaji practiced bhajan at the bhajan-kutir of Sanatana Gosvami on the bank of the Pavana-sarovara at Nandagrama.  He became well-known as a realized soul.  He collected flowers daily from Gajipur near Prema-sarovara and made a garland to offer to the deity Lalaji.  The following is a story which relates who how Gauradasa attained the grace of Lord Krishna by offering flowers.

 

          After five or six years of offering flowers to Lalaji, Gauradasa became frustrated: "I have served Lalaji with flowers for so long yet still he has not showered His grace upon me.  Generally Lord Krishna is a bit coldA hearted.  But the heart of Radhika, the daughter of Vrsabhanuraja is full of compassion.  Had I served Her for so long she would have certainly showered Her grace upon me.  I shall leave for Varsana immediately, I refuse to stay here any longer."

 

          In the afternoon Gauradasa walked through a field, one mile south of Nandagrama, carrying his clothing in a bundle on his back.  Just before dark he came across a herd of cattle on their way home from the pasturing ground.  The handsome dark-complexioned boy who accompanied the herd suddenly approached Gauradasa and asked where he was going.  When Babaji explained that he was going to Varsana, the boy urged him to go back to Nandagrama.  In anguish Gauradasa revealed his frustration, explaining that his long stay at Nandagrama had been spiritually fruitless.  The boy tried to console Gauradasa, yet insisted that he return to Nandagram.  Babaji, however, was determined to go ahead.  The boy then stretched out his arms, obstructing the forward movement of Gauradasa.  Strangely, in whichever direction Gauradasa attempted to move, he found the boy obstructing his path with open arms.  Babaji became tired and said, "You naughty fellow! Why do you harass me so much?"  (Meanwhile the sun had set and it became dark.) The boy replied, "Babaji if you go away then who will offer me flowers?"  Babaji was struck by the significance of these words.  Feeling deeply moved and excited he asked the boy who he was. Suddenly the boy and the cattle disappeared, no trace of either was visible. Babaji burst into tears, rolling on the ground in pains of separation he wailed, "Oh Lord Krishna, why did you deceive me in this way?  Alas! I could not recognize you nor could I understand what you were trying to tell me.  Oh! be merciful to the poor, I am the least deserving of all human beings, please have mercy on me."  Gauradasa thus returned to Nandagrama and spent the rest of the night crying.  The priest of Lalaji Temple received a command as follows: "Be watchful, Gauradasa should by no means stop offering flowers to Me." (Extracted from Amara Vrajavasera Eka Adhyaya-a chapter from my stay at Vraja, by Sudhanya Mitra, in GVJ)

 

G. 45. GAURAGANDASA:

 

          He was a disciple of Sanatana Gosvami Prabhu.  He wrote an excellent book of verse in Vrajavuli entitled Shri Shri Gaurangabhusanamangavali.

 

G. 46. GAURAGOPALA:

 

          A disciple of Rasikananda Prabhu and one of the eight children (astasisu) who appeared in sakhivesa during the Rasa festival in Gopiballavapur. (Rasikamangala Pascima 14.85)

 

G. 47. GAURAGOVINDANANDA BHAGAVATASVAMI:

 

          He was born to a high caste brahmana family in a prosperous village in the district of Jessore (Bangladesh).  Gauragovinda lost both his mother and father at a very young age and was brought up under the care of his maternal grandfather, Sanyal Mahasaya, who was a middle-class professor. Sanyal Mahasaya was a very hospitable person and frequently made arrangement for the care of visitors. 

 

          One day, while Sanyal Mahasaya was away, a brahmacari visitor arrived at the house requesting a place to rest.  Seeing the visitor's fatigue, the young Gauragovinda cordially invited him in, offered him a seat on the carpeted floor, and served him water from a metal pot.  The boy then began to fan the brahmacari with a hand-fan.  The brahmacari was pleased by the extraordinary beauty of the boy but, nevertheless, took the fan away from him. The boy was also very impressed by the graceful white-haired visitor with his long rosary and tulasi-leaf garland around his neck.

 

          The brahmacari did not accept the food offered by the boy.  However, he did allow the boy to fill his pipe and enjoyed a smoke of tobacco. After the visitor's departure, Gauragovinda stood still for awhile, then suddenly ran after the brahmacari shouting, "Thakura, Thakura!  Please stop." 

 

          Hearing the boy's voice, the aged visitor stopped and asked, "What has happened?  Why are you running in this hot afternoon sun?"

 

          The boy replied, "After you left I realized that I had not paid my obeisances at your feet."

 

          The brahmacari affectionately embraced the boy and said, "You have given me much more than your obeisances.  Now, go home or else your grandfather will worry about you."  When the boy expressed his sadness on account of their separation, the visitor again took the boy in his arms and slowly said, "Go home son, maybe some other time...".  Without saying anything else, the visitor walked away quickly.  The boy stood there staring in the direction which the brahmacari had gone.

 

          Later Sanyal Mahasaya came to know that Gauragovinda had spent that night in the company of an acquaintance named Haricarana vairagi in a school-room more than eight miles away, without any food.  Sanyal Mahasaya brought the boy back home but he became convinced that Gauragovinda would not stay at home for very long.

 

          A few days after this incident Sanyal Mahasaya passed away.  Shortly afterwards the 13 or 14 year old Gauragovinda left home and traveled with a brahmacari.  Although he had not received diksa, Gauragovinda wore Vaishnava attire.  The brahmacari took the boy to his guru's asrama in another city. Before hearing of Gauragovinda's family background, the guru expressed his pleasure at meeting the graceful and serene young boy.  Later he came to know of the boy's maternal grandfather, and learned that the boy had manifested a strong inclination for devotion from his very early childhood. Gurudeva was inspired by the boy and said, "I wish I could give you every bit of my inner possessions.  You had all material things at your disposal, yet you chose to became a virakta, deriving your pleasure from bhiksanna. I feel inclined to advise you to embrace vairagya.  Such sharp intelligence, knowledge of sastra, and intense vairagya is certainly rare. I am eager to see you as a shaven-headed hermit dressed in reddish colored garments."

 

          Late in the evening Gurudeva began his Syama-sangeet (songs composed in glorification of goddess Kali), accompanied by instruments.  The distinct resonance of "Aum" produced by the instruments charmed everyone present there.  After going through the usual `murchana' etc., he stood up, embraced Gauragovinda, and said, "Your guide and guru is waiting to deliver you.  Meanwhile, you should continue to follow your own natural instincts."

 

          After this Gauragovinda lived as a student in Navadvipa at the house of a Vaishnava house-holder, where Bhakti-sastra was taught in an ashramA like environment.  Though Gauragovinda dressed in red ocher clothing, the inmates of the place were very fond of him on account of his genius-like intelligence and wisdom. However, his stay at this place was cut short due to an incident involving a widow who, being attracted by his unusually handsome features, attempted to seduce him.  Thus he quickly left the place.

 

          While roaming from place to place as an udasina, he had a chance meeting with the same Tantric brahmacari whom he had met two years before at his maternal grandfather's house, and by whose association Gauragovinda had become inspired to renounce his home.  It was a happy meeting for both of them and Gauragovinda gave up his plan to go to Kasi, when the brahmacari invited him to go to his own guru's Akhara nearby.  When they arrived at the Vaishnava guru's Akhara, they found everyone extremely worried as the old Gurudeva was very ill.  Entering inside they saw the aged Vaishnava.  Although emaciated he had a divine appearance about him as he sat on a bed of grass chanting japa.

 

          When the brahmacari introduced the young svamiji (Gauragovindananda) to Gurudeva, the old guru became emotional and exclaimed, "Oh! Oh! so this is him!.  Ah! is he Gaurachandra?  His whole body began to tremble, the brahmacari held his guru's body and slowly placed him on the bed.  All the devotes began to chant "Hare Krishna, Hare Krishna", close to his ears.  After some time Gurudeva regained his normal consciousness, addressing Svamiji he said, "Where is my Gaurachandra?"  Feeling very embarrassed, Svamiji left the room.  However, on the repeated request of  Gurudeva he came back into the room and saw the old Vaishnava leaning against the brahmacari and chanting Hare Krishna.  Gurudeva then said to Svamiji, "Please forgive my emotional behavior, come and sit near me.  Nitai dasa (his brahmacari disciple) has told me all about you and I am eager to meet you.  By the grace of Lord Gauranga you have come here and I feel very fortunate to have your association, kindly remain in this kutir as our guest."  He then directed Nitai dasa, who had been massaging Gurudeva's chest, back and feet with matured clarified butter, to arrange for Svamiji's meal and accommodation

 

          When Svamiji and Nitaidasa went to a nearby pond to wash their hands etc., Nitai requested Svamiji to stay at the kutir for a few days to take care of Gurudeva in order to enable Nitai to bring Gurudeva's wife to take over the care of Gurudeva, as she had promised to do. He explained to Svamiji that Gurudeva had renounced his home at a very young age and since then his wife had been leading the life of an ascetic, though living like a housewife.  Hearing this Svamiji agreed to stay on for a few days.

 

          While Nitai was gone, Gauragovindananda nursed the old Vaishnava Gurudeva; holding his decrepit body on his lap, serving him medicine at stipulated intervals, and massaging his chest, back and feet with ointment throughout the night.  Gurudeva was exrtemely happy, he would open his eyes at times, stare smilingly at the face of Svamiji, and chant "Hare Krishna, Hare Krishna, Gaura, Gaura."

 

          After a few days the old lady (Gurudeva's wife) arrived with Nitai dasa and immediately took over the charge of her husbands nursing. Seeing that the old woman had the appearance of a udasina, Svamiji became free of his apprehension.

 

          One day Svamiji went to a nearby pond, but found that it was crowded with women-bathers.  To avoid the women, he chose to bath at an unused ghat, which happened to be infested with water-weeds.  He entered the pond and dove underwater.  When he surfaced some distance away, he realized that his neck was encircled by some sort of thick rope-like object.  The other bathers, seeing that a large water-snake had coiled around the upper portion of Svamiji's body, cried out, "snake, snake", and began to chant "Jaya Nitai, Jaya Nitai."  Gauragovindananda also chanted "Jaya Nitai" and took another dive into the water.  This time when he surfaced, the bathers shouted, "gone away, gone away," and heaved a sigh of relief.

 

          Realizing Svamiji's predicament, the women bathers shouted, "Sannyasi Thakura, please come away quickly, we are leaving the ghat."  Svamiji then saw the aged brahmacari mata (Gurudeva's wife) approaching the ghat with a pitcher to collect water.  He took the pitcher and filled it with clean water from the pond.  When he returned the pitcher to her she looked at him and said, "You are a worshipper of Abhaya (an appellation of goddess Durga), so what are you afraid of?  When snakes and tigers make way for you, why should you be afraid of human beings who are as good as your mothers and sisters?  The young Svamiji blushed in shame and touched the mata's feet and paid his obeisances.  She smiled and blessed him.

 

          Around midnight of the same day, the aged mata told all the inmates to get up as Gurudeva's end was very near.  Gauragovinda and Nitai rushed to the side of the old babaji.  Earlier Gurudeva's condition had seemed to been improving, thus Gauragovinda had decided to leave for Kasi early the next morning, but now he sat down near Gurudeva dumfounded.  Babaji was placed in a sitting position with his back resting on Nitaidasa, while mataji sat facing her husband.  Addressing Gauragovinda, Babaji said, "You, my Gorachand, why are you staying away at such a moment?  Come and sit alongside my Nitaichand.  Don't you understand that our being together at such a moment indicates our close relationship in a past life?  Don't be shy, come and sit near me."  Svamiji then sat next to Nitaidasa.

 

          Addressing his wife, babaji said, "I am sorry that I have not treated you fairly in our worldly relationship; whereas you have given me more than enough in the course of our selfless relationship."

 

          Hearing this Gauragovinda said, "Prabhu why are you bothering yourself with past episodes now?"

 

          Babaji continued, "It is the time for me to beg forgiveness of a faithful wife.  One should not leave this world before liquidating all his debts."

 

          Mataji replied, "I am told that saints like you never incur any debt in their life from anyone whosoever he may be, what to speak of an insignificant wife like me."

 

          After some time Gurudeva asked Svamiji, "What about your dues from me?  I do not know how much I owe you, come my son, take it away yourself." Svamiji bent down and collected caranadhuli from babaji's feet.  Gurudeva stretched out both of his legs and said,  "My son, take everything I possess, perhaps I have kept it with me for so long just to pass it on to you at this opportune moment."  Svamiji could not hold back his tears.

 

          At the break of dawn, all the devotees gathered in the room and began chanting the holy name constantly, while collecting caranadhuli from babaji.  Babaji turned to Svamiji and said, "Hold me."  Everyone there was astonished to see Gurudeva's body, which had been motionless for quite sometime, suddenly tremble, his partly opened eyes appeared sightless; then one of his hands moved upward with its palm cupped.  Svamiji held the cupped palm with both hands, at once he felt a high velocity charge surge through his body.  For a few seconds he lost his sense of perception.  When he regained consciousness he realized that babaji had passed away.

 

          A few days after babaji's last rites had been performed, Gauragovindananda quietly left the asrama, but before going he silently paid his respect to brahmacari mata.  Seeing him she said, "Baba, hold carefully what you have received from mahatma and be judicious in its application."  Gauragovinda left remembering her invaluable advice.

 

          While Svamiji was staying at Nutan cada in Navadvipa, one Nikhilananda Gosvami from Vani village in the district of Mymensingh (Bangladesh) met Svamiji and was impressed with his vast knowledge of sastra.  When Nikhilananda asked Svamiji how he had acquired such knowledge, Svamiji replied that apart from some elementary knowledge of Vyakarana, which he picked up in his childhood, he had received very little proper education.  However, he had been fortunate enough to come in contact with a Vaishnava saint who had showered his blessings upon Svamiji, just prior to his death.  Consequently, the knowledge of the sastras had gradually been revealed to him through a series of dreams.  In a dream he would hear a recital of Rasapancadhyaya and in the morning he was able to quote the entire passage from memory.  In this way he acquired a thorough understanding of Shrimad Bhagavatam and its tika.

 

          What a miraculous occurrence! Without any study of the subject, Svamiji became an accomplished scholar of all sastras.  Nikhilananda said that at times Svamiji would spontaneously reveal his deep spiritual understanding, giving references from the ten Upanisads, Nyaya, Mimansa, Patanjala, and Vedanta philosophy, demonstrating his vast wisdom of all sastras.

 

          Around 1903 AD. Svamiji studied Vedanta philosophy as a studentA disciple under the renowned scholar Paramananda Tirtha Maharaja of Kasi, who was a descendant from the family-line of the famous Thakura of Bhattapalli.  At that time Svamiji dressed himself as a brahmacari and followed the routine rituals, such as Krishnarcana and other related practices; applying an upward sectarian mark on his forehead and wearing a garland of tulasi-leaves.

 

          In 1905 or 1906 AD. Gauragovindananda Svamiji, having taken a vow of `Mathuravas', stayed in an asrama on top of Krishnaganga for a period of one month, where numerous sannyasis, bramacaris and Vaishnavas lived.  The chief executive of the asrama, an aged Hindustani sadhu, very cordially invited Svamiji to live in a kutir situated in a quiet corner of the asrama.  An aged saint with a very serene and graceful appearance lived in the kutir adjacent to that of Svamiji.  Svamiji would frequently visited the old saint, pay his obeisances, and request the saint for kripa (refuge).  To this the saint replied, "Kripa, kripa, what kripa?  All right I shall see."

 

          When the saint did not respond to his prayer, Svamiji suddenly remembered a sloka from the Shrimad Bhagavatam 1.5.25: "Once only, by their permission, I took the remnants of their food, and by so doing all my sins were eradicated.  Thus being engaged, I became purified in heart, and at that time the very nature of the transcendentalist became attractive to me."  Despite occasional protest by some of the inmate saints, Svamiji took up the service of removing the used banana-leaf plates left by the devotees after their meals, and sweeping the place clean.  Gauragovinda continued cleaning up in this way for four or five days. One day, while engaged in cleaning, the saint quietly came there. Standing behind Svamiji he asked, "Wherefrom have you learnt such things?"

 

          Svamiji replied, "The kripa-guru of mahatmas like you have taught me this."  The old saint disagreed, "No, you must have been specially taught sadhana-sanskara."

 

 

          "I believe that sat-sanskara is influenced by the grace of great saints," Svamiji replied.  The following day Svamiji was ordered by the chief of the asrama, at the insistence of the saint, not to do his cleaning work.  Hearing this Svamiji felt distressed and at once went to the saints kutir. Lying on the ground in front of the entrance he began wailing.

 

          Within a short time Svamiji suddenly heard the melodious voice of the saint reciting sloka 1.5.24 of Shrimad Bhagavatam: "Cakruh krpam yadyapi tulya-darsanah"; "Although they were impartial by nature, those followers of the Vedanta blessed me with their causeless mercy. As far as I was concerned, I was self-controlled and had no attachment for sports, even though I was a boy.  In addition, I was not naughty, and I did not speak more than required."  Swamiji immediately got up and fell prostrate at the feet of the every-merciful saint, who took Svamiji lovingly in his arms and said, "From now on you shall recite from Shrimad Bhagavatam for me." Svamiji began reading as directed, and observed that while listening to the recital the aged saint became overwhelmed with transcendental love and uttered, "kripa, kripa."  One day, while in such a state, the saint said, "Come my son, take kripa."  Saying this he placed his foot on Svamiji's head.

 

          After completing his vow of `Mathuravasa', Svamiji received instructions from the saint to go to Vrndavana, pay his humble obeisances at the lotus feet of the Lord, then go to Govardhana and observe a vow of silence (mounavrata) for one year.  He was further instructed to study and enjoy the essence of Shrimad Bhagavatam, after which he would realize kripa in its entirety.  Svamiji acted as per the command of the saint and achieved the desired results.  This paramahamsa saint was a brotherA disciple of the famous Bhaskaranandasvami of Kasi and was known by the name of Devagiri muni.

 

          The following are the books written by Gauragovindananda: Kripakusumanjali (1935 AD.), Sadhanakusumanjali (1936 AD.), Shriguruvaishnavabhaktikusumanjali (1940 AD.), Shrililatattva-kusumanjali (1941 AD.).  The author refers in Kripakusumanjali to his association with a number of renowned saints, namely, Paramananda Tirtha Svami-a Vedanta professor of Kasi, Bholanandagiri Maharaja of Hardwar, Krishnaprasada dasa babaji (Gudhibaba) of Vrndavana, Siddha Jagadisa baba and Ramadasa kathia baba.

 

          Swamiji lived for seven years in a dark mountain cave at Kamyavana in Vraja where he practiced bhajan intensely.  Then, being ill with a bleeding-nose, he went to Vrndavana.  Afterwards he went to Shrihatta, Tripura, Silchar, Dhaka and Mymensingh where he devoted himself to preaching and delivering the fallen jiva's.

 

          Bhagavatasvami breathed his last on 8 Jaistha on the seventh day of the bright fortnight in 1349 BS (May-June 1942 AD.)

 

 

 

 

G. 48. GAURAGUNANANDA THAKURA:

 

          He was and accomplished kirtana-singer who descended from the familyA line of Narahari Sarkara Thakura.  He wrote the book entitled Shrikhandera Pracina Vaishnava.

 

 

 

G. 49. GAURAKISORA DASA BABAJI:

 

          He was the guru of Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Gosvami, the founder of the Chaitanya Mathas and Gaudiya Mathas.  This Vaishnava saint's life was an example of utter humility and poverty, the true attributes of a Vaishnava. Gaurakisora never accepted any material object from anyone.  For his clothing he used the discarded loin cloths from corpses left on the bank of the Ganges.  For food, he would collect rice by begging, soak it in river water, and garnish it with salt and chilly.  He never asked favors from anyone and lived a fully detached life, devoid of all possessions.

 

          Very little information is available about the past life of Gaurakisora except that he was born in a Vaisya family in the village of Bagjana near Tepakhola on the bank of the Padma.      As a householder, Gaurakisora was known by the name Vansidasa.  At that time he was engaged in some agricultural trade and from the income took care of his wife and family honestly.  After the death of his wife, Gaurakisora renounced his home and went to Vrndavana, where he was initiated into Vairagi Vesa by Bhagavata dasa babaji, one of the foremost disciples of Jagannatha dasa babaji. 

