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A. 1. ABAYACARAN DE, BHAKTIVEDANTA SWAMI PRABHUPADA
A. 2. ABAYA DEVI GVA
A. 3. ABHIMANYU SAMANTA SINGARA MAHAPATRA GVA
A. 4. ABHIRAMA DASA GVA
A. 5. ABHIRAMA DASA GVA
A. 6. ABHIRAMA GOSVAMI, ABHIRAMA GOPAL THAKURA GPC,CCU,GVA
A. 7. ABDUR RAHIM KHAN GVA
A. 8. ACARYA CANDRA CCU,GVA
A. 9. ACARYA RATNA CCU,GVA
A.10. ACYUTA GVA
A.11. ACYUTA GVA
A.12. ACYUTA PANDITA GVA
A.13. ACYUTANANDA PATTANAYAKA GVA
A.14. ACYUTANANDA GPC,CCU,GVA
A.15. ACYUTANANDA CCU,BMO
A.16. ACYUTANANDA RAJA GVA
A.17. ADVAITA (ACARYA PRABHU) GPC,CCU,GVA
A.18. ADVAITADASA BABAJI GVJ
A.19. AFJAL ALI GVA
A.20. AGALA PAGALA GVA
A.21. AGARWALI GVA
A.22. AGATA GVA
A.23. AGRADASA GVA
A.24. AHAMMAD BEG GVA
A.25. AKINCANA DASA GVA
A.26. AKINCANA DASA GVA
A.27. AKINCANA KRSNADASA GVA
A.28. AKRURA CCU,GVA
A.29. AKRURA GVA
A.30. AKRURA GVA
A.31. AKRURA GVA
A.32. AKRURA GVA
A.33. AKRURA GVA
A.34. AKRURA GVA
A.35. AKBAR SHAH GVA
A.36. ALAM GVA
A.37. ALAOL SAHEB, SAIYAD GVA
A.38. ALI MAHAMMAD GVA
A.39. ALI RAJA GVA
A.40. AMOGHA PANDITA BMO,CCU,GVA
A.41. AMAN GVA
A.42. AMULYADHANA RAYA BHATTA GVA
A.43. ANANDA GVA
A.44. ANANDACAND GVA
A.45. ANANDACANDRA VIDYAVAGISA GVA
A.46. ANANDA DASA GVA
A.47. ANANDA DASA GVA
A.48. ANANDA PURI GVA
A.49. ANANDANANDA GVA
A.50. ANANDARAMA LALA GVA
A.51. ANANDI GVA
A.52. ANANGABHIMADEVA (Second) GVA
A.53. ANANTA GVA
A.54. ANANTA BMO,CCU,GVA
A.55. ANANTA (Sisu Ananta) BMO
A.56. ANANTA ACARYA CCU
A.57. ANANTA ACARYA CCU,GVA
A.58. ANANTA ACARYA GVA
A.59. ANANTA CATTARAJA (CATTOPADHYAYA)KANTHAVARANA CCU,GVA
A.60. ANANTA DASA CCU
A.61. ANANTA DASA GVA
A.62. ANANTA PANDITA CCU,GVA
A.63. ANANTA PURI GVA
A.64. ANANTA RAYA GVA
A.65. ANANTAVARMAN CODAGANGADEVA GVA
A.66. ANIRUDDHA GVA
A.67. ANUBHAYANANDA CCU,GVA
A.68. ANUKULA CAKRAVARTI GVA
A.69. ANUPAMA (VALLABHA) CCU,GVA
A.70. ANUPANARAYANA GVA
A.71. ARJUNA VISVASA GVA
A.72. ARJUNI GVA
A.73. ASARA PURI CCU
A.74. ASRAMI UPENDRA GVA
A.75. ASTA GOSWAMI GVA
A.76. ASTA KAVIRAJA GVA
A.77. ASTA PRADHANA MAHANTA GVA
A.78. ATMARAMA DASA GVA
A.79. ATMARAMA DASA GVA
A.80. ATMARAMA DASA GVA
A.81. ATULACANDRA CAMPATI GVA
A.82. ATULAKRSNA GOSWAMI GVA
A.83. AULA MANOHARA DASA GVA
A.84. AULIYA THAKURA GVA
A. 1. ABHAYACARAN DE (Prabhupada):
A. 2. ABHAYA DEVI;
She was the maternal grandmother of Locanadasa, the author of Shri Chaitanyamangala. (See also Locanadasa)
A. 3. ABHIMANYU SAMANTA SINGARA MAHAPATRA;
He was born in Baliagrama in Cuttack (Orissa), in the year 1679 Saka (1757 A.D.). He composed a poetic masterpiece in the Oriya language entitled Vidagdhacintamani. This literary work describes various pastimes of Lord Krishna in ninety-six prosodical styles.
A. 4. ABHIRAMA DASA;
He wrote two booklets entitled Pataparyatana and Abhirama Thakurera Sakha Nirnaya. No autobiographical information about the author is available from the above two books other than the following excerpt: "Remembering the lotus feet of Shri Ratnesvara, Abhirama Dasa wrote this in brief." He summarised the book entitled Pata-nirnaya and used it as the base for his own book Pataparyatana. In that work Abhirama states as follows: "I have written this summary taking information from the book Pata-nirnaya which covers the same subject matter in great detail. Thus ends the book Pata paryatana compiled by Abhirama Dasa." The book Pata-nirnaya is still unpublished, although it was printed by Amvikacarana Brahmacari in the Sahitya Parisat Patrika. A study of this work would reveal many details regarding Vaishnava temples and devotees.
A 5. ABHIRAMA DASA;
He wrote Govindavijaya and Krishnamangala. (See Bangiya Sahitya Sevaka)
A 6. ABHIRAMA GOSVAMI, ABHIRAMA GOPALA THAKURA;
He belonged to the lineage of Lord Chaitanya. In Rama-lila he was Bharata, in Krishna-lila he was Shridama sakha, and in Gaura-lila one of the twelve Gopalas. A close associate of Nityananda Prabhu, Abhirama Gosvami was also known as "Ramadasa", "Rama", "Abhirama Thakura", etc. His Shripata is located at Khanakula Krishnanagar in the Hugli district. Malini Devi was his wife.
In a state of loving ecstacy Abhirama lifted a huge log, which would ordinarily have taken sixteen people to lift, and held it as a flute. (According to Bhaktiratnakara 4.123, It would have taken 100 people to lift it)
It has been said that Abhirama was so spiritually powerful that whenever he offered his humble obeisances to the Deity or Salagrama, the latter would crack. By offering his obeisances to the seven sons of Nityananda Prabhu, Abhirama killed them all. Later when Virabhadra Gosvami was born, he was able to survive Abhirama's pranama. In great joy Abhirama acknowledged Virabhadra as the second embodiment of Lord Gauranga, which he also mentioned in his own writing entitled Shri Virabhadrastaka: "Soyan prasidatu harih kila virabhadra."
Mother Ganga was also glorified in the same way by Abhirama in his Gangastotra (6): "I, Shridama sakha, am moving all over the earth to find that object which can withstand my obeisances. But my dear Mother Ganga! After I offered you obeisances twelve times and you still remained unharmed and smiling, only then did I become aware of your extraordinary spiritual wealth."
Abhirama always carried a cane named "Jayamangala". Anyone who was fortunate enough to be touched by it was blessed with the wealth of divine love. Shrinivasa Acarya received such a benediction. Abhirama liberated great numbers of pasandis. In the Pata Paryatana it is stated that even the most notorious pasandi trembled in fear at the sight of Abhirama.
It has been said that since the time of Krishna's appearance Shridama sakha never took birth again, but wandered about in that same form. Later he met Nityananda Prabhu in Vrndavana. In the unpublished work of Vrndavana dasa Thakura entitled Aisaryamrta-Kavya (109-111) it is explained that during the Dvapara Yuga, at the time of Vrajalila, Nityananda Prabhu brought Shridama, in his subtle body, out of a mountain cave and took him to Navadvipa, where Nityananda revealed to Shridama the truths regarding GauraA lila. But the following extract from Bhaktiratnakara (4.105-108) says: Abhirama incarnated in the house of a brahmana in order to liberate the fallen jivas. He was erudite in all scriptures, extremely charming, and expert in the art of dancing, vocal and instrumental music. Submitting to the desire of Nityananda Prabhu, he married an extremely qualified girl named Malini, the daughter of a scholarly brahmana.
