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NITAAI-Veda.nyf > All Scriptures By Acharyas > Bhaktivinoda Thakura > Vaisnava Siddhanta Mala > Chapter-X

Tenth Chapter:

Three Evidences - Spiritual Sound, Direct Perception & Logic


Q. What is evidence (pramana)?

A. Pramana is that by which the truth is ascertained.

Q. How many types of evidence are there?

A. There are three types.

Q. What are they?

A. Spiritual sound (sabda), direct perception (pratyaksa), and logic (anumana).

Q. What is spiritual sound?

A. All the Vedic scriptures are evidence in the form of spiritual sound, for they are the incarnation of self-evident knowledge (svatah-siddha-jnana). They alone are the best form of evidence. The reason for this is without such a form of evidence, it is not possible to know the truth that lives eternally beyond temporary matter.

Q. Why can't the Lord or the spiritual world be observed by direct perception and logic?

A. Evidence by direct perception (pratyaksa) is merely knowledge gathered by materialistic sensual impressions; and logic (anumana) can draw conclusions only to the extent of that same resource of material observation. These two forms of evidence can only give knowledge of the material world and nothing else.

Q. Then why do we accept the processes of direct perception and logic in ascertaining the truth of the supreme goal of life?

A. Because they are effective tools with which to confirm the perfect truthfulness of that information received from the sabda-pramana (evidence as spiritual sound; the Vedas).