 

          Gaurakisora lived on madhukari and slept beneath a tree.  He would lie prostrate, offering his humble obeisances to the residents of Vraja, considering them as embodiments of Lord Krishna.  He even offered his obeisances to the flowers, trees, and land around him.  He spent about thirty years at Vrajamandala serving the deities there.  Afterwards, perhaps by the direction of the Supreme Lord, he left for Navadvipa.

 

          During his stay at Navadvipa, Gaurakisora underwent various transformations of spiritual moods.  Sometimes he danced on the bank of the Ganges chanting, "Gaura, Gaura", while at other times he would lie on the ground in an unconscious state.  He joyfully moved throughout the groves located on the bank of the Ganges, considering them sites of the divine sports of Radhagovinda.  His only clothing was a strip of cloth around his waist and often went totally naked.  He chanted japa on beads or sometimes knotted a cloth and used that as a substitute for japa beads. Occasionally, he went to Godruma to listen to Bhaktivinoda Thakura recite Shrimad Bhagavatam.

 

          Every virtuous person looked forward to rendering service to Gaurakisora.  However, he rarely allowed anyone the chance to serve him. Once Manindracandra Nandi, the Maharaja of Kasimbazar, sent a distinguished messenger to escort Gaurakisora to the former's palace.  Gaurakisora, however, did not accept the Maharaja's invitation saying that if he visited the palace he may feel tempted by the wealth of the Maharaja which may result in a strained relation between the two.  Hence, Gaurakisora suggested that instead of him visiting the palace, let the Maharaja free himself completely from the shackles of wealth by donating everything he owned to his relatives and then come to live with Gaurakisora in a specially prepared shed where both of them could practice Haribhajan in peace."

 

          Gaurakisora was very selective about accepting invitations for food. He believed that partaking of food here and there could adversely affect the spiritual life of a devotee.  Once a devotee name Harenbabu partook of prasada offered at the festival held at Bhajan-kutir at Navadvipa.  For this Gaurakisora stopped communicating with Haren for three days.  On the fourth day Gaurakisora explained that the prasada of the above festival had been financed by a woman of questionable profession.

 

          Once, on the eve of Sanatana Gosvami's disappearance day, Gaurakisora decided to celebrate the occasion.  The devotee attending him asked who would provide them with the materials for the celebration.  Gaurakisora replied: "Remember not to speak to anyone about it.  We shall miss a meal and continue around the clock chanting the holy name.  This could be the typical festival for those of us who have taken the vow of poverty."

 

          Narendra Kumar Sen, a resident of Agartala (Tripura), once approached Gaurakisora to learn about Guru-pranali or Siddha pranali.  Gaurakisora told him, "The Supreme Lord cannot be realized through worldly knowledge. Only through the chanting of the holy name can the true nature of the Lord be revealed.  As the Lord is revealed from the letters comprising the Nama, the devotee gradually begins to understand his own nature and becomes acquainted with seva.

 

          Once a physician told Gaurakisora that he intended to move to Navadvipa and take up charitable practices.  Gaurakisora advised the physician that if he truly desired to live in Navadvipa then he should give up the plan for a charitable practice because it would only encourage materially minded people to save money. Those who sincerely practiced Hari bhajan should never get distracted by the chains of welfare activities.

 

          A young seeker wearing a kaupina, once stayed with Gaurakisora for some days. later he arranged, through the agency of an employee of a female estate owner, to obtain five kathas of land as a donation from the woman. When Gaurakisora heard about this he was extremely annoyed: "Navadvipadhama is beyond this material world. How can a worldly land-owner dare to hold land here and even think he can donate five kathas out of it?  A mere grain of sand of the transcendental Navadvipa is more valuable than all the precious gems in this world put together.  Moreover, how advanced could this young kaupina-clad devotee be if he dares to collect so much land in lieu of his bhajan merit?"

 

          Once a devotee offered some sweets to Lord Gauranga and then took the offering to Gaurakisora, urging him to partake of it.  Gaurakisora told the devotee, "Those who are non-vegetarian, those who commit adultery, or offer food to Lord Gauranga with a particular motive, their offerings never reach Lord Gauranga and are never sanctified as prasada."

 

          Gaurakisora regularly begged for rice, after which he would cook the rice, offer it, and partake of the prasada.  He never touched any foodstuff offered by someone else.  Once during monsoon, Gaurakisora stayed in the rest-house at Phulia Navadvipa.  Some prasada was left in a vessel for him to respect later.  Meanwhile a snake passed by the vessel and a woman there happened to notice it.  When Gaurakisora sat down to take prasada the woman appeared there and informed him about the snake.  Gaurakisora, however, firmly stated that he would not touch the prasada until the woman left. After the woman left, Gaurakisora said, "Look how maya works!  Taking the form of compassion, maya attempts to hit deep into her target slowly.  Maya can assume countless forms.  She always prevents a mortal being from practicing Haribhajan."

 

          Giribabu and his wife once ardently requested Gaurakisora

to stay in their house at Navadvipa.  Gaurakisora was moved by their sincere devotion and finally agreed to oblige them on the condition that he would live only in their toilet room where he would perform Hari bhajan. Giribabu tried to persuade him to change his mind but Gaurakisora remained firm.  Giribabu reluctantly arranged to have the toilet thorougly cleaned and Gaurakisora used it for Haribhajan.  A realized soul can practice Haribhajan anywhere in an unconcerned manner, and wherever he resides, that place becomes Vaikuntha.

 

          Gaurakisora was a highly spiritually advanced soul.  He never allowed deceitful practices or any discussion which was not within the purview of the holy books.  One day when a devotee questioned Gaurakisora about a well-known reiciter of Shrimad Bhagavatam who was in the habit of chanting "Gaura, Gaura", Gaurakisora remarked,  "He doesn't say "Gaura, Gaura. Rather what he means to say is, `Money, Money.'  Those who recite Shrimad Bhagavatam for payment are not entitled to chant the name of the Supreme Lord."

 

          Gaurakisora never delivered discourses openly, yet his spotless character drew everyone to him.  Upon meeting Gaurakisora, even a staunch materialist would become inclined take up Haribhajan.

 

          In November 1915 AD. on Ekadashi day, Gaurakisora dasa babaji breathed his last.  Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati himself arranged to bury the mortal remains of his revered guru.

 

 

G. 50. GAURAKISORA SIROMANI (Katoa, Vrndavana):

 

          He was born between 1813-1818 AD. in Gudapada village (also known as Citahati) under the Kutugrama Police Station of Katoa.  Gaurasiromani hailed from an orthodox clan of brahmanas, and was the grandson of Guruprasad Mukhopadhyaya Vidyanidhi.  Guruprasad had three sons; Ramakrishna (alias Tapasvi Thakura), Dhanakrishna, and Pranakrishna.  Of them, Dhanakrishna had six sons; Gaurachandra (Siromani), Isvara, Navadvipa, Hariscandra (Cudamani), Girisa, Umesa, and one daughter named Parijata devi. 

 

          Until the age of twenty, Gaurakisora did not receive any formal education; he spend his time happily listening to simple rural folkA entertainment.  However, one day the villagers admonished Gaurakisora for his lack of effort to continue the scholarly tradition of his reputed family-line.  This brought about a sudden change in Gaurakisora; he immediately gave up his wayward habits and paid full attention to his education.  First he studied under a pandita at Taipura, then later enrolled in the Sanskrit school of Pancanana Tarkaratna, a resident of Eyopura in Katoa.  Afterwards, Gaurakisora studied Bhakti sastra under Sakhicarana dasa Pandita Babaji of Gaurangapada in Katoa.

 

          Gaurakisora married Ramadasi, who was from an orthodox brahmana family residing at Oragrama, near the Guskara railway station in the district of Burdwan.  When Ramadasi was  a child of one and a half years, she lost her father.  Her mother courageously underwent "Sati"; giving up her life on the funeral pyre of her deceased husband.  The site where they were cremated is still known today as "Satidanga".  Shortly before stepping into the flames of the pyre, Ramadasi's mother expressed her last wish that Ramadasi, when she come of age, should be given in marriage to Gaurachandra, the son of Dhanakrishna Mukhopadhyaya, a resident of Citahati.  Thus Gaurachandra was, in due course, married to Ramadasi.  Ramadasi was an extremely chaste and virtuous woman and assisted her husband in his spiritual practices.  Among their sons, two namely, Rasavallabha Bhaktibhusana and Vaishnavacarana Bhagavbhatabhusana were well-known.

 

          Though born in a family upholding the Sakta tradition, Gaurakisora understood the value and superexcellence of Krishna mantra and obtained Krishna-diksa from Vinodilala Thakura, a resident of Faridpur village in the district of Nadia.  From that time Vaishnava-seva became the tradition in his house, and he was keen to partake of the remnants of food left by his Vaishnava guests.  The brahmana community threatened him saying that this eating of left-over food touched by non-brahmanas was against the prevalent social custom.  Gaurakisora, however, was totally indifferent to their opinions and openly partook of Vaishnava-ucchista.  He also did not mind to drink water which was already touched by another Vaishnava.  In fact, he would collect such water in his house and take a bit of it daily before his meal.  He also followed this same practice of Vaishnava-seva during his stay in Vrndavana.

 

          Gaurakisora's wife was also a elevated devotee and had an equally sincere longing for Vaishnava-seva, and partaking of the remnants touched by devotees.  Gaurakisora was strictly against accepting the service of jewelers, hence his wife wore no jewelry except a pair of shell bangles. Ramadasi always washed the feet of any Vaishnava guest who turned up at her house.  Sometimes, young Vaishnava's would confuse her to be the domestic helper, while senior Vaishnavas often ignored her completely.  It was only when the meal was served that the young Vaishnavas understood who she was.

 

          Once it so happened that Gaurakisora, accompanied by a large number of his students, came for a dip in the Ganges at Katoa and later took shelter in the natyamandir (compound) of Lord Gauranga.  There in the afternoon hours, Gopivallabha Thakura, after finishing his daily rituals and bhajan, began singing a nama-kirtana.  Gaurakisora was puzzled to find that Gopivallabha had finished his daily rituals so late.  He also noticed that Gopivallabha, at the end of kirtana recital, made eight dandavats, Tulasi parikrama, mandira-parikrama, etc. and after finishing everything turned to offer his humble obeisances to Siromani.  Gopivallabha took his prasada daily in the afternoon hours.  Later Venimadhava Thakura, Sundarananda Thakura and others arrived at the temple compound chanting japa on their beads.  That night Gaurakisora became deeply fascinated to see the sessions of Istaghosthi and namakirtana being held.  Previously he had held certain concepts relating to the definition of bhakti, but now he underwent a transformation overnight, simply through the association of these revered Vaishnavas.

 

          After returning home he deputed his students to collect various Gaudiya Vaishnava treatises' and began to thoroughly study these works.  He was completely carried away by the spirit, language, rhetoric, and charming prosodical usage of these works and went back to Katoa, along with his students and the collection of books, to seek the holy association of the foremost Vaishnavas there.  The ecstacy he experienced in the midst of the ocean of bhakti at Katoa, encouraged him to up studying and teaching all other sastras and devote himself to the exclusive study of Shrimad Bhagavatam and related books.

 

          During his stay at Katoa his daily routine was as follows: To be present during mangala arati early in the morning, followed by smaranaA kirtana and a dip in the Ganges, chanting of japa, recital of mantra, contemplation on divine-lila etc. until 2 pm.  Afterwards he would clean the toilets used by Vaishnavas and sweep the road leading to the Ganges. Then he would again have a dip in the Ganges, visit the temple of Lord Gauranga and do parikrama, offer his humble obeisances to the Vaishnavas and Gosvamis present and pick up a grain from the slot containing left over food eaten by Vaishnavas.  His lunch would consist of a few handfuls of cooked rice and one or two boiled vegetables with a pinch of salt.  This was first offered to the Deity Giridhari and then he accepted prasada. When questioned about his selection of food, Gaurakisora would simply answer that his stomach would not tolerate anything else.  Whenever he was invited by sevaits or Gosvamis for food, Gaurakisora would never forget to collect some grains of left over food touched by Vaishnavas from the fixed slot.

 

          Gaurakisora was very fond of one Khepa Thakura who was senior to him by age and was barely educated.  This Khepa was a simple-hearted, humorous person who worked as a messenger of Gaurakisora, and at times would even behave like a guardian of Gaurakisora, announcing himself to be the teacher of Siromani. As long as Khepa Thakura was at Gaurakisora's place, the latter would teach his students in a light-hearted atmosphere filled with laughter.  Gaurakisora had the knowledge of "Astadasasahashri" as well as its tika; he never needed to check a text while instructing his students. His daily routine consisted of studying a particular item then concluded invariably with a discussion about Lord Gauranga.

 

          One day a large number of Vrajavasi Vaishnavas arrived in the residential abode of Lord Gauranga.  That day it was Venimadhava Thakura's turn to offer worship to the Deity.  It so happened that Venimadhava had run out of his stock of provisions for serving the Vaishnavas.  Seeing the large gathering of devotees there, Venimadhava instructed his wife to prepare an adequate quantity of delicious bhoga.  When his wife informed him that not a grain was readily available for offering, Venimadhava pulled off the wooden window and door frames of the house and carried them on his head to sell in the market.  Seeing Venimadhava's detachment and intense desire to serve the Vaishnavas, Siromani fell unconscious on the ground. After regaining consciousness, Gaurakisora quietly took a vow that he would henceforth consider Vaishnava-seva as his primary duty.

 

          Siromani had a well-known inner circle (gosthi) of Vaishnavas at Katoa.  Vrndavanacandra Gosvami, a descendant of Advaita's family and a resident of Uthali in Dhaka (Bangladesh), renounced home, embracing the vow of a udasina Vaishnava, and came to Katoa.  His brother, Jagadbandhu Prabhu, following the footsteps of Vrndavanacandra, renounced his family and also came to Katoa.  When the two brothers met in Katoa they both took Vesasraya from Kisora dasa Babaji and stayed in Katoa performing there bhajan. 

 

          Venimadhava Thakura was a Vaishnava saint who enjoyed perfect bliss through Istagosthi.  At his request, Gaurakisora Siromani once gave a daily three-hour recital of the sloka "Janmadyasya" for thirty-five days. Hearing his recitation, Venimadhava commented that Gaurakisora was certainly been blessed by the grace of the six Gosvamis.

 

          Once Gaurakisora and his troupe paid a visit to the residence of the Banerjee family of Badograma, near Burdwan, to recite from the Shrimad Bhagavatam.  When they arrived in the village at around 2 pm. they found out that the village had neither a Vishnu temple nor did anyone there follow the tradition of offering worship to Salagrama.  Immediately Gaurakisora went to the brahmana Zamindar of the village and expressed his reluctance to even take a drink of water from a village where Vishnu was not worshiped. Many came forward to try to change the mind of Siromani, fearing that the departure of the whole group of starving Vaishnavas would be inauspicious for their village.  In utter helplessness, a messenger was sent on horseback to a village ten miles away with a note requesting the Zamindar's cousin to bring a Salagrama to the village.  When the Salagrama was brought and food offered to it, Gaurakisora partook of Vishnu prasada.

 

          Once, in order to test the Vaishnava merit of Gaurakisora, some tantric brahmanas of Kagrama in the district of Mursidavad invited him to give a recital from the Shrimad Bhagavatam in their village.  After the recital had gone on for several days, the evil-minded brahmanas arranged to have animals slaughtered on the occasion of Kalipuja on the very same site as the Shrimad Bhagavatam was recited.  On receiving this news late in the evening, Siromani was greatly distressed and prayed desperately to Gaura Govinda.  Thus when the slaughters attempted to sacrifice an animal with one strike, they were unsuccessful; they needed two strikes for all of the animals.  The frightened slaughterers tried to invoke the grace of the goddess. Later the goddess chastised the priest in a dream saying: "All of you have humiliated a devotee of Vishnu, hence you will be severely punished."  Hearing this the mischievous persons rushed to the feet of Gaurakisora Siromani.  Gaurakisora asked them first to take a dip in the Ganges and later converted them into Vaishnavas.

 

          Meanwhile the long standing debate regarding the respective status' of the Gosvamis and the Vaishnavas continued to ensue.  Eventually they decided that if Siromani would intervene and mediate between them, his verdict would be accepted by both sides.  After Siromani listened to both sides of the argument he replied: "Please take me as your son; when a son becomes an adult then he is not expected to be present where his parents are quarreling.  It should also be noted that marital love attains a new depth when the couple differs from each other."  These words softened the hearts of both the disputant sides; they forgot their differences and chanted the holy name together.

 

          The following is an excerpt about Siromani extracted from Sadgurusanga vol. 2 written by Kuladananda brahmacari: "Siromani was the senior-most pandita of the country; he had a sound command over the six systems of Indian philosophy, Smrti, and Purana.  Once, in his native village, he attended a Shrimad Bhagavatam recital held in the house of a brahmana villager.  A large number of reputed brahmana panditas were also present for the session.  The devotee brahmana who recited from the Shrimad Bhagavatam first invoked the vandana of Lord Gauranga before beginning his recitation.  This had been the prevalent custom everywhere, however, Siromani flew into a rage upon hearing  Gauravandana.  He called the brahmana reader to him and said, "What's the matter sir?  Is this what is called Bhagavata-recital?  You are ready to give a recital from Shrimad Bhagavatam which lies open in front of you, directing your attention to the book, how come you go on chanting the glories of Lord Gauranga?  Being in the presence of a gathering of brahmana panditas and keeping the Salagrama in front of you, you pledge to recite from Shrimad Bhagavatam then you speak on an entirely different topic.  Can you justify your action?"

 

          The devotee humbly replied with folded hands, "Revered Sir, please believe me, I am truthfully reciting from Shrimad Bhagavatam.  Whatever I have chanted so far can be found in Shrimad Bhagavatam.  I have not told a single lie."

 

          Siromani sprang from his seat and rushing towards the reciter demanded, "Look here, please show me where the verse "Anarpitacarim" is found in Bhagavatam?"  The brahmana pointed his finger, indicating the blank space between every couple of lines.  Siromani retorted, "What do you mean?  You are pointing to blank white spaces."

 

          The brahmana then spoke, "You don't have the right vision, how do you expect to see what I am showing you?  Better cleanse your eyes first and then have a look."

 

          Siromani was enraged, "How dare you insist on telling a lie in an unruffled manner in front of a Salagrama, and while touching the Shrimad Bhagavatam, and in the presence of brahmanas?"

 

          The brahmana at last firmly replied, "Please hold your tongue.  In this gathering of brahmanas, while touching Shrimad Bhagavatam, I swear that whatever I have said is truth.  I can see Gauravandana written in the intervening space of every two lines of Shrimad Bhagavatam.  I advise you to first take diksa from a competent venerable Vaishnava saint, then practice for a week exactly as I direct you and then come here on the eight day.  If you then fail to see the writing of Gauracandrika in the intervening spaces of the Shrimad Bhagavatam, then I promise in front of everyone present here that I shall chop off the tip of my tongue."

 

          Siromani was a deeply spiritual person and thus immediately approached Siddha Chaitanya dasa Babaji for diksa.  Then he contacted the brahmana reciter and received instructions, which he practiced diligently for seven days.  One the eighth day he came before the brahmana reciter demanding that he be shown the script of Gauravandana in Bhagavatam.  The reciter promptly opened the Shrimad Bhagavatam and called Siromani to have a look.  As soon as Siromani looked at the book he saw Gaura-vandana written in bright golden letters on the blank spaces preceding every couple of lines.  With tears flowing incessantly from his eyes, Siromani rolled on the ground in repentance.  Immediately he renounced everything and left for Vrndavana on foot.  Since then he has been staying here.  He can really be called a genuine Vaishnava."

 

          During his stay at Katoa Siromani would give oral recitation from the holy texts, but he stopped doing this in Vrndavana.  Only in the afternoon hours would he give lessons on Shrimad Bhagavatam to Vrajavasi Vaishnavas. One day Siromani was giving a class on the fourth canto; the episode of Daksayajna, when a question came up from the students as follows: "How could Mahadeva possibly have danced, carrying the corpse of Sati which is stated to have been reduced to ashes by the sacrificial flames?"