In most Vaishnava books Abhirama and Ramadasa are mentioned as one and the same person. But the late Jagadvandu Bhadra states, "The late Jagadisvara Gupta mentions Ramadasa as another name of Abhirama; the fact is not so. It is explained in the book Abhiramalilamrta that Lord Gauranga requested Abhirama Gupta should be brought from Vrndavana to Navadvipa when Abhirama instead of accompanying Lord Gauranga, revealed the image of Ramadasa generating his force. Then Abhirama accompanied Lord Gauranga to Navadvipa where he captivated the world with his dancing, kirtana, and taming of the pasandis. Ramadasa, the svarupa of Abhirama, belonged to Shri Nityananda sakha, and Abhirama himself belonged to Shri Chaitanya sakha (Gaurapadatarangini P. 21). Abhirama wrote Shri Virabhadrastaka and Shri Gangastotra.
Bhaktiratnakara informs that Abhirama, while in a dreaming state, lifted the Deity Shri Shri Gopinatha from beneath the earth at Khanakula Krishnanagar and installed Him there. The site from which the Deity was lifted is known as "Ramakunda" (Bhaktiratnakara 4.118). He is said to have established the Balimatha at Puri. Abhirama died on the seventh day of the dark fortnight of Vaisaka. BMO p.121 mentions two other unpublished works which give biographical information on Abhirama entitled Abhiramapatala and Abhiramabandana.
A 7. ABDUR RAHIM KHAN:
A Muslim Vaishnava poet. (See Bangiya Sahitya Sevaka)
A 8. ACARYA CANDRA:
He was a close associate of Nityananda Prabhu. (See CBh 3.5.749). Also refer to Vaishnava Vandana of Jiva Goswami, Devakinandana, and Vrndavana dasa for details.
A 9. ACARYA RATNA:
GVA explains that Acarya Ratna (also known as Candrasekhara Acarya) married the sister of Lord Chaitanya's mother. Also in Chaitanya-cariramrta Adi-lila ch. 13 texts 102 and 108 mention that Acaryaratna and Candrasekhara are the same person. However in the Vaishnava Vandana of Jiva Gosvami, Devakinandana, and Vrndavana dasa it is said that Acaryaratna is not Candrasekhara Acarya and gives biographical details on the former. (See also "Candrasekhara Acarya").
A disciple of Rasikananda Prabhu. (See Rasikamangala Pascima 14.108)
A disciple of Rasikananda Prabhu. (See Rasikamangala Pascima 14.123)
A.12. ACYUTA PANDITA:
According to the Pata Paryatana of Shri Abhirama dasa, he was the disciple of Shri Abhirama Gosvami. His Shripata was in Kotara.
A.13. ACYUTA PATTANAYAKA:
Father of Rasikananda Prabhu. (Rasikamangala Purva 3.54)
According to GVA he belonged to Lord Chaitanya's lineage and was the eldest son of Shri Advaita Prabhu. His Shripata is in Santipura. He was born of Sitadevi in 1426 Saka (1504 A.D.). Cc Ai 12-17p says 1428. From his childhood Acyutananda believed in the divinity of Lord Chaitanya and spent many days in Puri relishing the company of the Lord Chaitanya. ****The opinion held by Acyuta is unanimously accepted by the Vaishnava community. (CC 1.12.20), (Sakhanirnayamrta 14). According to GauraA ganoddesa-dipika (87-88) Acyuta was the disciple of Gadadhara Pandita Gosvami. In earlier incarnations Acyuta was born as Kartikeya and Acyuta Gopi. Acyutananda participated in the festival of Khetari. Following are some references which record Acyuta's close association with Lord Chaitanya: Cc 1.10.150, 1.12.13, 1.12.20, 1.12.36 and CBh 2.6.40, 2.19.166, 3.1.213-220, 3.4.138-205, 3.10.60.
GPC states that Acyutananda never married. His brother, Krishna Misra, had two sons named Raghunatha and Dolgovinda. The descendants from the family line of Raghunatha still live at Madanagopala Pada in Santipura. Dolgovinda had three sons who migrated to Maldaha and settled there. After several generations this family line produced a highly devout sadhaka named Viracandra Gosvami. Viracandra took sannyasa and installed a Deity of Lord Chaitanya at Katoa. For additional information see: a) Vaishnava Vandana by Jiva Goswami, Devakinandana, and Vrndavana dasa, b) Shri Krishna Chaitanya Charitamritam of Murari Gupta, edited by Mrnalakanti Ghosh, c) Chaitanya-mangala by Jayananda.
According to Bhakti Movement in Orissa (BMO p. 73-75), Acyutananda dasa was a sixteenth century poet who showed versatile genius in writing books on Vaishnava philosophy and religion. He was born in the village Tilkana, situated one mile away from the famous village Nembala (Lembalo), on the bank of the Chitropala (a branch of Mahandi), in the district of Cuttack. According to Udayakahani he was born in 1482 A.D. His father was Dinabandhu Khuntia, and mother Padmavati. From boyhood Acyutananda showed no interest in his studies, and became increasingly indifferent to all worldly affairs as he grew.
Once Dinabandhu, along with his wife and son, went to Puri to pay respect to Lord Jagannatha. At that time Lord Chaitanya was present at Puri. One day Dinabandhu and Acyuta went to see the Lord. Upon touching the feet of Lord Chaitanya, Acyuta experienced a surge of spiritual energy.
In the Sunya Samhita it is stated that while Acyuta was in Puri with his father, Lord Chaitanya advised Sanatana Gosvami (not the Sanatana Gosvami of the six gosvami's, but another from Doligram) to initiate Acyuta. Thus he took initiation in the name of Hari.
However in the Gurubhaktigita another story is related. Once while Acyuta was playing under a banyan tree Lord Chaitanya came there in disguise to take rest. The Lord asked Acyuta about his parents and requested to see them. Acyuta conveyed the news to his father, who later came there to met Lord Chaitanya. At that time the Lord told Dinabandhu that his child should be given Harinama initiation. Dinabandhu thus made preparations for his sons initiation and on the eleventh day of the new moon of Vaisaka Lord Chaitanya initiated Acyuta. Afterwards, on the request of Dinabandhu, Lord Chaitanya manifested His four-armed form. The Lord also told Acyuta that they would meet again at Puri.
According to Shri Chaitanya-bhagavata of Iswar Dasa, Acyuta was advised by Shri Krishna to take the paramhansa mantra from Lord Chaitanya: "Accept Him as preceptor and propagate the name of Hari." He then left for Puri where he served Chaitanya Mahaprabhu.
Regardless of who Acyuta's guru actually was, Lord Chaitanya's advent definitely marked a turning point in Acyuta's life. In the Sunya Samhita it is said that Lord Chaitanya gave Acyuta cymbals and drums (kola), and taught him the art of tuning, timing, and sense of rhythm.
On the order of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, Acyuta set out on a pilgrimage and returned after a long journey. During that journey Acyuta, being profoundly influenced by Lord Chaitanya, formed a Sankirtana (Rahasa) party and preached the name of Shri Krishna in different provinces of India. The account of his Sankirtana party is discussed in an unpublished manuscript called Baranacharita-grantha.
Lord Chaitanya and Acyuta had a very cordial relationship and are certainly eternal associates. The description in chapter ten of Sunya Samhita reveals that Acyuta was not only associated with Lord Chaitanya during the period mentioned, but he was also a companion in previous births. The story indicates that Shri Krishna informed Sudama that He was going to descend to the earth. Krishna said: "Go thou Sudama, we shall meet again in Kaliyuga. I shall reveal myself in the form of Buddha, and you will bear the name Sundarananda. Later I will manifest in Navadvipa as Shri Chaitanya and preach the name of Hari from door to door. At that time you will stay with us, and will be known by the name Acyuta. You will save the cowherd class."
In another passage of Sunya Samhita, Sudama, Subala and others asked Krishna how and when they would meet again. Krishna replied that they would be born as Panchasakhas in the Kaliyuga at Nilacala, and King Prataparudradeva would serve them.
Once Lord Chaitanya came to Cuttack and the king desired to perform a religious festival. Lord Chaitanya advised the king to bring the Panchasakhas. Thus the Panchasakhas came to Cuttack to join the party and the Lord embraced all of them. In the Chourasi Ajna it is described that Lord Chaitanya sat in the Muktimandapa along with His five associates, the king, and Sarvabhauma. The Lord declared that the five associates were the followers of Krishna in every age. The associates replied that they were but five branches (panca sakha) of one tree. Lord Chaitanya called them to his side and asked them to give a demonstration of their occult powers. He handed over the seed of a jackfruit to Jagannatha Dasa, and Acyutananda ripened the fruit.