 

          Siromani waited awhile, wondering how to present a proper reply. Meanwhile, one Vaishnava listener, seated by the side of Siromani, who was regularly present at this class, looked up at the inquiring students and said, "Would you like a demonstration of the situation or would you be satisfied with an explanation?"

 

          The students chorused, "Who cares to listen, when a demonstration is available?"

 

          "Then come here and look", the Vaishnava said. He sat facing north in a yoga posture and passed into a state of meditation chanting "Jaya Gauranga".  Shortly afterwards a speck of fire rose from the big toe of his right foot and soon his entire body was covered with raging flames. Siromani screamed, lamenting what had happened.  The students tried to put out the fire by pouring water from the Jamuna but it was over by then. From that day Siromani gave up teaching Shrimad Bhagavatam and resorted to more austere bhajan.

 

          A number of well-known Vaishnava saints lived in Vrndavana during the time when Siromani was there; Shrila Brahmananda Gosvami of Srngarvata, Shrila Nrisimhananda Prabhu, Shrila Nilamani Gosvami-descendant of Advaita Prabhu, Shrila Haracandra Gosvami, Haradhan Maitra, the Zamindar of Talanda in Rajasahi (Bangladesh)-Gangaprasada Ray, the Zamindar of Tadas in Pabna (Bangladesh) with his family, Hajra Mahasaya-the reputed kirtana singer who was also the caretaker of Shri Madanamohana Temple, Vaishnavacarana dasa-the well-known kirtana singer, Shri Krishnadasa, Shri Gauradasa, Pranavandhu Nandi etc.  All of the above mentioned persons showed great respect for Siromani.

          Once Shrila Brahmananda Prabhu invited Siromani to partake of prasada in his house at Govindaghat. Brahmananda offered prasada such as rice and various other dishes served in silver plates and vessels in front of a special seat for Siromani to sit on.  Siromani felt extremely embarrassed and refused to sit at the arranged place and asked that prasada be served to him on a leaf plate and leaf bowl. He urged Brahmananda to take prasada on the special seat instead of himself.  Brahmananda was aware of Siromani's noble lineage and referring to that repeatedly requested Siromani to accept the food and the special seat.  Siromani replied as follow:  "Prabhupada (Brahmananda), if you think you have invited me here because of my social background, in that case I shall surely lose my casteA status if I partake of prasada with you here.  But you are my "prabhu" and I am your "dasa"-this relationship of our is highly adorable."  Saying this Siromani made Brahmananda sit on the special seat and himself took prasada on a leaf plate.  This incident occurred prior to Siromani's embracing bheka.

 

          After a brief stay in Vrndavana, Siromani fell critically ill. Realizing his days were numbered, he embraced vesasraya from Siddha Nityananda dasa Babaji of Shri Madanamohana Thakura.  Siromani was houseA bound due to physical weakness and as soon as he recovered through medical treatment he left for Jhadumandala to meet Siddha Balarama dasa Babaji. Even when he was staying within the house Siromani would wear the kanta round his neck as the bhakashrita Vaishnavas would do.  Dressed in this way, Siromani went to offer his humble obeisances to Siddha Baba, the latter rebuked him sharply saying, "Is that Siromani there?  Why are you wearing a kanta around your neck?  You still cannot do without cooked rice in your meal.  How dare you consider yourself entitled to wear the kanta of Sanatana Gosvami?"

 

          Siromani, who was the embodiment of humility, broke into tears, seeking the mercy of Babaji Mahasaya.  Shortly afterwards, he began practicing bhajan separately under his Gurudeva at Madanamohana Thaura. He, however, continued to accept the prasada of Shri Giriraja from the house of the same devotee where he had promised to stay earlier.  This prasada consisted of brown grains of pulses sieved from the quantity which was offered to the Deity.   These broken grains where boiled and then offered as bhoga with a pinch of salt and black pepper.  Siromani would partake of these watery pulses and a bit of rice and nothing more.

 

          Siromani knew perfectly well how to uphold the dignity of bhakti.  He showed respect to infants in the same manner as he would to the descendants of acaryas and those senior to him.  During his stay at Thaura, he arranged for a chosen reciter to give daily classes on sastra.  One day in the midst of such a session, Siromani suddenly stood up; giving everyone the impression that some distinguished acarya descendent had appeared there. What had actually happened, however, was that a certain disciple of Siromani was standing in the corner carrying the infant daughter of Radhikanath Gosvami, the descendant of Advaita Prabhu.  When that disciple with the child was asked to sit down, Siromani also sat down.

 

          The following is an extract from Sadgurusanga:  "One day Shridhara, a disciple of Vijayakrishna Gosvami, went to Siromani's kutir to have darsana. Upon arriving he found Siromani asleep, thus he offered his obeisances keeping some distance from the feet of Siromani.  To his surprise, the devotee noticed that Siromani's feet turned to another direction. Every time Shridhara tried to offer his obeisances the same thing happened. Shridhara finally left the place in bewilderment.  No one could ever touch the feet of Siromani or offer their humble obeisances.  Even when Siromani was at a distance no one could offer his pranamas before Siromani had offered them first.  He would offer dandavats lying prostrate to one and all.  In fact it was a problem to walk on the road with Siromani, because along the way he repeatedly offered dandavat pranamas to cats, monkeys, cows, women, men and Deities on both sides of the road.  All the men and women of Vrndavana revered Siromani as a venerable saint. Thakura (Vijayakrishna Gosvami) said that one should meet Siromani in order to realize the true meaning of the verse "trinadapi".

 

          Upon rising from bed, early in the morning, Siromani would first address the female-sweeper as "Ma" (mother).  When his disciples questioned him about this, Siromani replied, "She is none but my own mother.  I am indebted to her from my childhood.  Since my birth she had been cleansing me of the filth of urine and stool and she continues to do so even today. My heart warms up with joy when I think of how kind she has been to me in her motherly way.  Hence I bow down to her."

 

          The following is an extract from statements made by Siromani himself:(?)  "Around 1861 or 1862 AD. Harimohana Gosvami, the eighth descendant of Thakura Jagannatha Vaishnava Acarya Gosvami, visited Vrndavana and approached the well-known Sakhalala Gopilala Prabhupada, the sevait of Shri Shri Radharamana in Vrndavana, for information regarding Gauratattva. As directed by Sakhalala, Harimohana contacted Siromani Mahasaya for the said information.  However, for fifteen day Siromani simply offered his repeated obeisances to Harimohana, the son of an acarya.  Thus Harimohana's desire to hear about Gauratattva remained unfulfilled.  Finally, Harimohana said, "I have come here daily to have lessons from you on Gauratattva, but you keep offering your dandavats to me, taking me as a descendant of the Acarya-line.  Come, do as many dandavats at my feet as you want, maybe I am destined to go to hell, but at any cost please be kind enough to enlighten me with Gauratattva."  Hearing such a mature statement from a fifteenA year old boy, Siromani Mahasaya experienced a strange prema-vikara and embraced Harimohana, anointing the boys head with tears.  From that time Prabhupada was fortunate enough to fully realize Gauratattva.

 

          Generally Advaita dasa (alias Annada Prasad Raya) and others would accompany Siromani Mahasaya whenever they attended discourses.  Siromani followed the rule that once out on the road he would offer pancanga pranama at every temple he happened to pass on either side of the road.  That would take considerable time, thus invariably Siromani would arrive late for the discourses.  Instructing the Vaishnavas accompanying him, Siromani said, "Who knows, if we reach their early and sit right in front, our feet may touch the body of someone, thus causing aparadha.  I therefore deem it safer to sit at the back of everyone and listen to whatever is audible."

 

          Once the Queen of Hetampur visited Vrndavana.  She was delighted to hear the Shrimad Bhagavatam recital given by Siromani, thus she sent him a gift of new clothes, coconuts, fruits, and some cash.  Because Siromani accepted this gift he was excommunicated from the Vaishnavas of Vrndavana. Siromani was deeply grieved and admitting his mistake, prayed to be punished.  The Vaishnavas thus ordered him to give recitals from Shrimad Bhagavatam in every temple of Vrndavana for one year.  At that time there were more than three thousand temples in Vrndavana, thus, in order to carry out the order, he had to give recitals in a number of temples each day. Siromani, the scion of Vaishnavas, carried out this very difficult order.

 

          Soon after, Siromani took bheka.  People in general had great faith and adoration for Siromani as well as for his guru, Siddha Nityananda Baba. Numerous devotees approached Siromani for lessons on how to practice bhajan. This, however, caused interruptions to the bhajan of Siddha Baba. Thus, Siromani shifted to a kutir nearby, where he continued to beautifully clarify the queries raised by visiting Vaishnavas.  Yet, if a visitor desired to meet Siddha Baba, Siromani would inform him that Siddha Baba would come out in the open when recital began at 4:30 pm; this was the time which he met people.  Any attempt to meet him before that time would seriously interrupt his bhajan.  Thus Siromani never complained of the trouble he had to face in order to serve his guru.  Siromani instructed his intimate devotees as follows, "We should practice bhajan like the doves residing in our nahabatkhana (a front projection from a building used for entertainment on special occasions).  What I mean is that these doves never fly away despite the constant noise of music flowing from the nahabatkhana; similarly, we too should practice bhajan with the faith that all devotees and Vaishnavas have been sent by Lord Gauranga."

 

          When Vijayakrishna Gosvami, the descendant of Advaita's family, visited Vrndavana, he took great pleasure in the company of Siromani.  Siromani's wife daily attended patha at Madanamohana Thaura.  His sons also, when in Vrndavana, never failed to attend the sessions of patha and if they had any questions Siromani would answer them without any complaint.  The Vaishnavas of Madanamohana Thaura did not approve of the presence of Siromani's wife and sons during patha and they passed occasional comments expressing their disapproval, but Siromani never bothered to reply.  Once, in the presence of Vijayakrishna, a discussion arose at the Thaura criticizing Siromani. Vijayakrishna was upset to hear the criticism but found it hard to understand why Siromani allowed his wife and children to listen to patha at Thaura. Vijayakrishna vowed to maintain a fast until he was enlightened as to the reason for Siromani's actions. 

 

          He skipped meals for that night and the next morning, and did not go for darsana of Siromani as he did on other days.  Toward evening time Vijayakrishna suddenly had a revelation;  "Siromani has behaved rightly.  Had he bothered to consider that this is my wife, those are my sons and they shouldn't come over here, then this would have stressed his worldly relationships instead of loosening them.  Siromani never behaved in any special manner with members of his family and treated all in the same manner, hence, this is to be considered a merit and not a lapse."

 

          This thought made Vijayakrishna ecstatic and he rushed for darsana of Siromani.  When Siromani asked way Vijayakrishna had not come for darsana, the latter explained everything.  Siromani then said, "My wife is my GodA sister (both Siromani and his wife took spiritual initiation from the same guru).  She derives immense pleasure from listening to Bhagavat-katha, so who am I to prevent her from attending sessions of patha?"

 

          Annada Prasad Raya, the second son of the late Gaurangaprasad Raya a devout Vaishnava, lost his faith in the existing Vaishnava acaryas and decided to convert to Christianity.  When he told this to his mother, she took him to Siromani.  Annada was fascinated by Siromani's charming manner and eventually had a change of heart and took initiation from Siromani, receiving the name Shri Advaita dasa.  From that time Annada began to spend the major part of his time in the company of Siromani.  Soon after the birth of his daughter, Annada's wife died (Annada was about 35 years old), leaving him to take care of his mother as well as the responsibility for the seva of his family Deity Shri Radhamadanagopala.  From that time he began to spend his nights at Thaura in the company of Siromani, then return home around 8 or 9 in the morning.

 

          Around this time one youth named Mahendranath Bhattacarya arrived from Jamalpur at Monghyr and took refuge at the feet of Siromani.  Siromani named this youth Shri Haricarana dasa.  Since Siromani had taken bheka and because this youth was a brahmana, Siromani directed his eldest son, Rasavallabha Bhaktibhusana, to give diksa to this youth, Haricarana. Haricarana expressed his eagerness to take bheka, but because he was young, handsome, and a brahmana by caste, no one agreed to initiate him into bheka.  One day Haricarana, on his own, took a dip in the Ganges and changed his clothes.  Everyone in the Thaura asked him who had given him bheka.  Haricarana replied that since no one had responded to his pleading, he had done it on his own. 

 

          Soon after Siromani took vesa, one Pandita Ramakrishna dasa Babaji took diksa from Siddha Nityananda dasa Baba.  Siddha Baba advised Ramakrishna to respect Siromani, who was the latter's God-brother, as his guru.  Ramakrishna followed this advice and as long as he could, he attended the annual festival celebrated by Siromani.  Haricarana dasa studied Bhaktisastra under Ramakrishna Pandita.

 

          Soon after Annada Prasad's wife's death, Siromani's youngest son also lost his wife.  Siromani advised Advaita not to remarry, while he directed his own son to marry again.  Haricarana dasa had deep respect for Siromani, yet he humbly asked Siromani why Advaita, who was a Zamindar's son with the responsibility for the service of the family Deity, and who was without a son, was told not to marry; whereas Siromani's son was allowed to do so. Siromani answered as follows:  "This Advaita dasa has surrendered himself fully to me to attain liberation, whereas this son of mine is going to remarry even if I forbid him to do so.  The latter has come to take a mere formal approval from me, hence what does it matter to him if I ask him to do otherwise.?"

 

          For many years there was a dispute about whether mahaprasada was subject to touchability.  One group held the view that anyone could touch mahaprasada, while the other group upheld that this applied only to the mahaprasada of Jagannatha Puri.  Siromani, however, never bothered to question touchability of prasada.  In areas such as Pabna and Maimensing, brahmanas never drank water touched by Kaivartas; whereas in Calcutta, Navadvipa, and Santipura brahmanas accepted water touched by Kaivartas. Rajanidasa, of a Kaivarta-caste from the Pabna district, became a disciple of the late Radhikanath Gosvami and settled at Vrndavana.  Rajanidasa became very loyal to Siromani and whenever he was invited somewehre, Rajanidasa would carry the prasada for Siromani.  Since Rajanidasa was a householder and an untouchable by caste, Vaishnavas criticized Siromani for maintaining association with Rajanidasa.  Siromani, however, remained indifferent to this criticism. 

 

          One Benimadhava Thakura, the sevait of Lord Gauranga's temple at Katoa, had been a participant in the gosthi of Siromani at Katoa. Benimadhava's wife once expressed a desire to make a pilgrimage to Jagannatha Puri.  Benimadhava was reluctant to give her permission since she would have to stop her service to Lord Gauranga during her absence. Seeing the enthusiasm of his wife, however, he finally relented and allowed her to go.  Upon her return, as per prevalent custom, she halted at a nearby pond on the outskirts of the village and sent a message stating her arrival.

 

          The Kanci prasada of Lord Gauranga was then sent by Benimadhava to his wife through a low-caste messenger.  Benimadhava thought that if his wife accepted the prasada, ignoring the fact that it was brought by an untouchable, then she would be eligible to once again attend to the service of Lord Gauranga.  If she behaved otherwise then she would never get back her right to cook prasada.  The clever wife understood the mind of her husband; she finished her bath, partook of the prasada, and was escorted home by the messenger.  Needless to say, Benimadhava was greatly pleased by the behavior of his wife.

 

          Banamali Raya, the foremost Zamindar of Tadasa (Bangladesh), was the younger brother of Annada babu (alias Advaita dasa).  The late Banwari Raya, the most worthy Zamindar of this family had adopted Banamali as his son.  Around the time when Annada received the grace of Siromani, Banamali came under the influence of the Bramhmo sect and took initiation into the faith.  Annada took care, under the guidance of Siromani, to rescue his brother and bring him back to the path of bhakti.  Banamali was very pleased by the sincerity of his brothers letters and finally came to Vrndavana in 1885 AD.  Banamali and his family stayed there with Annada and were blessed with the holy associaton of Siromani.

 

          In 1897 Banamali was drawn to the fold of bhakti by the grace of Rahikanath Gosvami and dedicated himself entirely to the service of their family Deity Radhavinodji.  Seeing Banamali's strong attraction for Krishna bhajan, Siromani gave him the following advice:  "One cannot attain Krishna prema without serving Vaishnavas.  Remember that Vaishnava seva does not consist of serving delicious food or giving clothes to Vaishnavas; rather it often gives rise to problems.  The cherished object of Vaishnavas is HariA katha; however the opportunity to study Shrimad Bhagavatam or Gosvami books is rarely obtained, hence devotees do not always get the chance to listen to Hari-katha.  With the aim of ensuring this facility for the Vaishnavas, please arrange for competent reciters who can give lessons on these bhakti books.  Also you should ensure that those devotees who are aged, blind, ailing, or for any other reason are unable to go out for madhukari bhiksa may receive the help they need.  If you can arrange to do this you will certainly be blessed with prema."  Banamali took this order as his supreme command and established a school for the study of the Gosvami books, as well as a dispensary for serving Vaishnavas.  Since government aid was not available at that time, Banamali's endeavour never met with the desired success, despite the large amounts of money he spent.  Banamali endowed estates worth thousands of rupees as Devottara property.  The establishment of the Bhakti-Vidyalaya, founded recently in Vrndavana, can be considered an outcome of the command and inspiration received from Rajarsi Bahadur, Radhikanath Gosvami, and Siromani.

 

          Siromani was extremely soft-hearted and generous, as well as very strict about physical cleanliness.  He could not bear to see the suffering of others.  When someone's suffering was brought to his attention he would share the pain of the sufferer just as intensely.  Those who have attained the state of Jatabhava feel aroused by every event of the material world.

 

          Siromani was endowed with a very pleasant and simple manner.  When he felt it necessary to criticize someone, he so in such a gentle way that no one ever felt offended.  Once it so happened that some gentlemen gathered to criticize a well-known Prabhu-descendant.  Siromani happened to pass by and overhear their conversation.  Seeing Siromani they felt embarrassed and stopped talking.  When Siromani demanded to know the name of the person being criticized, by coincidence, the person who was the subject of criticism appeared on the spot.  Siromani made this Prabhu-descendant sit, showing him due respect, and again asked the reason for the criticism.  At the insistence of Siromani, one of the critics spoke out, explaining that the actions of a descendant of Prabhu's should be as perfect as possible for other to emulate, but the person concerned had fallen from that standard by making a number of low-caste persons his disciples.

 

          Siromani listened carefully then spoke what he thought best:  "Look, these persons are learned acaryas and it is their assigned duty to liberate mortal souls, thus they have to shower their mercy on one and all.  How can they discriminate between human beings?  They are supposed to be the liberators of the down-trodden.  This acarya-descendant's action could also be beneficial to him in the long run, as if he behaves in a way which brings about public criticism, the matter will circulate in no time and people will stay far away from him.  This could be a blessing in disguise since this will give him an opportunity to practice bhajan in solitude." On hearing Siromani's views the critics felt appeased and the criticized Prabhu also took the warning to behave more cautiously in the future.

 

          Occasionally Siromani invited Vaishnavas to his kunja to take prasada. On one such occasion some devotees came but refused to allow one amongst them to partake of prasada seated on the same row with the others.  This was because that particular Vaishnava was responsible for a detestable action.  After hearing the details, Siromani addressed the Vaishnavas as follows:  "May I point out for your consideration that here is a Vaishnava whom you are trying to discipline for his wrong actions,  yet here I am who have committed countless wrongs," and thus saying Siromani frankly confessed before all present whatever he thought he had done wrong throughout his life.  After hearing Siromani's speech, the Vaishnavas present calmed down and finished prasada quietly, and the Vaishnava who had done wrong became more cautious.

 

          In 1890 AD. Radhikanath Gosvami left Vrajmandala to visit Gaudamandala.  Annada, Banamali and others took Siromani to the Mathura railway station to see off Radhikanath.  After Radhikanath boarded the train, Siromani wept so profusely that he reeled into unconsciousness. Annada and the others took great care to nurse him back to his senses but on his return to Vrndavana Siromani fell ill with a high fever.  Four or five days later Siromani breathed his last.  Radhikanath was deeply grieved when he received the news at Santipura.

 

          The day Siddha Chaitanya dasa Babaji passed away, the same night, Siromani saw Siddha Baba in a dream saying, "Siromani! Here I am!"  Later when Siromani learned that Siddha Baba had died at that same hour, he prepared an asana for Siddha Chaitanya dasa Babaji in his residence. Shortly afterwards, the Bada Prabhu of Katoa passed away and Siromani placed his samadhi by the side of Siddha Baba's.  When Siromani died his relations placed his samadhi by the side of Bada Prabhu.  It exists there today and regular bhoga-seva is offered.

 

 

G. 51. GAURANGA:

 

          See "Krishnachaitanya Mahaprabhu"

 

G. 52. GAURANGA DASA:

 

          He belonged to the descending line of Nityananda Prabhu. (Cc. 1.11.53 and Bhaktiratnakara pp. 589)

 

G. 53. GAURANGA DASA:

 

          He was the son of Madhusudana dasa, a disciple of Narahari Sarkara Thakura.  Gauranga was the maternal grandfather of Ramagopala dasa who composed Rasakalpavalli.

 

G. 54. GAURANGA DASA:

 

          This Gauranga dasa was a disciple of Shrinivasa Acarya. (Karnananda 1)

 

G. 55. GAURANGA DASA:

 

          An accomplished mrdanga player and disciple of Narottama Thakura.  He participated at the famous kheturi festival. (Premavilasa 20, Narottamavilasa 12, Bhaktiratnakara 10.530)

 

G. 56. GAURANGA DASA BABAJI (Vrndavana):

 

          An old Vaishnava who lived near the Sanatana Gosvami samaj. Gauranga dasa was so advanced in age that it took him nearly thirty minutes to climb the steps of the staircase adjacent to the samaj.  From his madhukari collection he offered bhoga to Pravodananda Sarasvati daily.  Babaji was a visaya-vairagi from his very birth.  Once a certain Raja came for his darsana while Babaji was away.  Without telling anyone, the Raja left some money under Babaji's bed.  That night Babaji was unable to sleep a wink; he lay down on his bed rolling from one side to the other.  The next morning Babaji called some of the Vaishnavas there and said, "I suspect there are some bugs in my bed, because I could not sleep at all last night."  When the bed was searched for bugs by one of the Vaishnava's the money was found and Babaji was informed.  Babaji advised that the money be used for offerings of bhoga at the samaj, for the benefit of the Vaishnavas.

 

          Shortly before Gaurangadasa Babaji passed away, he called the caretaker of the Deity of Madana-mohana and asked him to take everything away from his room.  The former replied, "Babaji, do not worry, there is nothing in this room which can be shifted to the store of Madana-mohana." Babaji then called one Sanatana dasa Babaji and said, "Sanatana, are you blind?  There!  Lord Chaitanya has come Himself, offer Him an asana." Saying thus, Babaji breathed his last.

 

G. 57. GAURANGA DASA GHOSALA:

 

          A resident of Shrikhanda who belonged to the disciple-line of Narahari Sarkara Thakura.  Gauranga dasa lived near the southeastern corner of the famous `madhu-puskarini'.

 

G. 58. GAURANGA DASA VAIRAGI:

 

          He was a disciple of Narottama Thakura. (Premavilasa 20)

 

 

G. 59. GAURANGA DASI:

 

          She was the second wife of Syamananda Prabhu. (Rasikamangala Daksina 12.12)

 

G. 60. GAURANGA PRIYA:

 

          She was the second wife as well as the disciple of Shrinivasa Acarya. Her father was Raghunatha Cakravarti, a resident of west Gopalpura.  (See "Shrinivasa Acarya")

 

G. 61. GAURANGA VALLABHA:

 

          He was a member of Acarya Prabhu's family. (Anuragavalli 7)

 

G. 62. GAURASUNDARA DASA:

 

          He was a Padakarta and composed the book entitled Kirtanananda which consists of 650 padas composed by 60 different poets.  Many of the padas have been included within Padakalpataru, which indicates that this poet was a contemporary of Vaishnava dasa, if not of an earlier period.

 

G. 63. GAURIDASA:

 

          He was a disciple of Syamananda Prabhu. (Premavilasa 20)

 

G. 64. GAURIDASA KIRTANIYA:

 

          He was a poet and a devotee of Nityananda Prabhu. (Vaishnavavandana)

 

G. 65. GAURIDASA PANDITA:

 

          Gauridasa, a disciple of Nityananda Prabhu, was one of the twelve gopalas.  He was Suvalasakha in his past incarnation (Gaura-ganoddesaA dipika 128).  His Shripata is at Amvikanagara near the district of Kalna. Before setting up his Shripata, he lived at Saligrama near the Mudagacha railway station in the Nadia district. (Bhaktiratnakara 7.330-331)

 

The family tree of Gauridasa Pandita is described as follows:

 

Kansari Misra

________________________|___________________________________

|                  |                  |                  |                  |                  |

Damodara     Jagannatha    Suryadasa      Gauridasa      Krishnadasa   Nrsimha-

|                  |                            chaitanya

|        Vimala devi

|                  (wife)

__________________|                  |

|                            |                  |

Vasudha devi           Jahnava devi            |

|

____________|___________

|                                     |

Balarama                          Raghunatha

 

 

          Gauridasa'a mother was Kamala devi, and his father, Kansari Misra, was a cast kulin brahmana. Suryadasa's two daughters, Vasudha and Jahnava, were both married to Nityananda Prabhu.    

 

          Once Nityananda Prabhu and Lord Chaitanya went in a country-boat, rowing themselves, from Harinadi village to Gauridasa's house, there they sat under the tamarind tree.  Not having seen Lord Chaitanya for a long time, Gauridasa tried to coax the Lord into staying permanently at his house.  Lord Chaitanya produced two beautiful wooden Deities, one of Nityananda Prabhu and one of Himself, made from a nearby margosa tree and presented these to Gauridasa.  It is said that due to Gauridasa's unflinching devotion, when he offered bhoga (meals) to the Deities, the offering was actually seen to have been personally eaten by the Deities.

 

          Lord Chaitanya gave His scull (used by Him for rowing the boat) to Gauridasa as a gift saying, "I hand over this vaitha (scull) to you for ferrying jivas across the worldly river of life (bhava-nadi)."  The above mentioned tamarind tree is still in existence at Amvikanagara.  The scull, as well as `The Gita' presented by Lord Chaitanya to Gauridasa are both present at the temple there. (Bhaktiratnakara 7.336.361)             

 

          According to BBM, there is a manuscript titled Suvalamangala composed by Natavara dasa of Amvikanagara, which mentions that Gauridasa's disciple, Hrdayachaitanya, was the guru of the famous preacher Syamananda Prabhu of Orissa.  Gauridasa's granddaughter was married to the son of Hrdayachaitanya.  Disciples of the present gosvamis of Amvikanagara, who are descendants from the family-line of Hrdayachaitanya, worship sakhyarasa.

 

G. 66. GAURIMOHANA DASA:

 

          He was a padakarta, his work entitled Padakalpalatika, consisting of 351 padas, was first published in 1849 AD.  Some padas composed by Sasisekhara and Candrasekhar have been reproduced in this book.

 

G. 67. GHANASYAMA:

 

          A Vaidya by caste, Ghanasyama was a disciple of Gatigovinda Thakura, son of Shrinivasa Acarya.  His work entitled Govindaratimanjari received great appreciation from all quarters.  Divyasimha was his father and his grandfather was Govindadasa Kaviraja, a well-known resident of Budhuri village which is situated one mile from Bhagavanagola railway station in the Mursidavad district.  Around the time when Ghanasyama was conceived, his parents left Budhuri to live with his maternal grandfather at Shrikhanda.  During Divyasimha's absence from Budhuri all the properties belonging to Divyasimha and his father, Govinda dasa, were confiscated by the Nawab government.  However, after Ghanasyama grew up, the Nawab, upon hearing Ghanasyama's sweet recital of padas, became very pleased and awarded Ghanasyama a land-grant of 60 bighas of land at Budhuri and commanded him to live there.  His son was named Svarupanatha and Haridasa was his grandson. The Deity of Nitai Gauranga installed by Haridasa is still in existence at Shripata Budhuri of Govinda dasa Kaviraja.  Two tanks founded by Shrinivasa Acarya, named Radhakunda and Syamakunda, are also in existence at Budhuri.

 

G. 68. GHANASYAMA:

 

          He was the author of the book entitled Bhaktisiddhantaratna. (Gaudiya-Vaishnavasahitya pp. 105)

 

G. 69. GHANASYAMA:

 

          He was a disciple of Rasikananda Prabhu. (Rasikanamangala Pascima 14.158)

 

G. 70. GHANASYAMA CAKRAVARTI (NARAHARI DASA \ GHANASYAMA DASA)

 

          He was born sometime in the early 17th century in a high class brahmana family in Rayanpur village, adjacent to Jangipur in the Mursidavad district.  His father, Jagannatha Cakravarti, was a disciple of the famous Visvanatha Cakravarti.  Ghansyama was himself a disciple of Nrsimha Cakravarti.  As per the command of Govindaji, Ghanasyama went to Vraja and served as a cook under his guru, for which he received the name `Rasuia (cook) pujari.'  He was not only an excellent cook, but also an accomplished musician; highly conversant in the science of music.  He was also an outstanding author, whose works received wide appreciation and recognition.  His works, among others, are:

 

 

          1. Bhaktiratnakara

2. Narottamavilasa

3. Shrivinasa-Caritra

4. Gitacandrodaya

          5. Chandah-Samudra

          6. Gauracarita-Cintamani

          7. Namamrtasamudra

          8. Paddhatipradipa

          9. Sangitasarasamgraha

                        

G. 71. GHANASYAMA DASA:

 

          Ghanasyama was a disciple of Gatigovinda, son of Shrinivasa Acarya. His father's name was Tulasirama dasa. (Karnananda 2)

 

G. 72. GHANASYAMA DASA:

 

          He was a disciple of Rasikananda Prabhu. (Rasikamangala Pascima 14.125)

 

G. 73. GHANASYAMA DASA:

 

          A disciple of Jayagopala, Ghanasyama wrote a Krishnalilakavya entitled Shri Krishnavilasa, which mentions `Ragaragini' on the line of Shrimad Bhagavatam.

 

G. 74. GIRIDHARA DASA:

 

          A disciple of Narahari Sarkara Thakura, Giridhara wrote the book entitled Parakiyarasasthapana-sidhanta-samgraha.  This book is preserved in the library of Rakhalananda Thakura at Shrikhanda.

 

G. 75. GIRIDHARA DASA:

 

          He translated Gitagovinda into Bengali in 1733 AD.

 

G. 76. GIRIDHARA DASA:

 

          He was one of the two translators of the book entitled Manahsiksa written by Dasagosvami (Yadunanadan dasa was the other translator). (Patavadi manuscript-Anuragavalli 24 Ka, Kha)

 

G. 77. GIRIDHARA DASA:

 

          This Giridhara dasa was among the many translators of Smaranamangala (Pathavadi manuscript, Bangali, B 189), recorded in 1681 AD.

 

G. 78. GIRIDHARI DASA BABAJI:

 

          His previous name was Annadaprasada Raya.  He was the elder brother of Zamindar Rajarsi Vanamali Raya Bahadur of the Tadasa Estate in the district of Pabna (Bangladesh).  When Giridhari was a child, his father, Gangaprasada, brought him, along with the rest of his family, to live in Vrndavana.  At that time there were no facilities for teaching the children of householders in Vrndavana, hence Giridhari studied under private tutors.

          After Giridhari was married, his father died, leaving the responsibilities for the service of the Deities, the care of the family, and the administration of the estate on Giridhari's shoulders.  Giridhari had religious tendency's from boyhood, but had never had the opportunity to learn about his own religion.  Thus, for some unknown reason, he became antagonistic towards Hinduism, and decided to embrace Christianity. However his mother, who was a very pious lady averted the crisis by putting Giridhari under the care of Gaurakisora Siromani.  In due course of time Annada (Giridhari) gradually regained his mental balance and became a great devotee.  Siromani mahasaya gave him the name Advaita dasa.

 

          When Giridhari was thirty-six years old his wife expired after giving birth to a daughter, who also followed her mother within a few days. Annada did not marry again.  After Siromani mahasaya passed away, Annada embraced `veka' under Krishnadasa babaji of Govardhana-kunda at Vraja in 1890 AD.  He assumed the name of Giridhari dasa and began to live exclusively on madhukari. He did not accept anything from his family.  From 1895 AD. onwards, he lived under the shelter of his younger brother, Rajarsi Bahadur, who worshipped the Deity Radhavinode-jiu.  The worldly relationship of the two brothers gradually turned into a relationship of divine love and affection for each other.

 

          One day, in the course of religious discussions amongst the inner circle of devotees, a question cropped up as to whether, in the event that one of them happened to notice some lapses or shortcomings in the behaviour of someone within the group, it would be advisable to point out the discrepancy to the person concerned.  When Giridhari dasa opined in the negative, someone else remarked, "The person should be told so that he can make amends."  Giridhari dasa replied, "If a person were aware of lapses committed, then he should be able to correct himself.  After all, we all commit mistakes sometimes over which we have no control.  Therefore, the best thing would be to pray at the feet of Giriraja and Paurnamasi to shower mercy upon the person concerned."

 

          Giridhari dasa often repeated, "One has to take food daily to sustain his mortal body and also take medicine when it is required.  Similarly, the essential foodstuff to sustain and develop one's spiritual life is the practice of lila-smaranam and bhajan, and the acquisition of tattvajnana is the medicine which will cleanse the mind of all materialistic tendencies."

 

          Giridhari's cheerful appearance and utter poverty, coupled with his unique method of practicing Shri Bhagavatbhajana, endeared him to the Vaishnava residents of Vraja, who addressed him with reverence as mahatma. During his stay at Radhakunda, Giridhari dasa became acquainted with a great Vaishnava named Krishna dasa.  Due to their mutual attachment to religious discourses, a very deep friendship developed between the two of them.

 

          One day Krishna dasa told Giridhari that he had a strong desire to visit Bengal.  At the thought of being separated from Krishna dasa, Giridhari began to wail and roll on the ground crying.  Not understanding Giridhari's behaviour, Krishna dasa repeatedly inquired as to the reason of the sudden outburst.  Giridhari replied, "It is all my fault; your desire to go to Bangladesa has been roused due to my close association and discourses with you. You have been practicing your bhajan at Vraja with total devotion and in a completely detached state of mind, which would suffer a great set back if you were to leave Vraja now.  Please, at least postpone your departure from Vraja for just three more days."

 

          Realising the purport of Giridhari's words, Krishna dasa began to cry saying, "Now I understand that Radharani is intending to punish me by causing this separation from you."

 

          When Krishna dasa agreed to delay his departure, Giridhari immediately began stringently worshiping Radharani; praying that Krishna dasa not leave Her Vrajadhama.  He also gave up the intake of any food or water.  In addition to his routine daily prayers, he chanted 25000 nama-japa, paid 108 sastanga-dandavat, and did parikrama of Radhakunda and Syamakunda four times daily. 

 

          Meanwhile, Krishna dasa was fully absorbed in doing nama-guna smarana of Giridhari dasa.  On the third night Krishna dasa had a vision in his sleep; his guru appeared and said, "For three consecutive days mahatma Giridhari dasa has been observing a total fast and praying at the feet of Radharani." 

 

          The first thing in the morning Krishna dasa rushed to Giridhari's bhajan kutir.  As he approached the kutir he heard Giridhari moaning in a feeble voice, then he saw Giridhari lying on the ground under the tulasi plant, praying: "Oh! Vrndadevi, Krishna dasa must not leave your dhama." Hearing this Krishna dasa immediately fell at the feet of Giridhari dasa crying.  The tearful reunion of the two friends and divine lovers created an atmosphere of jubilation on the banks of Shrikunda.  Krishna dasa gave up his intention to go to Bangladesa and returned to his routine practice of bhajan and discourses.

 

          On the thirteenth day of the dark fortnight of Pausa masa in 1308 BS. (Dec-Jan 1901 AD.) information reached Rajarsi Bahadur and other Vaishnavas that Giridhari dasa had not gone out on his routine madhukari.  The door of his bhajan kutir was bolted from the inside and there was no response from within the room.  Giridhari dasa had attended the routine discourses on the previous night with Rajarsi Bahadur and had shown no signs of illness.

 

          Rajarsi Bahadur, Kamini Kumara Ghosh and other devotees then went to Giridhari's kutir and somehow managed to open the door.  They found Giridhari dasa lying, where he normally slept, with his right hand placed under his head.  The kaupina on his body was dry and a wet kaupina was lying on the floor, as if he had just taken his bath.  His eyes were half closed, a cheerful smile was on his face, and drops of froth were on his mouth.  The devotees who were doing nama-kirtana could not comprehend that Giridhari dasa was no longer in this world.  After receiving permission from Rajarsi Bahadur, his last funeral rites were performed.

 

          From the expression of content on the face of Giridhari one would tend to believe that he had experienced such a divine vision of the Lord's lila that his heart had failed to withstand the turbulence of such ecstacy.

 

G. 79. GIRIDHARI DASA BABAJI (Navadvipa, Haribol kutir):

 

          Giridhari dasa (also known as Girindra) was a descendant from the family-line of the famous Makaranda Ghosh.  He was born in a prosperous high class kulin kayastha family in Mahiskhola village on the bank of the river Citra, situated in the Nadail sub-division of Jessore district (Bangladesh).  Radharamana Carana dasa, the younger brother of Girindra's father-Baradakanta, earned great fame for this Ghosh family.  Giridhari's mother, Sasimukhi devi, gave birth to four sons; Mahendra, Girindra (Giridhari), Nagendra, and Hemendra.

 

          Girindra was born on the ninth day of the lunar fortnight of Magha masa in 1301 BS (Jan-Feb 1894 AD.).  It is said that when he was delivered his whole body was entangled with chains of intestines.  Girindra was sickly from childhood, yet had a natural reverence for brahmanas and Vaishnavas.  Once his life was in danger due to fever and dysentery, but he was cured after eating the remnants of food left by a brahmana.  He had little interest for his studies, however, he loved to hear stories narrated from the Ramayana, Mahabharata and other histories.  He also had a natural talent for dance and music, as well as a great fondness for tulasi-seva, through which he earned a wealth of divine treasures.  His indifference to worldly affairs was obvious throughout his entire life.

 

          When Girindra was a student in class VI, Vipina Candra Cattopadhyaya was posted as the Munsiff of Nadail.  Girindra was extremely attracted by the loud, melodious kirtana performed by Vipina every morning at day break, thus he gave up his studies and became an ardent devotee of Vipina. Despite being admonished by his guardians, Girindra attended Vipina's kirtana sessions daily.  After three years Vipina babu was transferred to Bankura and Girindra, with great difficulty, persuaded Vipina to take him along.  Leaving behind all his possessions, Girindra went away taking only a drinking glass with him.  Both of them were happily enjoyed the unrestricted association of one another.

 

          The great jubilation, roaring, and repeated leaping associated with the performance of nama-kirtana in those days, which made both participants as well as the audience intoxicated with emotion, can better be imagined than described.  Vipina babu took care of Girindra like his own son. Through his own example he taught Girindra vairagya-dharma and advised him to follow the path of bhajan as prescribed by Haribole Thakura.  He also trained Girindra in the minute details of devotional service.  Through the personal care and affection of Vipina babu, Girindra matured quickly into a handsome and cheerful devotee, who performed his daily tasks with great enthusiasm.  Some devotees even remarked that Vipina babu and Girindra had become one and the same person.  Girindra had free access to all corners of the house.  He was fortunate enough to witness various divine manifestations in Vipina Candra.  After four years of constant companionship, Vipina babu gave diksa to Girindra in the eighteen-lettered mantra.

 

          Wherever Vipina babu was posted as a Munsiff, Girindra followed.  For the welfare of the conditioned souls, he went out every morning loudly chanting "Haribol" with his arms upraised.  At times, under his guru's order, he would collect alms.  He walked for more than eight miles a day chanting the holy name, yet he never approached any householder for alms. Whatever he received from people, given of their free will, he would take home, boil it, and take his meal.  Girindra was a humorous, demanding, and beloved person.  His unalloyed devotion to his guru pervaded all his work. However, due to his restless temperament, he once committed a grave mistake, for which Vipinababu punished him by forcing him to stay away from the latter's house for fifteen days. In self-reproach, Girindra wandered around like a madman, without eating or sleeping, until almost reaching the point of death.  On the fifteenth day Vipinababu brought him back and saved his life. After that Vipinababu began to treat Girindra sternly for his lapses. Desiring to train his disciple and purify him internally, Vipina did not hesitate to beat Girindra with whatever things were handy (sticks, shoes, wooden sandals etc.).