In the Shri Chaitanya-bhagavata it is further stated that Lord Chaitanya once asked Acyuta about his writings, and Acyuta told the Lord that he had written many songs and bhajans. In the Gurubhaktigita it is also mentioned that Lord Chaitanya advised Acyuta to compose books on rasa. In Anakarsamhita, Acyutananda states that he has written one lakh of padas and padavalis. The renowned scholars, Dr. A. B. Mahanty, claims that he has personally seen 3,000 manuscripts. Acyuta also wrote Samhitas and Upanisads. He was popular in Orissa and known as the Gopala guru. He was the guru of the milkman caste. His Ogalas are very popular amongst his disciples. His famous works are: Sunya-samhita, Sabdabrahmandasamhita, Anakarsamhita, Mahanitya-rahasa, Nitya-rahasa, Sunya-rahasa, Brundarasa, Radha-rasa. He is still remembered for his Bhabisyamalikas.
A.16. ACYUTANANDA RAJA:
Acyutananda was the father of the famous Rasikamurari and a disciple of Syamananda Prabhu. (See Bhaktiratnakara 15.26-27) His Shripata stands at Rayani on the bank of the river Suvarnarekha. He was born in the Sista Karana class. Premavilasa 24, informs us that he was the king of Rayani.
A.17. ADVAITA (ACARYA PRABHU):
He is a disciple of Madhavendra Puri, and constitutes one of the figures amongst the Pancatattva. In an earlier incarnation he was Lord Siva. He was born in a varendra brahmana family on the seventh day of the bright fortnight in the month of Magha, 1355 Saka (1433 AD.), in the village named Lauda in Shrihatta.
According to Bangabhasa O Sahitya, Advaita Prabhu was born in 1434 AD. and met Vidyapati in 1458 AD. Advaita's former name was Kamalaksha (Kamalakanta) Vedapancanana. His two wives were Sita Devi and Shri Devi. Acyutananda was born of Sita Devi (1425 Saka-1503 AD.), followed by Krishnadasa, Gopala, Balarama, Svarupa, and Jagadisa Misra. While Shri Devi gave birth to one son named Syamadasa (Premavilasa 24).
From Lauda, Advaita Prabhu migrated to the village of Navahatta and later to Santipura. He also had a house at Navadvipa. In 1480 Saka (1558 AD.), at the age of 125 years (i.e. 25 years after the disappearance of Lord Chaitanya) Advaita Prabhu passed away. (Advaita Vilasa)
However, according to Premavilasa 24, Advaita Prabhu was born in Santipura. He studied the Vedas and other scriptures under a scholar named Santacarya in Phullavati village near Santipura, where he was awarded the title Acarya. The genealogy of Advaita Prabhu can be found in Premavilasa 24. Also books such as Valyalilasutra (in Sanskrit), and Advaitavilasa, Advaitamangala, Sitacarita (in Bengali) present detailed information on Advaita Prabhu.
To verify the meeting of Advaita with Vidyapati, it is known that in 1330 Saka (1408 AD.) Vidyapati received the endowment of Bisaphi village from Sivasimha. Vidyapati was born around 1307 Saka (1385 AD.), and was a contemporary of Candidasa. Vidyapati mentions their meeting one another in songs he composed in 1325 Saka (1403 AD.).
One manuscript of the Bhagavata which was copied by Vidyapati is still available and carries the date of copying as 1379 Saka (1457 AD.) Evidence shows that Vidyapati was alive until 1401 Saka (1479 AD.). In 1485 AD. Advaita Prabhu, at the age of fifty two, arrived at the room where Lord Gauranga was born. Much earlier he undertook a pilgrimage. Hence his meeting with Vidyapati should be taken as a fact.
See Advaita Prakasa for further information.
The following are extracts of references to Advaita Prabhu from some important biographical sources:
Cc 1.9.21 Advaita Prabhu likened to the trunk of the imaginary tree of bhakti.
CBh 1.2.79-105 Advaita interprets all scriptures from the Krishnabhakti point of view. While offering Ganga water and Tulasi, Advaita calls out loudly demanding that Krishna incarnate.
CBh 1.7.29-67 Visvarupa visits Advaita daily to discuss sastra; Nimai goes to Advaita's house to bring His brother home.
CBh 1.7.95-108 Advaita wails in separation, deeply grieved when Visvarupa takes sannyasa.
CBh 1.11.72-83 Arrival and introduction of Isvara Puri at the house of Advaita.
CBh 1.16.20-21 and 311, 2.1.5 Milana with Thakura Haridasa.
CBh 2.2.4-154 Milana with Lord Gauranga.
CBh 2.2.155, 2.6.8-175 Advaita goes to Santipura to test Lord Gauranga and is brought back to Navadvipa by Ramai.
CBh 2.10.147, 151-155 Advaita's loyalty to Lord Chaitanya.
CBh 2.10.166 Music lessons in the presence of Lord Chaitanya.
CBh 2.10.169 Advaita's prayers to the Lord, begging that He shower His mercy upon the fallen souls.
CBh 2.13.238,257,300-305,335 Discussions in the house of Lord Gauranga regarding the liberation of Jagai and Madhai.
CBh 2.13.341-360 Loving fights between Advaita and Nityananda.
CBh 2.16.45-51 Seva puja offered by Advaita to Lord Gauranga while the Lord was in a state of bhava-avesa.
CBh 2.16.52-93 Lord Gauranga's annoyance with Advaita for trying to touch His feet while the Lord was in an unconscious state.
CBh 2.19.13-160 Advaita's grief at finding Lord Gauranga's interpretation of Bhakti-oriented philosophy. Advaita departs for Santipura where he deliberates on "Yoga Vasistha."
CBh 2.22.35-125 Aparadha committed by mother Saci forgiven when she touches the feet of Advaita.
CBh 2.24.40-76 Advaita sees the Visvarupa.
CBh 3.1.36-46 Advaita's grief when Lord Chaitanya takes sannyasa.
CBh 3.4.441-515 The subject of the occasion when Madhavendra is worshipped.
CBh 3.8.3-86 Advaita visits Nilacala, accompanied by the the devotees.
CBh 3.9.12-88 Advaita cooks and serves Lord Gauranga with his own hands.
CBh 3.9.164-184 Chaitanya-sankirtana performed by Advaita.
CBh 3.9.256-284 Prema delivered by Rupa and Sanatana through Advaita.
CBh 3.9.290-305 Anger of Lord Chaitanya with Shrivasa on the subject of Advaita-tattva.
CC 1.12.23 Advaita chants the Nrsimha mantra when his son, Gopala, loses consciousness.
CC 2.12.38-43 Solace given by Advaita after Lord Chaitanya's chastisement of Kamalakanta.
CC 2.14.88-92 Water sports, after the cleansing of Gundica.
CC 3.3.213 Advaita gives sraddha to Haridasa Thakura.
CC 3.19.16-21 Advaita sends a riddle through Jagadananda.
Premavilasa 1. Lord Chaitanya's grief at Advaita's preaching of Jnanavada for the second time.
Premavilasa 24. Advaita meets Vijayapuri and receives Madanamohana and His seva from the Kunja; Feuds amongst various groups at Santipura regarding Haridasa being offered the sraddha; Advaita ex-communicated from the brahmana community; Haridasa demonstrates his spiritual power.
Advaita Prakasa 22. Advaita's final instructions and his death at the age of 125.
A.18. ADVAITADASA BABAJI MAHASAYA: (Shri Vrndavana)
He was born in a poor kayastha family of the Varendra clan in the village Cadia of Sirajganja in the district of Pavna. He was known as Bhimakishore Rakshita. His parents died during his childhood, leaving only a widow sister to look after him. In his youth He received very little education but managed to learn something about the work of an Amin (land surveyor) and thus became connected with the Zemindary estates. Padmalocana Nag Mahasaya, the Dewan of the Sanyal group of Zamindars of Salap village, was a great devotee. By the grace of Lord Chaitanya, Bhimakishore came in contact with Nag Mahasaya and was employed by him to do estate work.
The weaver caste Zamindar of Sonarangi, a village situated at the center of the four districts (Murshidabad, Burdwan, Birbhum, and Bankura) was also a great devotee. During the battle between the English and the Siraj-ud-daula, the Chief of the English Army was wounded. At the insistence of the Chief, his principal employee continued with the fight wearing the uniform of the chief, and won the battle. As a reward for his services, the Englishman presented a few villages to the said employee, thus the Zamindary estate of Sonarangi became established.
These people were very close to Lord Chaitanya. One Basu Mahasaya, originally from Cak village of the Dhaka district, became the first Dewan of the Sonarangi Estate. Through the association of these holy persons Basu Mahasaya became a highly devout person. Padmalocana Nag Mahasaya originated from the village of Mailani of the Dhaka district. By the arrangement of Basu Mahasaya, Padmalocana came in close contact with Lord Chaitanya for a short while.
Padmalocana had no son of his own so he brought up Bhimakishore as his own son and in due course of time implanted the seeds of devotion in the heart of Bhimakishore. He also helped him to receive initiation from a progeny of Shri Advaita. Afterwards Bhimakishore was married.
Once, while Nag Mahasaya was away visiting his native village at Mailani, one of the descendants of Shri Nityananda arrived at Bhimakishore's house. During discourses with that saintly person regarding the supreme goal of life (Paramartha), Bhimakishore became very attracted and went away with the sadhu to Murshidabad. Upon returning home Nag Mahasaya was at first disappointed to find that Bhimakishore had left, but later he became happy, appreciating the budding qualities of devotion within Bhimakishore.
Bhimakishore stayed in Murshidabad, enjoying the company of devotees. There he began to study Shri Chaitanya-charitamrita, but being unable to decipher Sanskrit words such as `Kurvan' or `San', he sought the guidance of another devotee, who advised him to learn Sanskrit grammar from a nearby `Tole' (Sanskrit school) run by a brahmana pandita. He immediately joined the Tole and began lessons on Laghuharinamamrta. However, after a few lessons the pandita explained to Bhimakishore that without vairagya one cannot gain thorough knowledge of the subject. At that time Bhimakishore was only twenty seven years old and had no property except a few bighas of land at his native village, yet he immediately embraced the life of a vairagi (veshasraya) without any consideration of how his childless wife and widowed sister would earn a livelihood.
At that time the Prabhu, with whom Babaji had come to Murshidabad, was away. When Babaji returned home the women folk of the family burst into loud expressions of grief at the sight of Babaji's vairagi attire.
As a vairagi, Babaji became engrossed in studying devotional books. Dissatisfied with his previous teacher, Babaji, along with some Vaishnava associates, traveled first to Navadvipa in search of a better teacher, and later went to Puri. After four months in Puri he found out that Shri Jagadananda Pandita Mahasaya of Shri Radhakunda was a very good tutor on Shri Harinamamrta Vyakarana. Babaji waited until the rainy season had abated and then returned to Shri Vrndavana, via Sambalpura, on foot. The long journey was very strenuous, but Babaji endured the sufferings calmly, bearing in mind that Lord Chaitanya and other great gosvamis had also travelled this route to Shri Vrndavana on foot.
After a short rest Babaji went to Shrikunda and began his studies on Shri Harinamamrta under the guidance of Pandita Shri Jagadananda Dasaji. Unfortunately, because Pandita Shri Jagadananda was constantly being visited by various devotees, Babaji Advaita dasa felt disturbed by the interruption to his studies and returned to Santipura where he resumed his lessons on vyakarana under the guidance of Shri Rama Siromani, of Shri Advaita's lineage.
Babaji studied there for a few years, but again felt that he was not properly utilizing his time due to frequent interruptions. Thus at the age of thirty six he returned to Shri Radhakunda in Vrndavana and completed his studies of Shri Harinamamrta under Shri Jagadananda Dasaji.
During this period a famous kirtania named Shri Gopidasa lived at Shrikunda. He was also the closest associate of the great contemporary musician who gave recital of Padakalpataru (compiled by Shri Vaishnava Carana Dasa). While Shri Advaita dasa stayed at Shrikunda he took elementary lessons on kirtana from Shri Gopinatha Dasa. Advaita dasa Babaji's voice was melodious, thus whenever Gopidasa gave a kirtana recital Advaita dasa would accompany him. But Babaji Mahasaya was more interested in studying than in kirtana.
Every year on the occasion of Shri Jahnavi Mata's utsava, all the Vaishnavas of Vraja congregated near Shrikunda to participate in kirtana. On the fourth day of the festival the congregation did parikrama of Shrikunda. On one such occasion Gopidasaji, while in the midst of a kirtana recital suddenly stopped singing. His companion, Shri Advaita dasa, immediately picked up and continued the song, repeating the kirtana recited by Shri Gopidasaji. Hearing the excellent recital of kirtana by Shri Advaita dasaji, Siddha Gauracarana Dasa Babaji of Kunjara was so impressed that he took Advaita dasa in his arms and announced to the audience that from then on there would be one more musician at Shrikunda. Babaji Mahasaya then touched his admirer's feet and received his blessings.
From that day Babaji Mahasaya's interest in music developed. He first took lessons on kirtana from Shri Gopidasa babaji and afterwards learned other styles of music under Krishnadayala Candra Mahasaya of Pancthupi village in the land of Radha. He visited many other places and studied from various famous musicians to enhance his knowledge in music and kirtana. Babaji Mahasaya also took lessons from Shri Vaishnavacarana and his sister (descendants of Shri Mahananda Basak, a well known kirtania of Vrndavana in the earlier days.) Shripada Nilamani Prabhu, a descendant of Shri Advaita, had also been a student of Shri Vaishnavacarana. At that time, Shripada Nilamani Prabhu became very fond of Babaji Mahasaya. At his own expense he sent Babaji to various places to take lessons from different famous musicians, and afterwards Nilamani learned everything from Babaji Mahasaya. Famous kirtaniyas of later generations such as Shri Navadipa Vrajavasi, Rai Bahadur Dhagendra Nath Mitra, Shri Gadadharadasa babaji and Shri Bhakticarana Dasa Babaji, received lessons on kirtana from recitals of Shri Advaita dasa Babaji Mahasaya.
Padmalocana Nag Mahasaya lived in Vrndavana during the last stage of his life. Shri Advaita dasa Babaji regarded him as his guru and his wife as gurupatni. Babaji also treated the two daughters of Nag Mahasaya as his own sisters. When Nag Mahasaya's wife died at a very old age, Shri Advaita dasa Babaji performed her last funeral rites and organized the utsava in true vaishnava tradition, including recitals of kirtana.
In the course of his earlier visits to various places for learning kirtana, Advaita dasa once stayed at Katoa for some time. Receiving the news of his presence there, Babaji Mahasaya's wife and widowed sister came to meet him. At the sight of their poverty stricken condition, all the great vaishnavas present there including both elder and younger Prabhu (descendants of Shri Advaita), Venimadhava Thakura, a priest and beneficiary of Lord Chaitanya, felt extremely grieved. They collectively counseled Shri Advaita dasa Babaji and persuaded him to return to his wife. Submitting to the desires of the devotees, Babaji Mahasaya went to live in Navadvipa along with his family.
Later on a daughter was born to his wife and at an appropriate time Babaji Mahasaya gave her in marriage to the son of a respected Varendra clan Kayastha family. Shri Advaita dasa Babaji Mahasaya's daughter gave birth to a son, who later came to be known as Bimana Bihari Majumdar, M.A. Babaji Mahasaya then gave his property to his daughter and son-in-law and left for Shri Vrndavana taking his wife with him, there he took shelter of Rajarshi Bahadur. Shortly thereafter Babaji Mahasaya's wife passed away and he shifted to a Vaishnava abode named `Kangaler Mahaprabhu' (Lord Chaitanya of the poor).
Babaji's eyesight became very weak, he had one operation on his eyes in Mathura but without much improvement. After his return to Vrndavana, Babaji Mahasaya shared his hard earned knowledge by teaching Shri Harinamamrta Vyakarana and at the same time continued with his studies of Vedanta. In his spare time Babaji Mahasaya participated in discourses on devotional literature. At that time there was no expert teacher in Vrndavana to give lessons in Nyaya, hence Babaji Mahasaya went back to Navadvipa with all his valuable collections and documents to study Nyaya sastra. However, due to his advanced age of 85 years, Babaji Mahasaya was practically blind, thus he sought the assistance of his daughter and grandson to arrange for an operation on his right eye. Unfortunately, his daughter died shortly thereafter and Babaji Mahasaya was forced to return to his former abode Kangaler Mahaprabhu in Shri Vrndavana.