 

          After Vipina Candra passed away in (Jan-Feb) 1923 AD., Girindra became viraha-stricken; like a woman separated from her lover.  He wandered aimlessly between Vrndavana, Jagannatha-Puri and Navadvipa, living the life of an udasin.  He found no pleasure in food, sports, or conversations with others. Being shelterless, in the absence of his guru, he had no fixed place to live; at times he stayed near the bank of the Ganges or in the corridor of the nearby ghat or he lived on the veranda of some householder.

 

          His daily routine was as follows:  Around 3:00 AM he would walk the streets of the town chanting "Haribol".  After returning he would then go through his daily kirtana, take a dip in the Ganges before attending the mangala-arati of Lord Chaitanya, go for darsana of other Deities, return to complete the seva of the household Deity, go out for bhiksa and return to prepare bhoga using whatever ingredients he collected as alms and then offer to the Deity and take prasada afterwards.

 

          On one occasion Girindra went to Jagannatha Puri and stayed at the samadhi of Haridasa Thakura.  There he met Govinda dasa babaji, the mahanta of the temple and veka-sisya of Raghunatha dasaji.  Girindra was attracted by the good qualities and kind disposition of this exalted devotee and thus took vesasraya from him, taking up the name Giridhari dasa.  Gradually he regained his normal composure, abandoned the habit of travelling, and settled down in Navadvipa. There he constructed a kutir named `Shri Shri Haribol' on a land given by Nanilal Bhakta of Budge Budge (presently Navadvipa) out of a fund raised by his devotees.

 

          He listened to CBh daily and in between such recitals Giridhari utilized the opportunity to discuss the lapses of devotees which he had noticed during the day.  To correct the devotees he used harsh words and criticized them strongly.

 

          When Giridhari's health began to rapidly deteriorate, he took the advice of the well-wishing Vaishnavas and returned to Nilacala on 10 Jaistha BS 1351 (May-June 1944 AD.) where he lived in the samadhi-temple of Haridasa Thakura.  He passed away a few months later on 20 Asvin of the same year (Sept-Oct 1944 AD.), remembering the name of Haridasa Thakura.

 

G. 80. GITAPATHI BRAHMANA (Name unknown):

 

          At the time when Lord Chaitanya was observing the vow of Caturmasya at the house of Vyenkata Bhatta in Shri Ranga-Ksetra in south India, a brahmana Vaishnava used to visit the temple of Ranganatha daily and recite the entire eighteen chapters of Bhagavad-gita.  He was illiterate and as such could not pronounce the words correctly.  People sometimes criticized him and laughed at him, but he did not care.  He was full of ecstasy due to reading Bhagavad-gita.  Noticing the transcendental transformations visible on the body of the brahmana during his recital of Bhagavad-gita, Lord Chaitanya one day asked the brahmana, "Shri which portion of the Bhagavad-gita gives you transcendental pleasure?"

 

          The brahmana replied, "I am illiterate and therefore do not understand the meaning of the words. I pronounce the words sometimes correctly and sometimes incorrectly, but I am reading Bhagavad-gita in compliance with the order of my spiritual master.  When I am reading Bhagavad-gita, I simply see my Lord Krishna standing before me in His beautiful feature as the charioteer of Arjuna, that is the reason nothing can distract my mind from this reading."

 

          Lord Chaitanya replied, "You are the right person to read BhagavadA gita because you have understood the real purport of Bhagavad-gita."  After saying this, Lord Chaitanya embraced the brahmana who, falling at the feet of the Lord, began to cry.  Lord Chaitanya then revealed himself to the brahmana and requested him not to disclose the fact.  That Gitapathi brahmana became a great devotee of Lord Chaitanya and did not leave the Lord's association for four continuous months. (Cc. 2.9.93-103)

 

G. 81. GOKULA CAKRAVARTI:

 

          He was a disciple of Hemalata Devi, daughter of Shrinivasa Acarya. (Karnananda 2)

 

G. 82. GOKULA DASA:

 

          He descended from the disciple-line of Nityananda Prabhu.  His Shripata was at Ghodaghat. (Cc. 1.11.49)

 

G. 83. GOKULA DASA:

 

          He was a disciple of Syamananda Prabhu. (Rasikamangala Purva 1.82)

 

G. 84. GOKULA DASA:

 

          He was a disciple of Rasikananda Prabhu. (Rasikamangala Pascima 14.90-91)

 

G. 85. GOKULA DASA:

 

          A resident of Yajigrama in Burdwan district, Gokula was a disciple of Narottama Thakura. He was a renowned kirtaniya and also known as a scholar of music-sastra.  His rendering of kirtana recital in a sweet voice with various gestures and postures left a permanent impression on his listeners. Gokula dasa participated in sankirtana at the famous Kheturi festival. (Narottamavilasa 11, 12, Bhaktiratnakara 10.531-532)

 

G. 86. GOKULA DASA (GOKULANANDA):

 

          Gokula dasa and Shridasa were two sons of the famous Haridasa Acarya of Vrndavana.  Before Shrinivasa Acarya departed from Vrndavana for Gauda with the holy books, Haridasa instructed the former to give diksa to his two sons. After a short while Haridasa passed away in Vrndavana. (Karnananda 1)

 

          Gokula dasa and his brother organized a mahotsava at Shripata Kancangaria to commemorate the disappearance of their father.  Shrinivasa Acarya and many other devotees attended the mahotsava.  At that time Gokula dasa and his brother Shridasa received diksa from Shrinivasa Acarya. (Bhaktiratnakara 10.89-92)

 

G. 87. GOKULADASA MAHANTA:

 

          A disciple of Shrinivasa Acarya, Gokuladasa was a contemporary of Raja Veera Hamvira.  His Shripata was at Vishnupura.

 

G. 88. GOKULADASA VAIRAGI:

 

          He was a disciple of Narottama Thakura. (Premavilasa 20, Narottamavilasa 12)

 

G. 89. GOKULANANDA:

 

          He was one in the group of `twelve hundred Neda' (shaven-headed male) and `thirteen hundred Nedi' (shaven-headed female) who fled with three other prisoners in fear of forced female (nedi)companionship and lived at Bele Basirhat in 24 parganas district.  The saying goes that at a certain time Virabhadra Gosvami freed 1200 prisoners and after initiating all of them into Vaishnava-dharma took them to Jahnava Devi praying for their food. In order to verify whether these men were competent to embrace VaishnavaA dharma, Jahnava Devi created 1300 `nedis' and offered one nedi to each freed prisoner.  All the prisoners accepted the offer except Gokulananda and three others, who ran away to save themselves.

 

          The prisoners, after their release but prior to initiation into Vaishnava-dharma, had their heads shaven. Since then the proverb `nedaA nadira dal' came into use.

 

G. 90. GOKULANANDA:

 

          He was a disciple of Rasikananda Prabhu. (Rasikamangala Pascima 14.108)

 

G. 91. GOKULANANDA (GOKULANANDA KAVINDRA):

 

          He was a disciple of Shrinivasa Acarya. According to Bhaktiratnakara 10.139, Gokulananda first lived at Kaduigram and after shifted to Shergad in Pancakota.

 

G. 92. GOKULANANDA DASA CAKRAVARTI:

 

          He was a disciple of Shrinivasa Acarya. (Karnananda 1)

 

G. 93. GOKULANANDA SENA:

 

          This is the former name of Vaishnava dasa, the famous author of Padakalpataru. (See "Vaishnavacarana dasa")

 

 

 

G. 94. GOPALA:

 

          He belonged to the disciple-line of Nityananda Prabhu. (Cc. 1.11.50)

 

G. 95. GOPALA:

 

          He was a disciple of Syamananda Prabhu. (Premavilasa 20)

 

G. 96. GOPALA:

 

          A disciple of Rasikananda Prabhu. (Rasikamangala Pascima 4.111-118)

 

G. 97. GOPALA:

 

          He was a disciple of Rasikananda (Rasikamangala Pascima 4.111-114)

 

G. 98. GOPALA:

 

          A brahmana resident of Santipura who was the son of Advaita Prabhu.

 

G. 99. GOPALA ACARYA:

 

          He belonged to the disciple-line of Lord Chaitanya. (Cc. 1.10.114, Namamrtasamudra 135)

 

G. 100.         GOPALA ACARYA:

 

          His name is recorded in Narottamavilasa.

 

G. 101.   GOPALA ACARYA:

 

          He was a disciple of Rasikananda Prabhu. (Rasikamangala Pascima 14.133)

 

G. 102.         GOPALABHANJA RAYA:

 

          He was a disciple of Rasikananda Prabhu. (Rasikamangala Pascima 14.161)

 

G. 103.         GOPALA BHATTA GOSVAMI:

 

          Gopala Bhatta was born on the third lunar day of the dark fortnight of Pausa (Dec-Jan) 1500 AD. (GPC. states that his birth was in 1503 AD.). His father, Venkata Bhatta was a renowned Vaishnava from the RamanujaA sampradaya and lived in the village Velagundi of Shrirangam, on the bank of the Kaveri river, in the Trichinapalli district.  Gopala was one of the "Chaya Gosvami's" and was Anangamanjari in his past incarnation. Some argue he was Gunamanjari (Gaura-ganoddesa-dipika).  During his pilgrimage of Shri Ranga-ksetra in South India, Lord Chaitanya lived at the house of Venkata Bhatta while observing His vow of Caturmasya in 1511 AD.

 

          When Lord Chaitanya arrived the house of Venkata, Gopala, who was only a child of eight years, offered his obeisances at the feet of the Lord. Lord Chaitanya picked Gopala up, placed him on His lap, and fondled him lovingly.  Later, the Lord called Gopala and gave him the remnants of food left from His plate.  During Lord Chaitanya's stay at their house, Gopala served Him regularly.

 

          As Venkata was a Vaishnava belonging to the Ramanuja-sampradaya, he worshipped the Deity of Laksmi Narayana.  His pure devotional service to the Deities was very pleasing to Lord Chaitanya. Being in constant association with one another, Lord Chaitanya and Venkata gradually developed a friendly relationship.  Indeed sometimes they use to joke and laugh together.  For example, Lord Chaitanya told Venkata, "Your worshipful goddess of fortune, Laksmi, who always remains on the chest of Narayana, is certainly the most chaste woman in the creation.  How is it that she wants to associate with my Lord, Lord Krishna, a cowherd boy, who is engaged in tending cows?"

 

          Venkata replied, "According to transcendental realisation, there is no difference between the forms of Narayana and Krishna.  Yet in Krishna there is a special transcendental attraction due to the conjugal mellow, and consequently He surpasses Narayana.  Mother Laksmi considered that her vow of chastity would not be damaged by her relationship with Krishna.  Rather, it was in great fun that Laksmi wanted to associate with Krishna.  Why are you joking so much about this?"

 

          The Lord said, "But can you tell me why goddess Laksmi, who for a long time accepted vows and regulative principles and performed unlimited austerity's, could not enter the rasa dance?  The authorities of Vedic knowledge (Sruti) could attain Krishna through practice of tapasya?"

 

          Venkata replied, "I am an ordinary human being.  Since my intelligence is very limited, my mind cannot enter within the deep ocean of pastimes of the Lord.  You are the Supreme Personality of Godhead Krishna Himself.  You know the purpose of Your activities, and the person whom you enlighten can also understand your pastimes."(Cc. 2.9)

 

          The Lord said, "Krishna has a specific characteristic; He attracts everyone's heart by the mellow of His personal conjugal love.  By following in the footsteps of the inhabitants of the planet known as Vrajaloka, or Goloka Vrndavana, one can attain the shelter of the lotus feet of Shri Krishna.  However, these Vrajavasi's do not know that Lord Krishna is the Supreme Personality of Godhead.  Rather, they know Krishna as the son of the king of Vrajabhumi, and consider that there cannot be any relationship with the Lord in the rasa of opulence. 

 

          There at Vrajabhumi someone accepts Him as a son, while someone else treats Him as an intimate friend.  The Supreme Personality of Godhead, Krishna, the son of mother Yasoda, is accessible to those devotees engaged in spontaneous loving service, but He is not easily accessible to mental speculators, to those striving for self-realization by severe austerity and penance, or to those who consider the body to be the same as the self. Lord Krishna belongs to a cowherd community, and the gopis are the dear-most lovers of Krishna.  Although the wives of the denizens of the heavenly planets are most opulent within the material world, neither they nor any other women in the material universe can acquire Krishna's association. Goddess Laksmi wanted to enjoy Krishna and at the same time retain her spiritual body in the form of Laksmi.  She, however, did not follow in the footsteps of the gopis in her worship of Krishna.  According to the verse composed by Vyasadeva, the supreme authority on Vedic literature, no one can enter into the rasa-lila dance in any form other than the bodies of the gopis.  On the other hand, the authorities of Vedic literature known as sruti-gana worshipped Lord Krishna in the ecstasy of the gopis and followed in their footsteps.  They acquired bodies like those of gopis and took birth in Vrajabhumi.  In those bodies they were allowed to enter the rasalila dance.

 

          The Supreme Personality of Godhead, Krishna, attracts the mind of goddess Laksmi, but Lord Narayana cannot attract the minds of the gopis. This proves the super-excellence of Krishna.  To say nothing of Lord Narayana personally, Lord Krishna Himself appeared as Narayana just to play jokes on the gopis, but failed to attract the serious attention of the gopis in ecstatic love.

 

          Once Lord Krishna playfully manifested Himself as Narayana with four victorious hands and a beautiful form.  When the gopis saw this exalted form, their ecstatic feeling abated, and they paid their humble obeisances to Lord Narayana.  Later, when Shri Radha arrived on the scene and looked at the form of Narayana, Lord Krishna revealed Himself.

 

          A learned scholar, therefore, cannot understand the gopi's ecstatic feelings which are firmly centered upon the original form of Lord Krishna as the son of Nanda Maharaja.  The wonderful feelings of the gopis in ecstatic parama-rasa with Krishna constitute the greatest mystery of spiritual life. There is no difference between Lord Krishna and Lord Narayana for They are the same form.  Similarly, there is no difference between the gopis and the goddess Laksmi, for they are also the same form. 

 

          Goddess Laksmi enjoys the association of Krishna through the gopis. One should never make a distinction between the forms of the Lord, for such conceptualizing is offensive."

 

          Venkata then said, "Out of your causeless mercy you have told me of the glories of Lord Krishna.  No one can reach the end of the opulence, qualities, and forms of the Lord."  After saying this, Venkata Bhatta fell down before the lotus feet of the Lord, and the Lord, out of His causeless mercy, embraced him."

 

          When the period of Caturmasya was completed, Lord Chaitanya took permission to leave Venkata Bhatta.  At that moment the members of Venkata's family, thinking of being separated from the Lord, began to cry, while Gopala fell down unconscious at the feet of Lord Chaitanya.  The Lord instructed Gopala to stay at home for the time being to look after his parents, and advised him to go to Vrndavana after sometime.

 

          Gopala began to study Vyakarana-kavya, Alamkara, and Vedanta, within a short time he became an expert in the said sastras.  He also acquired knowledge of Bhakti-sastra under his uncle Provodananda Sarasvati. (Bhaktiratnakara first wave)

 

          Gopala concentrated his mind remembering the lotus feet of Lord Chaitanya, patiently waiting for the time when he would be free to go to Vrndavana, at the same time nursing his aged parents as commanded by the Lord.  He did not have to wait very long, as his parents had reached the last stage of their lives.  One day they called Gopala and said, "After our disappearance you should go to Vrndavana and take refuge under the lotus feet of Lord Chaitanya."  Soon thereafter, Gopala's parents passed away remembering the lotus feet of the Lord up to the very last moment. (Bhaktiratnakara first wave).  At last Gopala was freed from material encumbrances and departed for Vrndavana. 

 

          On his arrival there, Gopala stayed with Rupa and Sanatana, who had already heard about him from Lord Chaitanya.  Rupa Gosvami sent a messenger to Puri to inform Lord Chaitanya of Gopala's arrival. Meanwhile, they treated Gopala as their own brother, and very soon a relationship of love and intimacy developed between them.

 

          Upon receiving the message at Puri, Lord Chaitanya was delighted and told the devotees there about Gopala.  The Lord then sent a messenger with a reply to Rupa, along with his personal brahmana thread, kaupina, and an outer-garment for Gopala. (GVA mentions that apart from a holy thread and a kaupina, a blackish colored wooden seat were given by Lord Chaitanya for Gopala, which are still preserved in the temple of Radharamana at Vrndavana and regularly worshipped).  Gopala accepted the items as the Lord's kripaA prasada and began to follow the instructions for him conveyed through the Lord's letter to Rupa. Gopala was, like Rupa and Sanatana, a homeless person. He would spend night at various groves and study religious books or do his writing work.

 

          Once Gopala Bhatta went on a welfare visit to a village called Devavandya in Sharanpur district.  One afternoon he was held up due to an unexpected rain and took shelter in the house of a local brahmana who was a childless devotee.  Being very pleased with the cordial reception offered by the brahmana, Gopala Bhatta Gosvami showered his blessings upon the brahmana and said that he would soon beget a devout son.  The brahmana reciprocated by making a commitment that he would offer his first son for the seva of Gopala Bhatta. 

 

          On his way back to Vrndavana, Gopala collected twelve salagrama's from the bed of the river Gandaki. Gopala worshiped the twelve stones and carried them from place to place with him in a cloth-bag.  Eventually he began to feel a longing to worship a Deity.  Around the same time a wealthy businessman came for darsana of Gopala Bhatta, and being very satisfied, left behind many gifts including ornaments and clothing as an offering to the Lord.  Gopala placed all the items before his salagrama stones and in the evening performed routine arati.  After practicing bhajan till the late hours of the night, Gopala put his salagrama's to rest for the night, placing a basket over the twelve stones.  The next morning, to his amazement, he found that his long cherished desire had been fulfilled; one of the salagrama's had taken the form of Lord Krishna; standing and playing His flute.  This Deity came to be known as the famous Radharamana vigraha of Vrndavana. (According to information recorded in Anuragavalli pp 14, Rupa Gosvami had been associated with the appearance of Radharamana)

 

          Ten years passed, then one day at noon, when Gopala Bhatta was returning to his bhajan kutir after taking bath in the Yamuna, he saw that a child was seated near the entrance of the kutir.  Upon seeing Gopala Bhatta, the child got up and paid his humble obeisances to Gopala, lying prostrate on the ground. When questioned, the child explained that he had come from Devavandya village in the district of Saharanpur.  He stated further that his name was Gopala and his father had sent him to serve Gopala Bhatta.  Gopala Bhatta then remembered the past incident and took the child in as his own sevaka.  In later years the child came to be known as Gopinatha Pujari Gosvami.  He dedicated his bachelor life to the service of the Deity Radharamana.

 

          Shrinivasa Acarya received diksa from Gopala Bhatta Gosvami. He passed away on the fifth lunar day of the light fortnight of Asada (June-July) 1585 AD.  His samadhi is located behind the Radharamana temple in Vrndavana.

 

          The following are the works of Gopala Bhatta:

 

1.       A treatise on smrti entitled Shri Hari Bhaktivilasa ; some        argue that the book was actually compiled by Sanatana Gosvami (Bhaktiratnakara 1.19-98)

2.       Padas 1019, 2834, 2967, and sloka 38 have been included within Padakalpataru.

3.       A tika entitled Shri Krishnavallabha on Shri Krishnakarnamrta by Karnapura. (Bhaktiratnakara 1.228, Anuragavalli and Sadhanadipika pp 257)

4.       A book of verse based on Satsandarbha by Jiva Gosvami.

 

 

G. 104.         GOPALA BHATTACARYA:

 

          He was an expert statesman and the brother of (Khanja) Bhagavan Acarya.  However, he had no interest in the management of the estate and lived a life of renunciation.  After studying Vedanta  philosophy in Benares, Gopala returned to Bhagavan Acarya's home at Nilacala.  Bhagavan took his brother, Gopala, to meet Lord Chaitanya, but the Lord, knowing that Gopala was a Mayavadi philosopher, felt no jubilation upon meeting him. Nevertheless, because Gopala was related to Bhagavan Acarya, Lord Chaitanya feigned pleasure in meeting him. 