In his earlier days, during his stay under the shelter of Rajarshi Bahadur in Vrndavana, Rai Bahadur Manindra Candra Nandi of Kashimbazar Raj estates had engaged Shri Advaita dasa in giving kirtana lessons to students at his estate capital. Babaji had acquired his knowledge of music from various music teachers in an orthodox and proper sequence, based on sound and technical skill. In fact, the famous `Garanhati' style of kirtana recitals, introduced by Shri Narottama dasa Thakura, remained unimpaired so long as Shri Advaita Babaji Mahasaya remained alive. When the Maharaja of Kashimbazar realized that the students could not properly grasp Shri Advaita's orthodox style of kirtana, the Maharaja asked Shri Radhika Prosad Gosvami, a renowned classical musician of Vanavishnupura, to take notations (Swaralipi) on Babaji's kirtanas. The Maharaja was greatly disappointed when Shri Radhika Prosad explained that the music of Shri Advaita dasa Mahasaya's was based on Vilamvita laya (slow tempo) and thus was in most places beyond the scope of conventional notation rules.
Babaji Mahasaya's love for traditional kirtana recital was very intense, a quality rarely encountered during that period of time. On one occasion Babaji Mahasaya demonstrated his enduring capabilities by skillfully performing kirtana recitals at Shri Radhika Prosad Gosvami's house from nine in the morning until eleven in the evening, without break and without the aid of any companion.
A.19. AFAL ALI:
A Muslim composer of Vaishnava lyrics. He is said to have lived at Chittagong. (See Bangiya Sahitya Sevaka)
A.20. AGALA PAGALA:
He was a disciple of Shri Advaita Prabhu. He was excommunicated from the Vaishnava samaja for defying the command of his guru. (Premavilasa 24, Kamdeva Nagara)
She was a Muslim Vaishnava poet from north-western India. Pada No. 2834 included in Padakalpataru 24 is her composition.
In GVA it is noted that this name is not accurate. He was a disciple of Rasikananda prabhu. (See Rasikamangala Pascima 14.148)
He was one of the foremost disciples of the famous Kihladasa Payaahari, the composer of numerous padas on Krishnalila in Vrajabhasa. Agradasa's disciple, Nabhaji, wrote the book entitled Bhaktamala in Hindi.
A.24. AHAMMAD BEG:
He was a notorious Yavana who lived at Banapur where he administered the region as a Subadar. He sought the refuge of Rasikananda Prabhu after seeing how a wild elephant was tamed by him. (See Rasikamangala Pascima 7.27-8.5)
A.25. AKINCANA DASA:
He was a devotee of Lord Gauranga. (See Haridasa Dasa ed. Namamrta Samudra 159)
A.26. AKINCANA DASA:
He translated in verse Shri Jagannathavallabha-nataka. (See Calcutta University manuscript No. 1512)
A.27. AKINCANA KRSNADASA:
He belonged to the lineage of Lord Chaitanya (Cc. Adi 10.66). He accompanied other devotees to Puri for the Rathayatra festival (Cc. 3.10.9).
One of the descendants of Gadadhara Pandita. (See the manuscript Sakhanirnayamrta 51.
A disciple of Syamananda Prabhu from Shripata Gopiballavpur. (See Premavilasa 20, Bhaktiratnakara 15.64.)
He was a disciple of Rasikananda Prabhu. (See Rasikamangala Pascima 14.111.)
He was a disciple of Rasikananda Prabhu. (See Rasikamangala Pascima 14.131.)
He was a disciple of Rasikananda Prabhu. (See Rasikamangala Pascima 14.151)
He was a disciple of Rasikananda Prabhu. (See Rasikamangala Pascima 14.152)
He was a disciple of Rasikananda Prabhu. (See Rasikamangala Pascima 14.158)
A.35. AKBAR SHAH:
He was a Muslim Vaishnava poet. (See Gaurapadatarangini 4.2.29)
He was a Muslim Vaishnava poet. (See Hindike Mussalman Kavi)
A.37. ALAOL SAHEB, SAIYAD:
During the later half of the 17th century AD. he composed a padavali on the subject of Krishnalila. (See Bangiya Sahitya Sevaka)
A.38. ALI MAHAMMAD:
A Vaishnava poet who was a resident of Chittagong. (See Benagiya Sahitya Sevaka)
A.39. ALI RAJA:
He was a Vaishnava poet who composed songs about Krishna. He came from the village of Osakhain, near the Bansakhali Police Station of Chittagong. (See Bangiya Sahitya Sevaka)
A.40. AMOGHA PANDITA:
He belonged to the disciple-line of Gadadhara Pandita Gosvami.(CC. 1.12.86, 2.15.245-300. Sakhanirnayamrta 31)
He was a Muslim Vaishnava poet. (See Bangiya Sahitya Sevaka)
A.42. AMULYADHANA RAYA BHATTA:
He was a resident of Panihati and a well-known Vaishnava historian. He wrote books such as: Dvadasagopala and Vrhadvaishnavacarita Abhidhana. He established "Shri Gauranga Grantha Mandira" first at Panihati in 1304 (1897 AD.) and later shifted the collection to Barahanagar Pathavadi in 1341 (1934 AD.). It was Amulyadhana who arranged to hold the first Vaishnava exhibition at Panihati. Later this exhibition was held several times in various parts of Bengal and Bihar. Despite lacking money and manpower, this highly intelligent man was quietly active in preserving numerous works on Bhakti which were in danger of decay.
He was an artisan residing in Nilacala. (See Rasikamangala Pascima 10.76)
A Vaishnava poet who composed pada number 2455 in Padakalpataru. Also pada number 2872 shows the bhanita of Ananda dasa. Whether Anandacand and Ananda dasa were one and the same person needs to be clarified. (See the Introduction of Padakalpataru by Satiscandra Raya.)
A.45. ANANDACANDRA VIDYAVAGISA:
He translated the Shrimad Bhagavatam into Bengali. (See Bangiya Sahitya Sevaka)
A.46. ANANDA DASA:
He was the fifth generation descending from the line of Jagadisa Pandita. In a dream he was commanded by Bhagavatananda, a disciple of one of Jagadisa Pandita's disciples, to write the book entitled Shri Jagadisacaritra. Thus the book was compiled in 1640-50 Saka (1718-1728 AD.)
A.47. ANANDA DASA:
He was a disciple of Syamanandi Damodara. (Rasikamangala Pascima 15.18)
A.48. ANANDA PURI:
A devotee of Lord Gauranga. (Namamrta Samudra, Haridasa Dasa ed. 198)
A disciple of Syamananda Prabhu, he lived at Bhograi village in the district of Baleswar in Orissa.
A.50. ANANDARAMA LALA:
A resident of Shrihatta who composed songs in Vrajavuli on the subject of Radha Krishna. (Bangiya Sahitya Sevaka)
He wrote a commentary on the Shri Chaitanyacandramrta of Prabodhananda Sarasvati (1645 Saka, 1723 AD.) In 1640 Saka (1718 AD.) he wrote a grammar entitled Sighravodha. This proves that even in the seventeenth century Saka (1678 AD. onwards) the teachings of Prabodhananda Sarasvati were widely studied. Through the illustrations he cites in Sighravodha Vyakarana which are mostly related to Lord Chaitanya, one can well understand that Anandi was a staunch devotee of Lord Gauranga. The Shri Chaitanyacandramrta tika 31, contains a compilation on Gaura mantra. Each sloka within this book is followed by another explanatory sloka written in harmony with the previous verse.
A.52. ANANGABHIMADEVA (The second):
King Anantavarmana of the Ganga dynasty was the fourth in the line of succession from King Codaganga (1190-1198 AD.) It is said that the temple of Lord Jagannatha in Puri, which was originally built by Indradyumna, became dilapidated. Thus in 1078 AD. King Codagangadeva decided to build a new temple on the ruins of the old, which he succeeded in partially constructing. Later King Anangabhimadeva completed the work. He also built the rampart and the temples of Vimaladevi and Laksmidevi. The stone edict engraved behind the jewelled altar bears the date of completion of the construction work as 1119 Saka (1197 AD.). The book entitled Gangavansanucaritam also records this information.
Prior to the construction of the above mentioned temples King Anangabhimadeva installed the Deity of Narayana (Subhalakshminarayana) in the Narayanachata Matha near Bada-danda. The Deity was installed standing north-east of the portal, in order to ward off unforeseen disaster. He also gave numerous land grants to ensure the regular maintenance of Lord Jagannatha's worship as well as the celebration of festivals in Jagannatha Puri.
He was a composer of padas, but his identity is not clearly understood. No one can say whether he was Ananta Acarya, Ananta dasa, or Ananta Pandita.
A brahmana by caste and a resident of Navadvipa. Ananta was a disciple of Advaita Prabhu. He incarnated as Sudevi in Krishnalila. Padakalpataru contains one pada composed by Ananta. (See Vaishnavavandana by Jiva Gosvami, Devakinandana, and Vrndavana dasa, Also BMO p.173)
A.55. ANANTA (Sisu Ananta):
Ananta (or Sisu Ananta) was the youngest amongst the famous panchasakhas. According to Udaya Kahani of Acyutananda, Ananta was born at Balipatna in the district of Puri in the twenty-fifth year of the reign of Purusottamadeva (1486 AD.). He was known as Sisu (child) and founded the Sisu-sampradaya. In later years many poets added the title Sisu to their names.