 

          One day, Bhagavan Acarya said to Svarupa Damodara, "Gopala, my younger brother, has returned to my home after completing his study of Vedanta philosophy, please listen to his commentary on Vedanta."  Svarupa Damodara, however, somewhat angry, yet in a loving tone, spoke as follows: "You have lost your intelligence in the association of Gopala, and therefore you are eager to hear the Mayavadi philosophy; when a Vaishnava listens to Sariraka-bhasya, the Mayavada commentary upon Vedanta-sutra, he gives up the Krishna conscious attitude that the Lord is the master and the living entity is His servant.  Instead, he considers himself the Supreme Lord."

 

          The next day Bhagavan Acarya asked Gopala to return to his own district. (Cc. 3.2.89-100)

 

G. 105.         GOPALA BHUINYA:

 

          He was a disciple of Rasikananda Prabhu. (Rasikamangala Pascima 14.144)

 

G. 106.         GOPALA CAKRAVARTI:

 

          He was the father-in-law, as well as disciple of Shrinivasa Acarya. Gopala had two sons named Syamadasa (Syamananda) and Ramacarana (Ramacandra).  Gopala's brother's name was Vrndavana Cakravarti.  His only daughter, Draupadi, was married to Shrinivasa Acarya.  Raghunandana Thakura of Shrikhanda acted as the match-maker in connection with this marriage (Bhaktiratnakara 8.490-494).  His Shripata was at Jajigrama.

 

G. 107.         GOPALA CAKRAVARTI:

 

          Gopala lived in Bengal and his duty was to collect 1,2000,000 coins to deposit in the treasury of the Emperor.  He was the official chief tax collector for the house of Hiranya and Govardhana Majumdar.  One day Balarama, the priest of the Majumdar family of Saptagrama, brought Haridasa Thakura into the court of Hiranya and Govardhana for a recital of namaA kirtana.  Gopala was a handsome, learned youth, but he could not tolerate the statement that one can attain liberation simply by glimpsing the awakening of the Lord's holy nama, as expounded by Haridasa Thakura during nama-kirtana.  Gopala became very angry and insulted Haridasa openly before the audience at the court.  Balarama Acarya immediately chastised Gopala saying, "You have insulted Haridasa Thakura, thus you have placed yourself in a very dangerous position; nothing auspicious will come your way. Gopala was then discharged from the service of Govardhana.

 

          Within three days Gopala was attacked by leprosy; his highly raised nose, his beautiful toes and fingers, which previously looked like goldenA colored campaka-buds, had all melted and withered away as a result of the disease.  Some say that this Gopala and Capala Gopala were one and the same person. (Cc. 3.3.190-192, 198, 202-203, 209-210)

 

G. 109.         GOPALA DASA:

 

          Gopala dasa belonged to the disciple-line of Lord Chaitanya.  He was the seventy-fifth branch of the allegorical tree of Lord Chaitanya (Cc. 1.10.113).  He was Pali gopi in his past incarnation (Gaura-ganoddesaA dipika 158).  He was one of the many associates of Rupa Gosvami, who went for the darsana of Lord Gopala at the house of Viththalesvara at Mathura, where for one full month the Lord Gopala was kept in hiding, due to fear of the Mohammedans. (Cc. 2.18.51)

 

G. 110.         GOPALA DASA:

 

          When Sanatana Gosvami stayed in a kutir near Pavana lake, Gopala was one of the Vaishnava devotees who served him there. (Bhaktiratnakara 5.1307)

 

G. 111.         GOPALA DASA:

 

          He was a disciple of Abhirama Gosvami.  His Shripata is a Mahesa. (Pataparyatana by Abhirama dasa)

 

G. 112.         GOPALA DASA:

 

          By caste a vaisya, Gopala dasa was a beloved disciple of Jiva Gosvami. (Sadhanadipika 9)

 

G. 113.         GOPALA DASA:

 

          He was a disciple of Shrinivasa Acarya.  His Shripata was at Budhuipada in the district of Mursidavad (Karnananda 1).  In 1590 AD., under the advice of Mukunda dasa Gosvami, he wrote the book Radha Krishnarasakalpalata in Vrndavana.

 

G. 114.         GOPALA DASA:

 

          He was a disciple of Shrinivasa Acarya.  Gopala used to practice bhajan near Radha-kunda at Vrndavana, along with Govindarama and Vrndavana dasa, both of whom were also disciples of Shrinivasa Acarya. (Karnananda 1)

 

G. 115.         GOPALA DASA:

 

          A disciple of Shrinivasa Acarya, Gopala's Shripata was at Kancanagaria in Kandi sub-division of the Mursidavad district. (Bhaktiratnakara 10.142)

 

G. 116.         GOPALA DASA:

 

          He was a disciple of Shrinivasa Acarya.  Gopala's son, Vanamali dasa, also received diksa from Acarya Prabhu. (Karnananda 1)

 

G. 117.         GOPALA DASA:

 

          He was a disicple of Shrinivasa Acarya.  Gopala's second brother was named Vallava Kavipati, alias Kaviraja of Vanavisnupara.  Ramadasa was the youngest of three brothers.

 

G. 118.         GOPALA DASA:

 

          He was a disciple of Rasikananda Prabhu. (Rasikamangala Pascima 14.152)

 

G. 119.         GOPALA DASA:

 

          In 1590 AD. he wrote a book entitled Bhaktiratnakara which was a different book from the famous Bhaktiratnakara of Narahari (Ghanasyama).

 

G. 120.         GOPALA DASA:

 

          In the vanita of the book entitled Shri Krishnavilasa Gopala dasa's name appears as the author.  However, it is said that the book was actually compiled by Krishna dasa, a devout Vaishnava and elder brother of the renowned Kasirama dasa (famous for his Mahabharata).  Krishna dasa, who was a disciple of Gopala dasa, was given the name Shri Krishnakinkara by his guru.

 

G. 121.         GOPALA DASA:

 

          See  "Ramagopala Raya Caudhuri".

 

G. 122.         GOPALA DASA:

 

          He was one of the translators of the book entitled Jagannathavallabhanataka. (C.U. mss, 2582-BS 1235)

 

G. 123.         GOPALA DASA ADHIKARI:

 

          A resident of Vrndavana and disciple of Gadadhara Pandita. (Sakhanirnayamrta 33)

 

G. 124.         GOPALA DASA BAHADURA:

 

          He was the son of Raja Veerahamvira of Vishnupura.  Gopala's past name was Dheerahamvira.  He was also well known as Dharihamvira.  He, as well as his entire family, were disciples of Shrinivasa Acarya.  Jiva Gosvami was very fond of the prince and renamed him Gopala dasa.  Like his father, Veerahamvira, Gopala was a very virtuous person, so much so that during his reign of Vishnupura he made an announcement saying, "If anyone is found to take even water before doing his Harinama, he will receive sever punishment."

 

G. 125.         GOPALA DASA THAKURA:

 

          A resident of Budhuipada in the district of Mursidavad, Gopala was a disciple of Shrinivasa Acarya. (Premavilasa 20)

 

G. 126.         GOPALA DATTA:

 

          He was a disciple of Narottama Thakura. (Premavilasa 20)

 

G. 127.         GOPALA HODA:

 

          He was a devotee of Lord Gauranga. (Namamrtasamudra 192)

 

G. 128.         GOPALA KSATRIYA:

 

          A resident of Multana, Gopala was a devotee of Lord Gauranga.  He received diksa from Krishna dasa. (See "Krishna dasa Punjavi")

 

G. 129.         GOPALA MANDALA:

 

          He was a disciple of Shrinivasa Acarya. (Karnananda 1)

 

G. 130.         GOPALA MISRA:

 

          He was the third son, as well as disciple, of Advaita Acarya Prabhu (Cc. 1.12.19).  According to Advaitaprakasa 11, Gopala was born on the tenth lunar day of the bright fortnight of Kartika (Oct-Nov) 1500 AD (?). He was Ganesa in his past incarnation.  Gopala was born with his eyes closed.  Seeing this Advaita Prabhu uttered very loudly, "Gaura Hari", and immediately the child's eyes opened.  While still a child, Gopala had such strong religious tendencies that he would stop enjoying his mother's milk in order to hear nama-recital.  The moment nama-recital stopped he began wailing and revert to enjoying his mother's milk.

 

          Once Gopala fell unconscious at the time of the Gundica-marjana at Puri.  Unable to revive his son, even after trying various tantric methods, Advaita Prabhu became aggrieved.  Seeing Acarya's sad face, Lord Chaitanya touched the boy's heart and chanted, "Gopala, get up."  Hearing the Lord's voice, Gopala at once got up.

 

G. 131.         GOPALA MISRA:

 

          He was a disciple of Sanatana Gosvami.  His father was the priest of Gosvami Prabhu.  He did his bhajan practices at Nandisvara near lake Pavana in Vrajamandala.

 

          When Shrinivasa Acarya, during the course of his Vrndavana-parikrama with Raghava Gosvami, met Gopala Misra, the latter and his associates, Uddhava dasa, Madhava, and others, extended a cordial welcome to the visitors. (Bhaktiratnakara 5.1331-32, 1.682)

 

G. 132.         GOPALA NARTAKA:

 

          He belonged to the disciple-line of Nityananda Prabhu.

 

G. 133.         GOPALA PURI:

 

          With the exception of Jayananda's Chaitanya-mangala pp. 134, he is not mentioned in reference to sankirtana.  In the last stage of his life he lived at Puri.  He was a great devotee of Lord Chaitanya.  Indeed, he was the first person in Puri who believed, or rather expressed, that Lord Chaitanya was an incarnation of Lord Krishna HImself.  His duty was to make sure that all the pilgrims from Navadvipa were housed properly.

 

G. 134.         GOPALA SADIPURIA:

 

          He belonged to the disciple-line of Gadadhara Pandita.  However, BBM mentions that his place of origin could not be established from his title.

 

G. 135.         GOPALA SIMHA:

 

          He was the sixth descendant in the family-line of Raja Veera Hamvira of Vishnupura, and ruled the state from 1712 AD. to 1748 AD.  He composed a kavya based on Radha Krishna-lila.

 

G. 136.         GOPALA THAKURA:

 

          He was one of the dvadasa Upagopla's, known by the name Kokila in his past incarnation.  His Shripata was at Gaurangapur, near Khanakula Krishnanagara in the Hugli district.

 

G. 137.         GOPALA VALLABHA:

 

          Nityananda Prabhu's son-in-law, Madhavacarya, was the father of Gopala Vallabha.  He married Rasamanjari, the daughter of Jagadisa Pandita. (Chaitanya-mangala 12.16 by Jayananda)

 

G. 138.         GOPALA GURU:

 

          He was a disciple of Vakresvara Pandita, and his past name was Makaradhvaja Pandita.  Murari Pandita was his father's name. (VakraesvaraA carita Madhya, pp 116)   

 

          After the disappearance of Lord Chaitanya, Vakresvara Pandita received the charge of the seva of Gambhira in Kasi Misra's house, where the Lord used to stay during his visits to Puri.  Gopala Guru, who was disciple of Vakresvara, succeeded him as the sevait of the Radhakanta temple at Gambhira.  When Narottama Thakura met Gopala at Nilacala, the two of them embraced each other and began to shed tears of ecstatic love. (Bhaktiratnakara 8.389)

 

          From his childhood Gopala served Lord Chaitanya.  It is said that, one day, prior to Lord Chaitanya's departure from Puri, Gopala happened to notice that while the Lord was taking rest, He kept his tongue pressed between his teeth.  Gopala, who was serving the Lord at that time, remarked humorously: "A devotee is supposed to chant the holy name up to the time of his death. My dear Lord, Your activities are manifestations of Your own lila, however, if a jiva were to follow Your footsteps and hold his tongue locked behind his teeth, then how could he chant the holy name?"

 

          "Gopala is right," the Lord replied.  "From now on you shall be called guru."

 

          When this episode came to be known by devotees far and wide, Abhirama Gosvami, who was well known for his supernatural power, came to Nilacala to verify the truth.  Needless to say, it was this Abhirama Gosvami who, by offering his obeisances, had destroyed many so-called salagrama stones and eliminated all the offspring of Nityananda Prabhu (with the exception of Virabhadra and Ganga devi).

 

          When Gopala heard that Abhirama was on his way to meet him, he was so frightened that he ran to take shelter on the lap of Lord Chaitanya.  The Lord placed His lotus feet on Gopala's head implanting a tilaka mark, depicting the foot-print of the Lord, on Gopala's forehead; thus empowering Gopala to withstand the effect of Abhirama's obeisances.  Therefore, Abhirama's obeisances did not harm Gopala Guru. 

 

          During the period 1538-1548 AD. Gopala was in charge of the service of the Radhakanta Deity.  During that time the temple was throughly renovated.  Under Gopala's advice four additional Deities, those of Shri Radha, Lalita sakhi, Nityananda Prabhu, and Lord Gauranga were installed. The first two were placed, one on each side of Radhakanta.  While the other two, in a dancing posture, on the right side and left side of Radhakanta respectively.  The oil painting of Advaita Prabhu, which was already there, was not disturbed.

 

          Gopala Guru took up the service of the Deities on the twelfth lunar day of the bright fortnight of Magha.  To commemorate the occasion a festival is held every year on this day.  It is said that on this day Gopala Guru momentarily appears on one side of Lord Chaitanya's asana.  Some items used by Lord Chaitanya (wrapper, water pot, wooden sandals) are still on display at the temple of Gambhira.

 

          After turning over the charge of the seva of Radhakanta to his disciple Dhyanacandra, Gopala Guru passed away at a ripe old age.  However, because Gopala passed on the charge of the seva without the formal approval of the king, the royal sentries seized the temple while Dhyanacandra was away, accompanying the dead body of Gopala to Svargadvara to perform his last rites.  Upon hearing news of the seizure, Dhyanacandra began to cry, holding the feet of Gopala's dead body.  It is said that Gopala suddenly regained his mortal life and proceeded towards the temple with the accompaniment of the sankirtana party.  When the royal sentries heard the episode, they immediately opened the gates and gave up their attempt to seize the temple.  Gopala kept himself alive and occupied the position of sevait long enough to see through three successive generations of the concerned king, and then disappeared on the ninth lunar day of the bright fortnight of Kartika.

 

          However, Gopala is said to have re-appeared at Vraja the following year.  After participating in the Rathayatra festival in Puri, the residents returned to Vraja, where they found Gopala practicing bhajan near Bansivata at Pakudatala at Vraja.  When Dhyanacandra received this information he rushed to Vraja and urged Gopala Guru to return to Nilacala. Gopala replied as follows:  "Do not worry, if you really cannot tolerate my separation then you may make an image of myself using the wood of the Margosa tree situated in front of the Radhakanta temple, and install the image before the Garva temple. This will not be offensive on your part.  At the time of performing bhoga offerings to Radhakanta you may place the said image before the Deity.  Through the image you will be able to see me."

         

          From that time the image of Gopala guru has remained at the jagamohana of the temple of Radhakanta.

 

          Gopala Guru wrote a book entitled gauragovindarcanapaddhati.

 

G. 139.         GOPALAKRSNA PATTANAYAKA:

 

          He was an Oriya poet and devotee of Lord Gauranga.  In a verse titled `Manah-siksa', composed by him and incorporated in his padavali, Gopalakrishna-Padyavali, he has described the innate Radha Krishna bhava of Lord Gauranga.  His Sanskrit presentation of Gauravandana on page 94 of this book is truly impressive.

 

G. 140.         GOPENDRA ASRAMA:

 

          He was a sannyasi associate of Lord Chaitanya. (Gaura-ganoddesa-dipika 98, 101)

 

G. 141.         GOPICARANA DASA:

 

          He was a udasina Vaishnava and wrote amendments on the tika on Harinamamrta entitled Balatosani tika.

 

G. 142.         GOPIDASA:

 

          A faithful servant of Syamananda Prabhu's wife, Gauranga dasi. (Rasikamangala Uttara 4.55)

 

G. 143.         GOPIJANAVALLABHA:

 

          He was the eldest son of Viracandra Prabhu. (Premavilasa 24).

 

G. 144.         GOPIJANAVALLABHA:

 

          He was the son-in-law, as well as the disciple, of Shrinivasa Acarya. His father's name was Ramakrishna Cattaraja and his Shripata was at Budhuipada in the district of Mursidavad.  He was married to Hemalata devi, the eldest daughter of Shrinivasa Acarya. (Karnananda 1)

 

G. 145.         GOPIJANAVALLABHA:

 

          He was also a disciple of Shrinivasa Acarya. (Karnananda 1)

 

G. 146.         GOPIJANAVALLABHA DASA:

 

          A resident of Dharendra village in Midnapur district, Gopijana belonged to the Gopa (milkman) caste.  He was the eldest of the five sons of Rasamaya.  Haricarana dasa, Madhava, Rasikananda, and Kisora dasa were his brothers.  Vansi and Mathura dasa were his uncles.  Gopijana, as well as all the other members of his family, received diksa from Rasikananda Prabhu.  Gopijanavallabha dasa was one of the `Asta sisu', who dressed up in gopivesa during the Rasa-utsava at Shripata Gopiballavapur.  He wrote the famous biography of his guru, Rasikananda Prabhu, entitled Rasikamangala. (Rasikamangala Pascima 2.45)

 

G. 147.         GOPIJIVANA:

 

          He was one of the `Asta sisu' who participated in the Rasa-utsava, dressed in gopivesa, at Shripata Gopiballavapur.  Rasikamangala Pascima 2.46)

 

G. 148.         GOPIKANTA:

 

          He belonged to the descending-line of Lord Chaitanya. (Cc. 1.10.110)

 

G. 149.         GOPIKANTA ACARYA:

 

          He belonged to the disciple-line of Shrinivasa Acarya.  Gopikanta received diksa from his father, Harirama Acarya, who was a disciple of Ramacandra Kaviraja.  He was a Padakarta (See pada no. 2382 included within Padakalpataru).

 

G. 150.         GOPIKANTA DASA:

 

          He was a Padakarta and composed the books entitled Prarthana and Nagara Sankirtana.  The latter book describes the episodes relating to the nagara-sankirtana of Lord Chaitanya in the company of his associates and devotees which finally lead to the deliverance of Cand Kazi.

 

G. 151.         GOPIKANTA MISRA:

 

          He was a devotee of Lord Gauranga. (Namamrtasamudra 87)

 

G. 152.         GOPIKRSNA DASA:

 

          He was the author of the book entitled Harinamakavaca.

 

G. 153.         GOPIKRSNA DASA:

 

          He was a disciple of Syamanandi Damodara.

 

G. 154.         GOPIMANDALA:

 

          He was a resident of Rohini village, under Gopiballavpur Police Station in the Midnapur district. (Rasikamangala Purva 3.36)

 

G. 155.         GOPIMOHANA:

 

          He was a disciple of Rasikananda Prabhu. (Rasikamangala Pascima 14.158)

 

G. 156.         GOPIMOHANA DASA:

 

          He belonged to the family-line of Shrinivasa Acarya.  He was a disciple of Gopala dasa Thakura and his Shripata was at Mirzapur. (Karnananda 1)

 

G. 157.         GOPINATHA:

 

          He was an intimate associate of Vrndavana dasa, the author of CBh. Gopinatha was the son of Gopala, who was the youngest son of Balabhadra. He was the first progenitor of the brahmacari clan of Denuda village in the district of Burdwan.

 

G. 158.         GOPINATHA:

 

          He was a disciple of Syamananda Prabhu. (Rasikamangala Purva 1.32)

 

G. 159.         GOPINATHA:

 

          He was a disciple of Rasikananda Prabhu. (Rasikamangala Daksina 4.19)

 

G. 160.         GOPINATHA ACARYA:

 

          A resident of Navadvipa, Gopinatha was the son-in-law of Mahesvara Visarada of Vidyanagara, and brother-in-law of Sarvabhauma and Vacaspati. He was Lord Brahma in a past incarnation.  Others argue that he was sakhi Ratnavali in Vraja-lila (Gaura-ganoddesa-dipika 75, 178).  Isvara Puri stayed at the house of Gopinatha for a few months during his visit to Navadvipa.  Gopinatha was one among the close associates of Lord Chaitanya and participated in nagara-sankirtana, water sports, and the drama staged at the house of Candrasekhar as patrakaca with Lord Chaitanya (CBh. 1.11.96, 2.8.115, 2.13.337, 2.18.22).