The story behind the name Sisu is found in the book of Isvara dasa: Once Ananta and Jagannatha dasa paid a visit to Laksmi and Narayana in Vaikuntha. Assuming the form of a sakhi (female associate), Jagannatha attracted the attention of the divine couple. Ananta assumed the form of Padmana (Pradyumna, the infant son of Laksmi). The Deities caressed the child as Pradyumna. Jagannatha dasa was searching and realised through mediation that Ananta had become the child and was sitting near the Deities (Shri Chaitanyabhagavata chapter LXIV, pada 126-132, p.403). After this incident, `Sisu' was added to Ananta's name.
The most renowned amongst the Sisu poets were; Sisu Arjuna dasa, author of Ramabhiva and Kalpalata; Sisu Balarama dasa, author of Rasa; Sisu Sankar dasa, author of Ushabhihara; Sisu Pratapraya, author of Sasisena; Sisu Dayanidhi dasa, author of Aswamedha Yaga.
None of Sisu Ananta's works have been published yet, except Udebakhana, and some small poems. The following is a list of his manuscripts which have been preserved in the State Museum of Orissa: Gaduda-Ananta-Sambada, Agatachumbaka-Malika, Hetudayabhagabata, Udebakhara Chhatabakhara, Thika bakhara stotra, choutisa and bhajanas.
After returning from Gaudadesa, Lord Chaitanya enquired about Ananta's writings. Ananta informed the Lord that he had written the Bhabisya Purana.
In the Shri Chaitanya-bhagavata of Isvara dasa it is explained that all the members of the panchasakha came to Puri, near Baradanda, in the month of Caitra (March-April) to join the sankirtana party. The close relationship between Lord Chaitanya and the panchasakha was apparent at this time. There is also a description, in the same book, of Lord Chaitanya's visit to Cuttack on his way to Vrndavana. At that time the king sent a messenger to bring the panchasakha's. When they arrived, Lord Chaitanya embraced them all.
The author also describes the incident of how Ananta received the title `Sisu'. It is further explain that Ananta was an associate of Krishna in the Dvapara age. At that time the Lord explained that He would advent in the age of Kali as Chaitanya (Chaitanya mora nija dehi), thus He advised Ananta to also take birth then.
According to Isvara dasa, after destroying the Yadava class, Balarama-Sankarsana went to live in the Bindu-Sarovara as the serpent Ananta. At the age of fifteen, Ananta was told by a sage, "Hear me, O Ananta. Nityananda, the embodiment of Sankarsana, has taken birth in Gaudadesa. Chaitanya, the Lord of the universe, will go to Nilacala, along with his companions, and you will serve His lotus feet. Nityananda is Sankarsana, and you are His partial self. That is why you bear the name Ananta." The hermit further explained that in the Dvapara-yuga Ananta had taken birth as Dama.
On His way to Puri, Lord Chaitanya visited Konarka. Ananta met Him there and fell at the Lord's feet. Lord Chaitanya advised Nityananda to initiate Ananta. Thus, with a joyful heart, Nityananda imparted the maha-mantra into the ear of Ananta.
There is a story in Chourasi Ajna, written by Sudarsana dasa, in which Sisu Ananta displays his occult powers before his other four associates, as well as Lord Chaitanya and Prataparudra. According to Chourasi Ajna, Ananta plucked the ripened jackfruit from the plant and distributed it amongst all the people present there.
A.56. ANANTA ACARYA:
He belonged to the disciplic line of Advaita Prabhu (See Cc. 1.12.58).
A.57. ANANTA ACARYA:
He belonged to the disciple-line descending from Gadadhara Pandita Gosvami (Cc. 1.12.80). According to Bhaktiratnakara 13, he received the responsibility of serving the Deity of Govindadeva in Vrndavana. A resident of Vrndavana and a brahmana by caste, this Ananta Acarya's `guru-pranali' is as follows: "Pundarika Vidyanidhi, Gadadhara Pandita, Haridasa Pandita, Radhakrishna Dasa."
Ananta Acarya, accompanied by other devotees, welcomed Virabhadra Prabhu when he arrived in Vrndavana (Bhaktiratnakara 13.313-314). Haridasa Pandita, the disciple of Ananta Acarya, commanded Krishnadasa Kaviraja to write Cc.(Cc. Adi 8.50-60). Yadunatha dasa mentions the names of three Ananta Acarya's in his Shrimat Pandita Gosvami (Sakhanirnayamrta 8, 39, and 47). It cannot be ascertained which Ananta Acarya is referred to in Vaishnavavandana.
A.58. ANANTA ACARYA:
He was a Vaishnava poet (Bangiya Sahitya Sevaka). One pada composed by Ananta Acarya is found in Padakalpataru, pada no. 2285.
A.59. ANANTA CATTARAJA (CATTOPADHYAYA) KANTHAVARANA:
He was a brahmana by caste. In an earlier incarnation he was Gopali (Gaura-ganoddesa-dipika, 196,206). According to Yadunatha dasa, he belonged to the line descending from Gadadhara (Sakhanirnayamrta 13). Cc Adi 12.80 mentions him only by the title `ShriKanthabharana'.
A.60. ANANTA DASA:
He was a descendant in the disciple line from Advaita Prabhu. (Cc. Adi 12.61)
A.61. ANANTA DASA:
He was a Vaishnava poet. Padakalpataru contains 32 padas ending with the bhanita of Ananta dasa. (Bangiya Sahitya Sevaka.)
A.62. ANANTA PANDITA:
He was a brahmana by caste from the village Atisara. CBh 3.2.50-56 explains that when Lord Chaitanya visited Atisara, Ananta made arrangements for His stay. Jagadvandu Bhadra considers Ananta dasa and Ananta Pandita to be one and the same person (CCU p.624).
A.63. ANANTA PURI:
Pata Paryatana of Abhirama dasa mentions the name of Ananta Puri, and his Shripata at Badbeluna in Burdwan. He began the tradition of offering seva to the Deity of Gopinatha, prior to the birth of Lord Gauranga. He died on the eight day of the bright fortnight in the month of Agrahayana. The standards Ananda Puri set regarding the service to the Deity, attention to guests, and celebration of holy festivals continued long after his death. Later, at the recommendation of Maharaja Mansinsha, the Emperor of Delhi issued a land-grant of 409 bighas of land in favour of the Gopinatha Temple. Krishnarama Raya, the Raja of Burdwan, also gave an endowment of 200 bighas of land (rent free), and his successor, Raja Tejascandra, granted an amount of Rs. 163 annually.
Radhavallabha Raya lived in the village Bankura, located at the south-eastern corner of Badabeluna. Ananta Puri commanded him to install the Deity of Radha on the left side of the Deity of Gopinatha. It has been said that Raja Ramacandra Raya, the leader of the dacoits from Bhatakula in the district of Burdwan, came to steal the jewels from the temple of Gopinatha. However, upon seeing the Deities he was captivated by Their beauty and lost his desire to attack steal from Them. On the contrary, he escaped from the temple only after making a rent-free land grant of 100 bighas, lying between Bhatakul and Badabeluna.
Ananta Puri was an accomplished Animasiddhi (Gaura-ganoddesa-dipika 96-97).
A.64. ANANTA RAYA:
He was a disciple of Syamanandi Damodara.
A.65. ANANTAVARMAN CORAGANGADEVA:
This king of the Ganga dynasty established the present temple of Jagannatha Puri around 1078 AD. This information is recorded in the copper inscription of King Nrisinhadev IV, found in the Tirumala temple located on the northern gate of the main temple. (See "Anangabhimadeva")
He was the son of Sarvajna, who was the paternal great-grandfather of Rupa and Sanatana Gosvami.
Vaishnavavandana mentions his name as a sannyasi-associate of Lord Gauranga. (See Namamrtasamudra 163)
A.68. ANUKULA CAKRAVARTI:
He was a teacher of Rasikananda Prabhu (Rasikamangala Purva 19.6)
A.69. ANUPAMA (VALLABHA):
He belonged to the descending-line from Lord Chaitanya. He was the youngest brother of Rupa and Sanatana Gosvami. Kumardeva was the name of their father. Jiva Gosvami of Vrndavana was the son of Anupama. Anupama was the Chief of the Mint, under the rule of Hussain Shah, the King of Gauda (Bhaktiratnakara 1.665-669 and CC 3.4.43) He was a worshipper of Rama, this may be why his name has not been mentioned separately in GauraA ganoddesa-dipika and Vaishnava Vandana.