 

          Lord Chaitanya gave Gopinatha the service of taking care of the devotees who were visiting Puri from Gauda; providing them with food and accommodation etc. (Cc. 2.11.173-204).  In Puri, he was the first devotee to openly identify Lord Chaitanya as the incarnation of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, for which he was ridiculed by Sarvabhauma (Cc. 2.6.18).  During Narottama Thakura's visit to Puri, he found Gopinatha in an emaciated state of health (Narottamavilasa 4).  The following books also mention Gopinatha Acarya: Nataka and Kavya by Karnapura, Jagannatha Charitamrita by Divakar dasa, Vaishnavabhidhana by Daivakinandana, Shri Chaitanyaganoddesadipika by Vrndavana dasa.

 

G. 161.         GOPINATHA ACARYA (PASUPATI / GOPINATHA THAKURA:

 

          According to BBM, Gopinatha was a brahmana resident of Navadvipa and did not reside at Nilacala.  He came to Puri as a Vaishnava visitor from Gauda.  He was Brahma in his past incarnation.  BBM refers to Vaishnavavandana 21 in Bengali which is identical to the verse  quoted in GVA in reference to Gopinatha Thakura. (See also "Gopinatha Thakura")

 

G. 162.         GOPINATHA PATTANAYAKA:

 

          He belonged to the disciple-line of Lord Chaitanya. Gopinatha was the second of the five sons of Bhavananda Raya (Pattanayaka).  Ramananda Raya, his elder brother, served under Raja Prataparudra as the Governor of Rajamahendri in the district of Godavari in  south India.  Gopinatha served in the place known as Malajathya Dandapata as a collector of royal revenue.

 

          Once Gopinatha under-deposited his collection at the royal treasury by 200,000 kahanas of conchshells.  When the King demanded the due sum, Gopinatha said, "There is no money I can pay you in cash.  Please give me time so that I can purchase and sell my gross goods and fill your treasury gradually."  Gopinatha had ten to twelve good horses which he offered to sell at a reasonable price for repaying part of his dues.  After saying this, Gopinatha brought all the horses into the Raja's palace. 

 

          Prince Purusottama Jana was expert at evaluating horses; so the king deputed him to go with some ministers and escorts to work out a price for the horses.  After inspecting the horses, the prince, intentionally offered a very low price, well below the actual value, which naturally made Gopinatha very angry.  Noticing that the prince had a habit of turning his neck and facing the sky, looking here and there at regular intervals, Gopinatha made a sarcastic comment: "My horses never turn their necks or look upward, therefore the price of them should not be reduced."  The insulted prince returned to the palace and reported to the king that Gopinatha was not willing to pay the money due and instead was squandering it under false pretense.  The prince recommended to the king that Gopinatha be placed on the canga in order to realize the dues from him.  The king replied, "Adopt any means you think best.  My interest is to see that the debt is paid."  Having received the kings permission, the prince raised Gopinatha onto the  platform of the canga and positioned swords below the platform upon which to throw Gopinatha.

 

          Meanwhile devotees came running to Lord Chaitanya, informing Him that Gopinatha Pattanayaka had been condemned to death by the bada-jana (eldest son of the king) and had been raised on the canga to be thrown on swords placed beneath the platform.  When the Lord inquired why the king was chastising him, the devotees described the entire incident.  After hearing there explanation Lord Chaitanya said, "How can one find fault with the king?  After all, he is only demanding his legitimate share of collections from Gopinatha, who has squandered the money to see dancing girls."

 

          Eventually Gopinatha Pattanayaka, as a result of the causeless mercy of Lord Chaitanya, was excused by the king and reinstated in his post. (Cc. 1.10.133, 3.9.13-152)

 

G. 163.         GOPINATHA PUJARI:

 

          He was a disciple of Gopala Bhatta.  According to Premavilasa 18, Gopinatha was entrusted with the responsibility of the service of the Deity Shri Shri Radharamana, installed by Gopala Bhatta in Vrndavana.  Descendants of Gopinatha still continue the tradition of offering seva to the Deity. During Gopala Bhatta's pilgrimage to Uttarakhand he picked up the Gaudiya brahmana Gopinatha from Devavana, near Hardwar, and brought him along as his disciple.  Later, understanding Gopinatha's pure devotional mood, Gopala Bhatta Gosvami, at the time of his death, chose Gopinatha to hold the responsibility for the seva of Radharamana. 

 

          Gopinatha was a life-long bachelor and before his death passed on the charge of the seva to Damodara, his younger brother.  Descendants from Damodara's family-line continue to offer sevapuja.  Foremost panditas and devotees of Lord Gauranga hailing from this family-line are Galluji Maharaja, Sakhalala, Gopilala, Madhusudana Sarvabhauma, Damodaralal, Banamalilal, etc.  The book entitled Shri Radharamana Prakatya by Sarvabhauma, clearly describes many biographical events relating to the life of Gopala Bhatta.

 

G. 164.         GOPALA SIMHA:

 

          He belonged to the lineage of Lord Chaitanya.  Lord Chaitanya addressed Gopinatha by the name "Akrura". (Cc. 1.10.76)

 

G. 165.         GOPINATHA THAKURA:

 

          He was a `Bard' of Lord Chaitanya.  (See also "Gopinatha Acarya", alias Pasupati)

 

G. 166.         GOPINATHA VASU:

 

          He was a minister under the ruler of Gauda, Hussain Shah, (1494-1525 AD.).  He was awarded the title of Purandara Khan (alias Yasaraja Khan). He was a cousin-brother of Maladhara Vasu. Some opine that Gopinatha Vasu wrote a book entitled Krishnamangala.

 

G. 167.         GOPINATHA DASA PATTANAYAKA:

 

          He was a disciple of Rasikananda Prabhu. (Rasikamangala Pascima 14.106)

 

G. 168.         GOPIRAMANA:

 

          He was a Padakarta. (See pada no. 18 of Padakalpataru)

 

G. 169.         GOPIRAMANA CAKRAVARTI:

 

          He was a disciple of Narottama Thakura.  He participated in the famous Kheturi festival and looked after the accommodations for the visiting Vaishnavas.  He was also present at the utsava held to commemorate the disappearance of Narottama Thakura. (Narottamavilasa 6, 12, Premavilasa 20)

 

G. 170.         GOPIRAMANA CAKRAVARTI:

 

          According to Rasikamangala, he was a disciple of Govardhana dasa Damodara and his Shripata was at Budhuri.

 

G. 171.         GOPIRAMANA CAKRAVARTI:

 

          He was a disciple of Hrdayananda.  He was present when the Deity of Radhavinoda was installed in the house of Govinda (alias Bhavaka Cakravarti). (Bhaktiratnakara 14.97)

 

G. 172.         GOPIRAMANA KAVIRAJA:

 

          He belonged to the family of Shrinivasa Acarya. (Anuragavavalli 7)

 

G. 173.         GOPIRAMANA DASA VAIDYA:

 

          He was a Padakarta and disciple of Shrinivasa Acarya.  His Shripata was at Goyasa.

 

G. 174.         GORACAND DASA BABAJI:

 

          This biography has been narrated by Navadvipa dasa Babaji Mahanta Mahasaya to Haridasa dasa.  Towards the beginning of this century Goracand dasa practiced bhajan at Radhakunda.  He was deeply loyal to Lord Chaitanya and knew Cc. by heart.  He lived on the northern side of Radhakunda in a mud bhajan kutir which had a small door covered by a jute-hanging. 

 

          One afternoon while he was absorbed in chanting the holy name in the solitude of his kutir, Navadvipa dasa Babaji approached his kutir, chanted "Jaya Radhe" from outside, and entered the kutir.  There he found Goracand lying down within a mosquito net.  When Goracand got down from his cot to receive Navadvipa dasa, he noticed that Goracand was physically very frail and weak, with open wounds on his chest and back. 

 

          Navadvipa dasa asked Goracand to explain why Krishna has been called "Jnanavastu" in the Cc. verse "Advayajnana Tattvavastu Vrajendranandana." Up until then Goracand had been seated with his eyes half-closed, but as soon as he heard this question he began reciting from memory the following verses.  As he began speaking his physical appearance underwent a complete transformation; with the energy of a lion and deep spiritual fervour, he sang the glories of Lord Krishna for about half and hour until his attendingA disciple turned up and Goracand fell totally unconscious. This disciple disapproved of Navadvipa dasa's provoking Goracand, and Navadvipa left in utter embarrassment and regret.  This incident, however, serves as a lesson as to how the descent of Bhagavad-avesa makes one transcend the identification with one's body.

         

G. 176.         GORAI KAZI:

 

          An employee working under Cand Kazi, this Gorai Kazi was notorious for torturing the Hindu population.

 

G. 177.         GOSAIN DASA:

 

          He was a disciple of Narottama Thakura. (Premavilasa 20)

 

G. 178.         GOSAINDASA PUJARI:

 

          He was the priest in the temple of Shri Madana-mohana at Vrndavana. Cc. 1.8.74-76 explains how Krishnadasa Kaviraja Gosvami went to the abovenoted temple prior to his writing of the Cc. to seek the permission of the Deity.  Gosaindasa Pujari placed a garland around the neck of Kaviraja Gosvami, and the devotees present expressed their jubilation.

 

G. 179.         GOVARDHANA BHANDARI:

 

          He was a disciple of Narottama Thakura (Premavilasa 20, Narottamavilasa 12).  He was a Vaishnava poet and his padas included in Padakalpataru numbered 1454, 1479, 1573 are admirable.

 

G. 180.         GOVARDHANA BHATTA:

 

          He was a Gaudiya Vaishnava in the line of Gadadhara Bhatta.  Around the 18th century he composed Madhukelivalli consisting of 223 slokas.  This book deals primarily with lila related to Holi.  He also wrote and Ode entitled Shri Rupa Sanatana-Stotra consisting of 49 slokas in Sardulavikridita prosodical style which presents biographies of Rupa and Sanatana.  It is a piece of high poetic merit.  Another work of his entitled Shri Radhakundastava consists of 104 slokas.

 

G. 181.         GOVARDHANA DASA:

 

          In Rasikamangala he is mentioned as a member of Shri Syamananda Prabhu's family.  He was a disciple of Damodara.  The Bengali monthly Bharatavarsa April-May 1916 AD (1323 BS), p.752 explains that Govardhana was born in Kesiadi in the district of Midnapur.  He also made some contributions to Padavali literature (See Medinipurera-Itihasa p.604).

 

G. 182.         GOVARDHANA DASA:

 

          He was the Gaudiya Vaishnava poet who was the chief of the kirtanaA troupe at Jaipur of Shri Shri Gokulacandra.  Govardhana died in 1778 AD.

 

G. 183.         GOVARDHANA DASA:

 

          Born of Kayastha caste, and well-known by the title Majumdar, Govardhana was the Zamindar of Saptagrama and the father of Raghunatha dasa Gosvami.  Govardhana's brother was Hiranyadasa (Cc. 2.16.217-219).  Both these brothers were friendly with Nilambara Cakravarti, the maternal grandfather of Lord Chaitanya.

 

          Raghunatha dasa, the son of Govardhana, was indifferent to material attachments from his childhood (Cc. 2.16.222).  The following is an extract from Sangitamadhavannataka which describes how charitable Govardhana was: "Patale Vasuki Vakta Svarge Vakta Vrhaspati, Gaude Govardhana data Khande Damodarah Kavih."  How Govardhana met Thakura Haridasa is explained in Cc. 3.3.265, 173.  The story about Govardhana receiving news regarding Raghunatha from Sivananda, is related in Cc. 3.6.248-267. (See "Raghunatha dasa Gosvami")

 

G. 184.         GOVINDA:

 

          He was a close associate of Lord Chaitanya.  According to GauraA ganoddesa-dipika 116, he was Vaikuntha parsada Pundarikaksa in his past incarnation.

 

G. 185.         GOVINDA:

 

          A Kayastha by caste, he descended from the disciple-line of Lord Chaitanya.  He was a chosen attendant of Lord Chaitanya, as well as a trusted watchman (CBh. 1.10.2).  Both Govinda and Kasisvara brahmacari were disciples of Isvara Puri and were fully dedicated to the service of their guru.  Later, at the time of his death, Isvara Puri directed these two to serve Lord Chaitanya.

 

          Govinda met Lord Chaitanya at Nilacala first and conveyed the instruction of Isvara Puri.  Initially, Lord Chaitanya refused to accept service from his guru's attendants but later Sarvabhauma convinced him that "The guru's command should prevail."  At this Lord Chaitanya allowed Govinda and Kasisvara seva-adhikara.  Govinda came in contact with Lord Chaitanya after the latter's return from pilgrimage in the south. (Cc. 3.10.94-95, 55-56, 3.15.82-100, 3.19.56, 3.20.118., Bhaktiratnakara 3.189-190)

 

G. 186.         GOVINDA:

 

          He was a Gaudiya Vaishnava who resided in Vrndavana. (Bhaktiratnakara 6.513)

 

G. 187.         GOVINDA:

 

          He was a disciple of Syamananda Prabhu and hailed from Shripata Gopiballavpur. (Premavilasa 20)

 

 

G. 188.         GOVINDA:

 

          He was a disciple of Shrinivasa Acarya Prabhu. (Karnananda 1)

 

G. 189.         GOVINDA:

 

          He was a disciple of Rasikananda Prabhu. (Rasikamangala Pascima 14.108)

 

G. 190.         GOVINDA:

 

          He was a disciple of Rasikananda Prabhu. (Rasikamangala Pascima 14.150)

 

G. 191.         GOVINDA ACARYA:

 

          He descended from a subsidiary line from Gadadhara Pandita.  He was a resident of Malladesa. (Sakhanirnayamrta 50)

 

G. 192.         GOVINDA ACARYA:

 

          Vaishnavavadana and Gaura-ganoddesa-dipika describe him as a learned musician.  It is difficult to identify padas composed by this Govinda Acarya as his padas seem to be mixed up with padas composed by two poets, both named Govinda dasa.

 

G. 193.         GOVINDA ACARYA:

 

          He was the author of Govinda-Bhagavata.

 

G. 194.         GOVINDA ADHIKARI:

 

          A resident of Multan, Govinda Adhikari was a disciple of the renowned Krishna dasa Punjabi. (Also see "Krishna dasa Punjabi")

 

G. 195.         GOVINDA ADHIKARI:

 

          He was born in Jangipore near Khanakula Krishnanagara in the district of Hugli in 1798 AD.  He composed narrative operas suitable for open-air performance.  His opera party was named Kaliyadaman.  The abundance of alliteration in his composition of songs is noteworthy.  The popular song beginning with, "Vrndavana-vilasini rai amadera..." is his composition.

 

G. 196.         GOVINDA BHADUDI (BARUDI):

 

          He was a member of the gang of dacoits who operated under Raja Cand Raya.  When Cand Raya surrendered to Narottama Thakura and became his disciple, Govinda Barudi (Govinda Bandujaye) followed his leader and also became a disciple of Shrila Thakura.  He later turned out to be a great Vaishnava. (Premavilasa 19)

 

G. 197.         GOVINDA BHAKATA:

 

          A resident of Vrndavana, Govinda was a devotee of Lord Chaitanya. Govinda accompanied Shri Rupa Gosvami and other devotees to see the Deity Gopala in the temple of Vithalesvara in Mathura. (Cc. 2.18.52)

 

G. 198.         GOVINDA BHANJA:

 

          He was a disciple of Rasikananda Prabhu. (Rasikamangala Pascima 14.160)

 

G. 199.         GOVINDA DASA:

 

          A resident of Ghatasila, Govinda was a disciple of Rasikananda Prabhu. (Rasikamangala Pascima 14.116-117)

 

 

G. 200.         GOVINDADASA BABAJI MAHARAJA (Mahanta, Shri Haridasa               Thakurera Matha, Puri):

 

          Gauracarana Cakravarti was born in an area near Dulalbajar in the district of Noakhali (Bangladesh).  He was the only child of his parents. Since Gauracarana lost his mother early in his childhood, his father took the child along wherever he went.  Shortly afterward his father also passed away, leaving Gauracarana an orphan without any refuge.  He moved around aimlessly, yet somehow imbibed the virtues of truthfulness, simplicity and compassion.  At that time Dulalbajar had a considerable Vaishnava population.  Being attracted by the inherent virtues of Gauracarana, the Adhikari there offered the boy refuge and out of deep affection trained him in the customs and practices of Vaisnavism.

 

          Once Gauracarana went on pilgrimage to Visvanatha at Shrikunda. There the thousands of streams of water which rushed down from a higher altitude aroused his curiosity.  When the sound of Harinama filled the air this water fell in double the quantity.  In order to visit the source of this thousand-streamed spring, Gauracarana, accompanied by a few wandering mendicants, travelled through the mountain ranges until finally reaching a remote spot where they were no longer able to find shelter.  Despite being stricken with hunger and cold, Gauracarana, a courageous youth, began chanting the holy name and after encountering great difficulties, finally made his way home from the dangerous forest area.  After that visit Gauracarana seemed to lose all attachment for home and developed a spirit of indifference and detachment from everything. 

 

          Soon he left, on foot and totally penniless, for a pilgrimage to Jagannatha Puri, After taking darsana of Lord Jagannatha, he went further on to visit other holy places.  He lived beneath the trees and ate whatever was offered to him unasked; otherwise he would starve.  After passing some months in this way, Gauracarana suddenly underwent a transformation of mind, he felt an attraction for something deeper than making pilgrimages and returned to Puri.  There he reverted to his routine of taking food from the chatra daily, having darsana of Lord Jagannatha as he desired, and resting beneath a tree or on the roadside.

 

          At that time Radharamana dasa deva regularly passed through out the street of Puri with a group, singing the holy name.  One day while singing kirtana at the main portal of the Jagannatha Temple, Radharamana attracted Gauracarana and initiated him.  Gauracarana felt blessed to attain the cherished goal of his life after such a long time.  The hearts of both of them became joined with a chain of love.  Gauracarana constantly meditated upon Radharamana, be he awake or asleep, and dedicated himself fully to the service of his guru.  One day Radharamana directed Gauracarana to approach the Karta Babaji of Narayana chata to have vesasraya.  After much resistence Gauracarana carried out the command and his new name became Shri Govinda dasa.

 

          At the insistence of Karta Babaji, Govinda dasa dedicated himself to the premaseva of Radharamana.  Govinda dasa was entrusted with the duty of serving Vaishnavas through raising alms.  As for himself, he was only entitled to take the remnants of food left over by the Vaishnavas.  Govinda dasa somehow filled his stomach by begging for prasada in different chatras, and engaged tirelessly in the service of Radharamana.  In this way Govinda dasa passed his days in great joy.

 

          Sometimes it happened that various dishes prepared in the matha, as well as a large quantity of mahaprasad (of Jagannatha Puri) would arrive. Large numbers of invited and unannounced visitors would partake of the mahaprasada.  Afterwards, to have some fun, the devotees would pour the left-over food on the head of Govinda dasa and roaring "Haribol" in great joy, would lick his body.  Seeing the funny reaction of Govinda and his soft rebukes, his associates would forget their own hunger and thirst and all felt satisfied without partaking of any food.  This happened not once or twice, but frequently. 

 

          Both Navadvipadada and Govindadada were very close friends and were always alert to the service of Radharamana.  At times Govinda dasa had to undergo severe trials.  For instance, he was ordered to offer dandavat pranam wherever he saw a toilet used by the residents of Nilacala on his way to the Jagannatha temple.  The ever-obedient servant immediately began following these instructions, despite the taunting remarks passed by several people.  Once when Govinda dasa was bed-ridden with a sever fever, he was ordered to go immediately to Narendra sarovara and have 108 dips there.  Govinda did as commanded; carrying out the order joyfully and unquestionably. 

 

          Govinda was able to understand the desires of Radharamana in advance and hence would prepare various preparations before Radharamana even expressed a desire to have it.  Everyone was amazed by Govinda's supernatural skillful cooking, his attention to the minute details of service, his extraordinary fascination for Shri Guru Vaishnava seva, and his charming way of caring for the poor, afflicted, and fallen souls.  Only very fortunate persons had the opportunity to see, taste, and feel the supremely blissful environment which arose when this venerable Govinda dasa participated in sankirtana, and danced along with Navadvipa, Gokula, Ramadasa, and Jayagopala.