He was the author of Amodakavya which consists of fifteen chapters dealing with Krishnalila. He also wrote the Vritti (account) entitled Samanjasa. The concluding part of this Vritti mentions names of Lord Chaitanya, Rupa Gosvami and Svarupa (Calcutta Sanskrit Sahitya Parisat mss. no. Sa 855). He also wrote "Vidvadvinodini Sucika" of Shrimad Bhagavatam, and Shri Sitasataka Kavya (Sanskrit collections, Benaras 1897-1901, p.9)
As an autobiographical information he notes at the end of Amodakavya that he was the son of Laksminarayana, and that Shri Campaklata poured the nectar of Krishnakatha in his ears. The concluding verse of Sitasataka explains that he became a member of the gathering headed by Kasinatha, and was awarded the two titles of "Tarkalankara" and "Vidyabahadur". According to Gopinatha Kaviraja, the expression "Varsantara-nayaka" in the above-noted verse is addressed to Mr. Duncan, who was a Political Resident during Lord Cornwallis's time (1786-1793 AD.). Through the initiative of Mr. Duncan, the Sanskrit College in Kasi was set up. Kasinath was the first Principal, Director or Rector of the Sanskrit College, between 1791 and 1801 AD. Hence Anupanarayana can be considered as a contemporary of Kasinatha.
However, as far as the subject of Siddhanta is concerned, Anupanarayana did not follow the view held by Lord Chaitanya. No doubt he had great reverence for Lord Chaitanya and His associates, as well as faith in the sadhus of the Ramanandi sect. But in his Sitasataka Kavya he expresses his sincerest loyalty to Sita and Rama. His Sannayasa Vritti is also Dvaitapara, and does not indicate Acintya-bhedabheda.
A.71. ARJUNA VISVASA:
He was a disciple of Narottama dasa Thakura. In Premavilasa 20, it is stated that he was extremely competent in offering Guruseva. (Narottamavilasa 12)
He was from the village Naihati, and a disciple of Syamananda Prabhu (Rasikamangala Daksina 12.3) Syamananda Prabhu, along with Rasikananda Prabhu, held three holy festivals in the house of Arjuni.
A.73. ASARA PURI:
He was a disciple of Madhavendra Puri (See Chaitanyamangala 34 of Jayananda).
A.74. ASRAMI UPENDRA:
He was a devotee of Lord Gauranga (Vaishnavavandana).
A.75. ASTA GOSVAMI:
The following constitutes the asta, or eight, Gosvami's: Rupa Gosvami, Sanatana Gosvami, Raghunatha Bhatta, Jiva Gosvami, Gopala Bhatta, Raghunatha Dasa Gosvami, Lokanatha Gosvami, and Krishnadasa Kaviraja Gosvami.
A.76. ASTA KAVIRAJA:
The following constitutes the asta, or eight, Kaviraja: Ramacandra Kaviraja, Govinda Kaviraja, Karnapura Kaviraja, Nrsimha Kaviraja, Bhagavan Kaviraja, Vallavi Kaviraja, Gopiramana Kaviraja, and Gokula Kaviraja.
A.77. ASTA PRADHANA MAHANTA:
Svarupa Damodara, Raya Ramananda, Govindananda, Vasu Ramananda, Sena Sivananda, Govinda, Madhava, and Vasudeva Ghosh constitute the eight foremost mahantas.
A.78. ATMARAMA DASA:
He was a devotee of Nityananda Prabhu and a contemporary of Lord Chaitanya. Saudamini was the name of his wife. A vaidya by caste, Atmarama's Shripata stands at Shrikhanda in the district of Burdwan. Balarama dasa, alias Nityananda dasa, the author of Premavilasa, was the son of Atmarama dasa (Also see "Balarama dasa"). He was a well known poet and an accomplished kirtana singer (Gaurapadatarangini p. 51)
A.79. ATMARAMA DASA:
He was a disciple of Shrinivasa Acarya Prabhu. Atmarama and Syamadasa Catta, another disciple of Acarya Prabhu, came from the same village. (Karnananda, Baharampura ed. 1).
A.80. ATMARAMA DASA:
He performed bhajan in Mathura along with Syamasundara dasa and Mathura dasa, all of them were disciples of Acarya Prabhu (Karnananda, Baharampura ed. 1)
A.81. ATULACANDRA CAMPATI (Kalikata):
Atula Candra completed his B.A. degree with honours in English, Sanskrit, and Mathematics and was a favourite student of the renowned mathematician, Gaurisankara babu. He lived at No. 1. Madan Mitra Lane in North Calcutta.
Atula married Kshiroda, the only daughter of Digamvari devi. Digamvari was the sister of Jagadvandhu, thus on the occasion of his marriage Atula met Jagadvandhu for the first time and was very impressed with his beauty, simplicity and sweet disposition. Later, after returning from Brahmanakanda, Jagadvandhu unexpectedly arrived at Atula's Madan Mitra Lane residence. They did not, however, develop any deeper intimacy on that occasion.
Later, Atula Candra's daughter, Saraju, passed away when Atula was working as the Headmaster of Arah High School. At that time Jagadvandhu suddenly arrived at Arah to offer solace to him. According to convention, Atula Candra offered Vandhu a pair of loin cloths prepared from matka silk which he gladly accepted. Before his departure for Bengal, Vandhu called Atula Candra aside and told him privately: "The only substantial thing within this unreal universe is Krishna bhajan. Do not get entangled in this maya. You are destined to assist me in my mission."
After this conversation a distinct change came about in Atula Candra's nature; he felt agitated inwardly and wanted to ascertain the actual spiritual position of his maternal uncle-in-law, Jagadvandhu.
On one occasion Atula Candra and his assistant teacher had a quarrel, which lasted for a few days, regarding the administration of the school. At that time Atula received a letter from Vandhu, who was staying at Dahapada. The letter advised Atula to give up quarrelling and try to become absorbed in love instead. Atula was stunned to think that Jagadvandhu had the power to understand what was taking place in Arah and could send a letter to reach him just at the appropriate moment.
Atula Candra contemplated the incident for days and became increasingly detached from his daily life. Suddenly an idea came to his mind which would prove beyond any doubt whether Shri Jagadvandhu was actually an incarnation of God; On a dark night Atula Candra went inside a nearby railway tunnel and positioned himself on the rail, thinking that if the incoming Bombay Mail were to stop about five feet away from where he way lying, he would then be convinced that this was an act of God (Jagadvandhu). Thereafter the Bombay mail train came to a halt a few feet away from his body, apparently due to some serious mechanical trouble. Atula Candra jumped up in joy shouting "Jaya Prabhu Jagadvandhu" and ran off in search of Vandhu. That was the end of his career as a teacher. (This miraculous story was narrated by Atula Candra Campati Mahasaya personally to the humble author of this book Shri Haridasa dasa.)
It is said that Vandhu had once earlier gone to Arah on his way to the west and had given Atula Candra an indirect hint that both of them would meet again in Calcutta. Prabhu gave a leaf packet containing prasada, rice cooked in ghee, to Atula Candra, who after touching the packet to his forehead, happily consumed not only the rice but also the leaf packet. As a result, a wonderful sense of detachment surfaced within Atula Candra and he began to chant "Haribalo" incessantly.
Atula Candra's manners and behaviour after his arrival in Calcutta appeared to be somewhat unbalanced. He discarded his original dress, putting on a saffron colored robe, and began to walk about the streets of Calcutta in search of his beloved Jagadvandhu, all the while chanting Harinama, unmindful of food or rest. Though he became emaciated, he looked cheerful and anxiously awaited the darshan of Jagadvandhu. One day, while strolling near Strand Road he heard a familiar voice coming from a horseA drawn carriage with its shutters down, saying; "Hare Krishna, Come to me". In ecstacy, Atula Candra jumped on the roof of the carriage, chanting the holy name very loudly and continued until the carriage came to a halt at No. 67, Casadhopa Pada Lane (a locality of farmers and washermen).
Atula Candra was considered a very close devotee of Prabhu Jagadvandhu, so much so that Atula would become mesmerized at the very sight of Jagadvandhu. One day Vandhu gave two rupees to Atula and made him buy one set of loin cloths and a pair of cymbals. Then Vandhu called Atula close to him and instructed him clearly as follows; 1. To go to Jagannatha Ghata very early the following morning, take a dip in the river Ganges, put on the set of loin cloths and discard the saffron robe; 2. To wander continuously throughout the streets playing his cymbals and chanting "Krishna Govinda Gopala Shyama"; 3. To go to Kalighata, take a dip in the river and then return to Jagannatha Ghata for another dip; 4. To continue this program throughout the day and night for as long as possible; 5. Govinda would provide him food at His will; 6. After the task would be satisfactorily completed then Atula would be able to receive darsana of a Mahapurusha.
From the next day, Atula dedicated himself fully to implicitly following Vandhu's instructions. By the grace of Jagadvandhu he acquired adequate strength and was able to undergo the difficult rituals prescribed by Jagadvandhu for a long period of time. Despite many obstacles he continued, oblivious of his near and dear ones, his pride of birth, education, and status. After completing his vow Atula was filled with ecstacy. Drawn by the love of Jagadvandhu, Atula went to the cottages of the "Domas" (untouchable caste) in the Rambagan area where a maha mahotsava had been organized by the devotees to celebrate the appearance of Shri Jagadvandhu Prabhu. Atula was overjoyed to see the festivities and embraced everyone present. With his own hands, Vandhu offered Atula mahaprasada and later on took Atula with him to Pabna. A mahapurusha called Harana Kshepa (Kshepa means insane) used to live at the outskirts of this town. Harana's behaviour and manners appeared very unusual. Jagadvandhu Prabhu went away after leaving Atula in the charge of Harana Kshepa.
During Atula's stay there he was ordered one day by Harana to eat the left over food of one Vanku Mondala. Without hesitation Atula consumed the left over food as ordered. Afterwards Harana affectionately embraced Atula and kissed him on the cheek.
Soon thereafter Harana explained to Atula the real identity of Jagadvandhu Prabhu, which left no further doubt in Atula's mind. Before sending Atula back to Calcutta, Harana blessed Atula and endowed him with mahasakti (great power). (This has been taken from a book entitled Shri Vandhu Lilatarangini)
On his arrival in Calcutta Campati (Atula) devoted himself to the service of Vandhu. It is said that Campati once picked up phlegm, which had been spit by Jagadvandhu into an open drain, and swallowed it as if it were nectar. Seeing this Vandhu at first questioned Campati's action but afterwards, in appreciation of his total devotion, gave him a `Magna Carta' saying that from then onward Campati would be at liberty to act as he wished and Vandhu would hold himself responsible for the consequences of his actions.
Thereafter Atula Candra, dressed in the garb of a social outcast and fearlessly went from door to door chanting the holy name at the top of his voice in the neighborhood of wine shops and prostitutes quarters. Keeping in the spirit of his own name, Atula Candra, took it upon himself to reclaim the clan of social outcasts.
Later on Atula Candra supervised the seva at Shriangana, established by Vandhuprabhu at Goalcamata in Faridapura. For two and a half years (from 1910 to 1912 AD.) Kshiroda devi, Atula's wife, prepared the bhoga with due reverence; she abstained from speech and kept her nose covered by a piece of cloth while cooking. She used to travel between her nearby maternal uncle's house and Shriangana daily.
After the demise of Vandhuprabhu on the first day Asvina 1328 B.S. (1921 AD.), Campati Mahasaya stayed mostly at his Madan Mitra Lane house in Calcutta. He followed the teaching of Vandhu and wandered about the streets of Calcutta daily chanting the holy name. He walked about absorbed in trance, oblivious of his garments, food, and rest. His melodious kirtana was appreciated by everyone throughout the city.
Shri Bipin Bihari Cattopadhyaya, a Munsiff by profession and a resident of Makadadaha, happened to be a classmate and childhood friend of Campati Mahasaya. We (the author and his associates) had the good fortune of enjoying the company of Campati Mahasaya in his most intimate mood at Makadadaha by courtesy of Bipin babu. When the two friends met they would invariably become involved in a fake quarrel, but would later sing and dance together. Once Bipin babu took Campati Mahasaya to Kasi with him. One day they got into one of their usual arguments but it turned so serious that Bipin babu suddenly called a barber and instructed him to shave half of Campati's head, moustache, and beard. Campati Mahasaya did not protest and the barber completed his job. Afterwards Campati calmly went into the street as if nothing had happened and wandered about singing Harinama, unmindful of the peoples' adverse reactions to his appearance. When Campati Mahasaya returned in the evening Bipin babu called his junior, Giridhari dasa, and pointing to Campati said, "This is called nirabhimana (modesty). Without this state of mind one cannot expect to reach God." Then he embraced Campati and they happily chanted the holy name together. Bipin babu eventually died on the lap of his friend Campati Mahasaya.
Campati Mahasaya had respect for all religions. One day I (Haridasa dasa) reached his place when he was taking prasada. Seeing my pale face he said, "I know today is Ekadashi and you have not taken any food." At that moment a gentleman passed by and Campati begged him for some money. The person did not have any cash but went out and brought some ravdi (sweetened condensed milk) from a shop outside. Campati affectionately gestured to me to take the milk and I was fully satisfied. Later on he took me out with him but cautioned me to keep silent and listen only to what he said. First he went to a gentleman at Kumartuli and asked for eight annas to buy food for me, a brahmana boy who had nothing to eat that day. After some persuasion the man paid two annas. Thereafter we walked inside the prostitutes quarters of the Sonagaci area. Campati Mahasaya fell prostrate on the door steps and began reciting "Haribola, jaya Prabhu Jagadvandu sundara, jaya sundara baiji (baiji means a professional dancing girl). On hearing Campati's Harinama the inmates of the quarters began to abuse him with filthy language. This, however, had no effect whatsoever upon Campati. Constantly chanting the holy name, Campti Mahasaya proceeded towards Beadon Park. Without realizing how to attain bhakti I (the author) followed along behind him thinking within myself that I was going around with an insane person. As if reading my thoughts, Campati Mahasaya suddenly stopped and turning towards me and said, "You fool, bhakti is attained through bhiksha."
He then walked up to Rambagan and after placing a piece of his loin cloth around his neck approached each hut dweller. Addressing them as mothers of Vraja he begged for their bhiksha. These low caste Doma community people were extremely poor yet each one of them gave half a paisa to Campati with great pleasure, which amounted to five annas in all. I thought that his method of collecting alms was a bit queer and questioned him about it. In his typical taunting way he told me that according to Jagadvandhu, Harinama is the only satyam (truth) in this universe, everything else is mithya (falsehood).
Campati Mahasaya's deep devotion to Jagadvandhu was unparalleled; He saw Prabhu in everything. When we used to meet he always snatched away my money or clothing. Once, while escorting him from the Medical College to his Madan Mitra Lane residence, I asked him to bless me for a good future life. He replied saying that he would do it if I gave him sixteen annas (a full rupee). I told him that I had no possession except my abhiman (pride). He said, in his typical taunting way, "When a man is born out of urination and dies when his breathing stops what then is the value of abhiman?"
Before his demise in 1925 AD. I made several unsuccessful attempts to meet him again. However, Campati Mahasaya appeared in my dream and warned me to be careful of Narijati (women).
A.82. ATULAKRSNA GOSVAMI:
A descendant of the family line of Nityananda Prabhu. Atulakrishna published an edition of CBh., translated Laghubhagavatamrta and wrote several books such as Bhaktera Jaya (victory of a devotee).
A.83. AULA MANOHARA DASA:
This saintly man appeared many years after Lord Chaitanya, and lived a long life. It is said that in 1657 Saka (1735 AD) on 17 Paus (approx January 2nd) he went to Vrndavana from Badanganj. An annual festival is held to commemorate his disappearance at Badanganj on the day of Makara-Sankranti (mid-January). Memorials containing the mortal remains of Aula Manohara were established in three places; 1) Badanganj, near the Goghat Police Station in the Arambag subdivision of the Hugli district, 2) At the village Gokulnagar, adjacent to Jaipur village, six miles away from Vishnupur in the Bankura district, 3) At Sonamukhi village in the Bankura district.
He had a large number of disciples, and paid regular visits to the rural schools to impart religious instructions to the students. He was a childhood friend of Jnanadasa of Kandra, where they stayed together until the demise of Jnanadasa. It is said that Aula Manohara dasa was a disciple (mantra-sisya) of Ma Jahnava. It is not certain whether it was this Manohara dasa who compiled Padasamudra. He inspired Vipra Parasurama to adopt Vesasraya.
A.84. AULIYA THAKURA:
He, along with his followers, participated in the Rasa festival celebrated by Syamananda Prabhu at Gopiballavpur (Rasikamangala Pascima 2.5).