 

          Early one morning, Radharamana, in a serious mood, wrote a letter to Govinda at the cutchery of Syamasundara babu and deputed a boy to deliver this letter as well as bring back Govinda's reply.  The letter was as follows:

 

"My dear Govinda,

 

          As soon as you have read this letter you should prepare to leave for Vrndavana right away without a second thought.  On your arrival at Vrndavana follow a routine of staying at Radhakunda, Jhadugiriseva, and madhukari. I don't think we can meet now.  As Lord Nitaicand wills we shall meet at the destined hour and place.

 

Yours in the service of the Vaishnavas,

 

Shri Radharamana carana dasa"

 

          The letter stirred the heart of all present, though  Govinda said calmly, "Let his will be done.  Please convey my dandavats at his feet. May he remain happy."  When the messenger-boy repeated these words to Radharamana, the latter left quietly for his morning wash.  Later, with Radharamana's permission, Nityasvarupa brahmacari, Syamananda dasa, and Nitaidasa accompanied Govinda dasa to Vrndavana.

 

          Upon arriving in Vrndavana, Govinda did parikrama of Giriraja, came to Radhakunda, and did Jhaduseva to Radhakunda for six consecutive years. During this time he never went anywhere or stopped performing Jhaduseva. Occasionally he went to Giriraja parikrama or Vrndavana, but would invariably return the same day.  He never even went close to Varsana or Nandagrama during this period.  After serving in this way for six years with a deeply concentrated mind, Govinda dasa was endowed with supernatural spiritual wealth. 

 

          When Radharamana, along with his devotees, arrived in Vrndavana, Govinda met him and by the command of his guru, returned with them to Jagannatha Puri.  Thus Govinda passed his days joyfully serving in the holy association of Radharamana.  Later at Navadvipa, Radharamana suddenly passed away.  It is impossible to describe how deeply stricken with separation Govinda was.  His days and nights were spent in grief, until he received a command in a dream, directing him to go to Jagannatha Puri and dedicate himself to the service of Haridasa Thakura.

 

          The Samadhi-temple of Haridasa Thakura at Puri was very old and is facing images of Nitai-Gaura-Sitanatha in a mood of dhyana.  The service here had fallen to utter irregularity and this matha was on the point of being auctioned to a Christian missionary to meet the debts.  Govinda did his best to serve; he carried the items of seva with his own hands, offered bhoga with deep love, and then distributed the prasada to the destitute-and even to the birds and animals-then he would take for himself.  Thus for a stretch of twenty two years Govinda, who never found fault with others, continued his service in the temple; sustaining the destitute and giving refuge to the shelterless. 

 

          He trained one devotee to take charge of the service; he taught every detail of how to offer seva and revealed both lila and tattva in such a way that the latter would never make a mistake in the seva-duties. 

 

          Govinda drew those whom the society hated and the family ignored, close to him with love and blessed them with the spiritual message of Radharamana.  Towards the final days of his life, Govinda dasa stayed in a house near Shri Radharamana Bag at Navadvipa, where the practice of Vaishnava seva and sat-prasanga was continued as before.  Govinda had a fascination for the Cc. and Brhad-bhagavatamrta.  In 1930 Govinda dasa breathed his last at Navadvipa.

 

G. 201.         GOVINDA DASI:

 

          A disciple of Rasikananda Prabhu, Govinda dasi was the mother of Kasinatha Nandana. (Rasikamangala Pascima 14.69)

 

G. 202.         GOVINDA DATTA:

 

          He belonged to the lineage of Lord Chaitanya.  Govinda Datta was the principal singer in Lord Chaitanya's kirtana party (Cc 1.10.64).  He was one of the devotees who took part in kirtana with Lord Chaitanya in front of the Ratha car of Lord Jagannatha (Cc. 2.13.37,73).  According to Vasinavacaradarpana his Shripata was at Sukhcara on the bank of the Ganges in district 24 Parganas, between Khaddaha and Panihati, where the Deities of Shri Shri Nitai Gauranga were installed by Govinda himself.  This temple now lies within the precinct of the Devalaya owned by Mahendranatha Cattopadhyaya, who spent a considerable amount for the upkeep of the temple and Deva-seva.  In one of the padas composed by Govinda the name "Girisvara" is mentioned.  According to Bangabhasa O Sahitya this Girisvara was the name of Govinda's father.  Govinda Datta spent the final stage of his life in Vrndavana.

 

 

G. 203.         GOVINDA DEVA KAVI:

 

          A Vaishnava resident of Orissa, Govinda deva belonged to the familyA line of Vrakresvara Pandita Prabhu.  Govinda acquired all-time fame by writing the Sanskrit book Gaura Krsnodaya in eighteen chapters.

 

G. 204.         GOVINDA DVIJA:

 

          See "Sugriva Misra".

 

G. 205.         GOVINDA GHOSH:

 

          He was born of the Kayastha caste in the north Radhi clan.  His Shripata was at Agradvipa.  Also known as Ghosathakura, Govinda was the brother of the well-known Vaishnava poet Vasudeva Ghosh.  Govinda belonged to the lineage of Lord Chaitanya and was instrumental in installing the deity Shri Gopinatha (Cc. 1.10.115, 118).  The above information is also found in the book Vaishnavacara darpana.

 

          The name Govindananda mentioned in CBh. 3.8.16 possibly refers to this Govinda Ghosh.  Among the three brothers, each had his Shripata as follows:  Vasudeva at Tamluk, Madhava Ghosh at Dainhat, and Govinda at Agradvipa.  According to Visvakosa, Ghosathakura (Govinda) lived at Kasipur Vishnutala near Agradvipa.  Some believe that he was born at Vasinavatala where to this day a number of Kayastha families holding the surname Ghosh, continue to live. 

 

          Govinda accompanied Lord Chaitanya and His devotees when they left Nilacala for Vrndavana.  In this context Acyutacarana Caudhuri writes in Shrihattera Itivrtta:  "One day after finishing His lunch, Lord Chaitanya looked for some mouth-freshener (a fruit called Haritaki).  Govinda rushed to the village, collected some fruits,and offered one to the Lord.  Upon receiving the fruit so promptly, Lord Chaitanya glanced inquisitively after Govinda.  Understanding that Govinda had stored Haritaki, Lord Chaitanya admonished him saying, "Govinda, since you have not been able to give up the habit of saving things, perhaps you had better stay back and take charge of installing the Deity Gopinatha." Following the command of the Lord, Govinda continued to stay at Agradvipa.  However, despite the Lord's reassuring words, he felt miserable to have been left behind by Lord Chaitanya. 

         

          A few days later, when Ghosathakura was taking a dip in the Ganges, some floating object touched his back.  It appeared to be some sort of wood, although considerably heavy.  That night he received divine directions in a dream to preserve that piece of wood with care and to hand it over to Lord Chaitanya when he arrived there. During the night when Govinda went to fetch the wood, he realized that it was a Krishnasila.  The next morning Lord Chaitanya turned up in Govinda's house and said, "Look here Govinda!  You have nothing to worry about anymore.  Tomorrow one sculptor will come here to chisel a Deity from this sila and you should install that Deity.  The Deity of Shri Gopinatha was thus installed.

 

          Later, at the command of the Lord, Govinda married and continued to serve the Deity jointly with his wife.  Govinda was blessed with a son, however, both his wife and son passed away one after another.  Govinda was so deeply grieved by the loss of his family that he stopped serving Gopinatha.  Lord Krishna appeared to Govinda in a dream and asked him, "Govinda! Do you think it proper that when a person loses one son he should starve his other son to death also?"

 

          To this Govinda replied, "It was my hope that had my son survived he would have performed the necessary rituals in remembrance of my deceased soul and those of my forefathers.  Tell me, what do I gain by serving you?"

 

          Lord Krishna explained, "I hereby promise to celebrate your death anniversary in a fitting manner forever.  Now please can I have some food to eat?"  Govinda was delighted to hear this and immediately returning to serving Gopinatha.

 

          In course of time, when Govinda breathed his last, Gopinathaji held kusagrass in His fingers to perform the sradha ceremony, a practice continued even today.  Govinda left word during the last moments of his life that his body should not be cremated, but should be buried under the ground near Dolaprangana.

 

G. 206.         GOVINDA GOSVAMI:

 

          He was a disciple of Kasisvara Gosvami.  He lived at Vrndavana serving the Deity of Shri Shri Govindadeva.  He accompanied Rupa Gosvami when he went to the temple of Viththalanatha for darsana of Gopalaji.  When Virabhadra Gosvami arrived in Vrndavana, Govinda went with other bhakta residents of Vrndavana to welcome him. (Bhaktiratnakara 6.513, 13.324-25)

 

G. 207.         GOVINDA KARMAKARA:

 

          His name is mentioned on page 83 in Chaitanyamangala by Jayananda.

 

G. 208.         GOVINDA KAVIRAJA:

 

          He belonged to the disciple-line of Nityananda Prabhu. (Cc. 1.11.51)

 

G. 209.         GOVINDA KAVIRAJA:

 

          A Vaidya by caste and a disciple of Shrinivasa Acarya, Govinda Kaviraja was better known as Govinda dasa or Dasa Govinda.  His father was Ciranjiva Sena and his mother, Sunanda devi.  He was the younger brother of Ramacandra Kaviraja.  His maternal grandfather was named Damodara Kavi. Govinda's Shripata was at Tiliya-Budhuri in the Mursidavad district. Govinda and his wife, Mahamaya devi, had one son named Divya Simha.  The genealogical line is as follows:

 

 

Ciranjiva Sena

__________________|_______________________

|                                                                  |

Ramacandra Kaviraja                                       Govinda Kaviraja

|

Divya Simha

|

Ghanasyama

|

Svarupanatha

|

Haridasa

 

          During her pregnancy, Govinda's mother became critically ill, however, by taking some sanctified water from the Sakta cult she was able to deliver the child safely.  Govinda was brought up by his maternal grandfather who was a Sakta by faith, thus Govinda also grew up a Sakta devotee.  Although he realized the superiority of Krishnabhajan, which he had learned from his mother, he failed to give up Sakti-worship and soon fell seriously ill.  While waiting for his imminent death, Govinda informed his elder brother, Ramacandra, of his illness and expressed his desire to touch the feet of Shrinivasa Acarya Prabhu. 

 

          Ramacandra brought Acarya Prabhu to Budhuri and went straight into the bedroom of Govinda.  Acarya Prabhu raised his feet to touch the forehead of Govinda and the latter became overwhelmed with joy.  The next day Govinda received diksa and entered into the life of a devotee.  His first pada composed during this period is extremely charming and spontaneous, and reveals the fact that Govinda was a born-poet.

 

          Govinda immediately recovered from his illness and dedicated himself to composing pada's on Gaura-Krishna lila.  Gradually Govinda became known for his poetic talent throughout some parts of Bengal.  According to Bhaktiratnakara Govinda wrote Shri Ramacaritragita at the command of King Harinarayana.  Govinda's other work entitled Sangitamadhava Nataka, which he wrote on the request of Santos Datta-the King of Khetari, bears out his unparalleled poetic talent.  Govinda also composed fifty-one pada's on Astakaliya lila.  His fame soon spread as far as Vrndavana; the Vaishnava's there, headed by Jiva Gosvami, were fascinated by Govinda's extraordinary poetic talent and sent him a letter of appreciation.  The Gosvami's of Vrndavana even awarded Govinda the title of "Kaviraja" or "Kavindra" and sent the following sloka to him:

 

"Shri Govinda-Kavindra-Candanagirescancadvasantanilenanaitah

Kavitavali parimalah Krsnendu-samvandhabhak.

Shrimadjiva-Suranghripasrayaojuso

bhrngan samunmadayan sarvasyapi camatkrtin

Vrajavane cakre kimanyat param." (See also Bhaktiratnakara 9.176)

 

          Govinda lived on the bank of the river Radma in the Pascimapada area of Tiliavudhuri (presently called Bubod village).  On his way back from Vrndavana, Govinda paid a visit to the Shripata of the famous poet, Vidyapati, at Bisafi village under Simla, where he recovered many lost padas of Vidyapati.

 

          During his stay at Budhuri, Govinda visited the royal courts of King Narasimha of Pakkapalli, and King Pratapaditya of Jessore.  He had a very close relationship with Vasanta Raya, the paternal uncle of King Pratapaditya.

 

          Govinda passed away in 1534 Saka (1612 AD).  The Deity Gopala, installed by Govinda, as well as his descending family-line, are still in existence.  Govinda is included amongst the eight Kaviraja's who are daily remembered and worshipped by Gaudiya Vaishnavas.

 

          About 430 padas in Vrajavuli with the bhanita of Govinda dasa have been included in Padakalpataru.  Some others have been included in Padamrtasamudra.  Seventy-five padas are found in Gaurapadatarangini.  In 20-21 padas the bhanita of Govinda appears along with those of poets such as Vidyapati, Rayavasanta, Santos, Bhupati, Rupanarayana etc. (See Padakalpataru pada nos: 261, 1052, 2415, 2416, 2420 etc.).  Some padas, such as nos. 428, 1298, 1384, do not have any bhanita at all. Ksandagitacintamani contains 79 gitas composed by Govinda.  It is understood from the tika of Padamrtasamudra (p. 17), that Govinda also wrote Gitavali.  Amongst all the poets of Vrajavuli literature, Govinda stands indisputably as the foremost one.  The appropriate use of rhetoric in his poems shows that Govinda had a excellant command over the Sanskrit language.  His usage of prosody with proper pauses, rhythm, and sound establish his superiority over all other poets.

 

          Govinda also completed some of the incomplete padas of Vidyapati, who greatly inspired Govinda.  Even today when it comes to the subject of Rasakirtana, Govinda's popularity is noticeable.  Scholars in literature hold that the reason for Govinda's unprecedented popularity can be traced to his thorough study and analysis of various articles of Srngara rasa in the Ujjvalanilamani and its outcome as reflected in his Gitamrta.

(See the article by Jitendranath Vasu in Bangadarsan Agrahayana 1317 pp. 309-406)

 

G. 210.         GOVINDA PURI:

 

          He was a Prapti Siddhi and a sannyasi associate of Lord Chaitanya (Gaura-ganoddesa-dipika 96-97).  According to BBM, he was also known as Govindananda Puri (Vaishnavavandana)

 

G. 211.         GOVINDARAMA:

 

          A resident of Vrndavana and disciple of Shrinivasa Acarya. (Karnananda 1)

 

G. 212.         GOVINDARAMA RAJA:

 

          He was a disciple of Narottama Thakura (Premavilasa 20).  When Narottama Thakura became deeply grieved upon received the news of Ramacandra Kaviraja's passing away, Raja Govindarama served him like a nurse. (Narottamavilasa 1, 12)

 

G. 213.         GOVINDA RAYA:

 

          He descended from the family-line of Shrinivasa Acarya. (Anuragavalli 7)

 

G. 214.         GOVINDA RAYA:

 

          He was a disciple of Narottama Thakura. (Premavilasa 20, Narottamavilasa 12)

 

G. 215.         GOVINDANANDA:

 

          A resident of Navadvipa, he was a lila-companion of Lord Gauranga (CBh. 2.8.114, 2.13.338, 2.23.151).  According to Gaura-ganoddesa-dipika 11, in the treta-yuga he was an incarnation of Sugriva.

 

G. 216.         GOVINDANANDA CAKRAVARTI:

 

          An accomplished kirtana singer who belonged to the lineage of Lord Chaitanya.  He performed kirtana ahead of the rath. (Cc. 1.10.64, 2.13.37, 2.13.73)

 

G. 217.         GOVINDANANDA THAKURA:

 

          He was born as Indurekah in a past incarnation.  His name is mentioned in Pataparyatana.

 

G. 218.         GUPHANARAYANA:

 

          According to Pataparyatana of Abhirama dasa, he was a disciple of Abhirama Gosvami.  He belonged to Shripata Pakamalyati.

 

G. 219.         GUNAMANJARI:

 

          He translated of Rupa Gosvami's Smaranamangala into Vrajabhasa.

 

G. 220.         GUANANDA GUHA (Majumdar):

 

          He was the father of the well-known King Vasanta Raya, who was the paternal uncle of Maharaja Pratapaditya, the ruler of Bengal and a scion of the Kayastha caste.  He constructed the temple of Madana-mohana toward the south of the temple of Krishna dasa (some hold as Rama dasa) Karpura in Vrndavana.  The stone inscription engraved on the eastern wall of the above temple has been deciphered by Grouse.  The Madana-gopala Deity was worshipped in this temple long before the above-noted temple of Krishna dasa became decadent.  Purusottama Jana, the son of Maharaja Prataparudra, had two Deities of Radha made and sent them to Vrndavana. As per command, received in a dream, the smaller of the two Deities was installed as Radha on the left of Madana-gopala and the bigger one as Lalita on the rightA side.  Since then the Deity Madana-gopala came to be known as MadanaA mohana.  In the course of time, due to the tyranny of Emperor Aranzeb, such Deities as Madana-mohana and others were shifted to Jaipur.  From Jaipur, Gopalasingh, the King of Karauli and brother-in law of the King of Jaipur, arranged to install Madana-mohana at Karauli.  At the original temple of Gunananda, Deities of Lord Chaitanya and Nityananda Prabhu are presently being worshipped.

 

          Information elicited from the stone-inscription states that Ramacandra, a descendant of the Guha-family, migrated from east Bengal and found employment with the royal government first at Saptagrama and later at Gauda.  All three sons of Gunananda; Bhavananda, Gunananda, and Sivananda, occupied important positions in the service of the royal government.  King Vikramaditya, the son of Bhavananda, and King Vasanta Raya, the son of Gunananda, founded the royal estate of Jessore.  The well-known King Pratapaditya was the son of the above mentioned Vikramaditya.  Between 1563 AD and 1572, during the reign of Suleman Karrani, Gunananda settled in Vrndavana until his death.  Around early 1570 AD. Gunananda constructed the above-mentioned temple in Vrndavana with funds supplied by his son Vasanta Raya.  (See Manasi O Marmavani, a Bengali journal, Vaisakh 1333)

 

G. 221.         GUNANIDHI:

 

          He has been referred to as "Mukundanidhi".  (See Gaura-ganoddesaA dipika 102-103)

 

G. 222.         GUNARAJA KHAN \ MALADHARA VASU:

 

          He began the book Shri Krishnavijaya in 1395 Saka (1473 AD.) and completed it in 1402 Saka (1480 AD.).  His real name was Maladhara Vasu and Gunaraja Khan was the title awarded to him by a certain king of Gauda.  His father, Bhagiratha Vasu, and mother Indumati were from Kulinagrama.  See Cc. 2.15.99-100 for Lord Chaitanya's comment on the book Shri Krishnavijaya.

 

G. 223.         GUNARNAVA MISRA:

 

          It is possible that he hailed from Jhamatpur, the same village that Krishnadasa Kaviraja was from. (Cc. 1.5.168-170)

 

G. 224.         GUPTA BEJHA:

 

          See "Murari Gupta" (Chaitanya-mangala sutra 27).

 

G. 225.         GURUCARANA DASA:

 

          He was the disciple of the second wife of Shrinivasa Acarya Prabhu. At her command he wrote the book Premamrta.  This book is based on Premavilasa.

 

G. 226.         GURUDASA BHATTACARYA:

 

          A Vaidike brahmana by caste, he was a disciple of Narottama Thakura. His Shripata was at Gopalapura. He ran a Sanskrit school where he taught a large number of students.  When Narottama Thakura's popularity began to increase and people from brahmana castes came to take spiritual initiation from Narottama, a non-brahmana, Gurudasa was irritated beyond measure and verbally attacked Narottama without cause.  Premavilasa 19 explains how Narottama finally converted Gurudasa into a devout Vaishnava.

 

G. 227.         GURUPRASADA SENGUPTA (PRASADA DASA):

 

          Father of the well-known Bengali poet Rajanikanta Sen, Guruprasada compiled a padavali collection under the title Padacintamanimala.  Most of the padas in this collection have been composed in Vrajabuli.  This compilation was first published in 1283 (1876 AD.).  Guruprasada presents an introduction to the book which explains sound and grammar in Vrajabuli.