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Second Realization


 Text 1



      parananda-rasashrayam cid-acic-chakti-sampannam

      tam vande kali-pavanam


     sat—eternal; cid—knowledge; ananda—bliss; sandra—inmtense;  angam—limbs; parananda—supreme bliss; rasa—nectar;  ashrayam—shelter; cid—spirit; acit—and matter; shakti—with the  potency; sampannam—endowed; tam—to Him; vande—I bow; kali- pavanam—the purifier of the Kali-yuga.


     To Lord Chaitanya, whose transcendental form is filled with  eternity, knowledge, and bliss, who is the shelter of  transcendental nectar and bliss, who is the master of all  spiritual and material potencies, and who is the purifier of the  Kali-yuga, I offer my respectful obeisances.


 Text 2


svarupam asthito hy atma

      svarupa-shakti-vrittitah vadaty eva nijatmanam

      upadhi-rahitam vacah


     svarupam—own form; asthito—situated; hy—indeed;  atma—soul; svarupa-shakti-vrittitah—by his own power;  vadaty—says; eva—indeed; nijatmanam—own self; upadhi- rahitam—without material designations; vacah—words.


     When he is situated in his original nature, by his own power  the soul gives the correct answers to these spiritual questions,  answers free from the touch of matter.


Commentary by Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura



      Influenced by matter in different ways, the souls imprisoned  in the material world give a great variety of answers to the  questions posed in the second verse of the First Chapter of this  book. Those souls who by spiritual realization and by understanding the  teachings of a genuine spiritual master know the truth about the  soul give the correct answrs to these questions. These questions  have each only one correct answer. The three questions posed in  the First Chapter, Second Verse of this book are: 1. I perceive  this world. Who am I? 2. What is this immense material world? 3.  What relation have I with this world? The souls influenced by the  material nature give a great variety of answers to these  questions, answers recounted in the First Chapter of this book.  In this Second Chapter the correct answers to these three  questions, the answers given by the self-realized souls, will be  recounted. But first we will consider this question: Who are the  self-realized souls? The souls who have no relation to material  place, time, senses, and body, and who are instead situated in  their original spiritual nature, are self-realized souls. In the  book Shrimad-Bhagavatam (2.10.6), which contains the essential  teachings of the Vedanta, the pure self-realized soul is  described in these words:


 muktir hitvanyatha-rupam

      svarupena vyavasthitih


      "Liberation is the permanent situation of the form  of the living entity after he gives up the changeable gross and  subtle material bodies."*


     When he is freed from material existence, the soul is  situated in his original nature. Then he is self-realized. On the  self-realized soul will give the correct answers to our three  questions. Here someone may protest: "The living entity  in the material world has a body, senses, and reasoning power.  If he renounces material existence, then what will happen to his  body, senses, and reasoning power? How will he be able to give  the correct answers to your questions?" The answer to this  protest is that the soul is like spiritual knowledge personified.  The soul has spiritual knowledge as one of its natural features.  The soul has not only spiritual knowledge of itself. The soul is  also filled with light, so that with the light of its knowledge  it can illuminate the features of other things also. In this way  the soul knows both itself and other objects also. This means  that the soul has all power to see, hear, smell, and taste. The  soul has knowledge as part of its nature. When it falls into the  material world, the soul is imprisoned within a series of  material coverings. To enable him to interact with the material  world, the spirit soul is given a second set of senses: material  senses. In this way the soul sees with material eyes, hears with  material ears, smells with a material nose, tastes with a  material tongue, and experiences touch with material skin. His  original spiritual senses now deprived of their powers, the soul  now uses the powers of this second set of senses: material  senses. Also, the conclusions the soul draws are now drawn with  the aid of material reasoning power. All of this a great calamity  for the spirit soul, whose natural condition is to be full of  knowledge. When the soul becoems self-realized and his original  nature is revived, then he can again perform all these activities  with his original, spiritual senses. Then his reason power is  again his original spiritual reasoning power. In that liberated  condition, with his original, spiritual reasoning power, the soul  can give the correct answers to our questions. With his own  spiritual power the soul can give the answers. These answers the  soul gives are free from all of matter's limitations and defects.  The answer a self-realized soul residing in India gives a self- realized soul residing in the northern countries will also give.  A soul living in the spiritual world of Vaikuntha will also  give the same answer. And why not? The pure liberated souls did  not give answers that come from the great variety of mixtures of  the material modes. That is why their answers are not different  from each other.


 Text 3


bhagavan eka evaste


tac-chakti-nihshrito jivo

      brahmandam ca jadatmakam


     bhagavan—God; ekah—one; eva—indeed; aste—is;  para—transcendental; shakti—potency; samanvitah—endowed; tat—His;  shakti—potency; nihshrito—manifest; jivo—individual soul;  brahmandam—universe; ca—and; jadatmakam—material.


     God is one. God has many transcendental powers. The  individual spirit souls and the material worlds are all  manifested from God's powers.


Commentary by Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura



      In the Vedic literature it is said:


 ekam evadvitiyam



      "There is only one God. He has no rival."


 neha nanasti kincana



      "Nothing is separate from God."


 sa vishva-krid vishva-vit



      "God created the world. He knows all that happens in  the world."


 pradhana-kshetra-patir gunesah



      "God is the master of the world. He is the master of  the modes of material nature."


 eko devo bhagavan varenyah



      "There is only one God. He is the best of persons.  He has all opulences."


     By these words God's eternal existence is clearly confirmed.  In Shrimad-Bhagavatam (1.2.11) it is said:


 vadanti ta tattva-vidas

      tattvam yaj jnanam advayam

brahmeti paramatmeti

      bhagavan iti shabdyate



      "Learned transcendentalists who know the Absolute  Truth call the non-dual substance Brahman, Paramatma, or  Bhagavan."*


     Bhagavan (the Supreme Person) is superior to Brahman (the  impersonal divine effulgence) and Paramatma (the all-pervading  Supersoul). Still, one should not think that Brahman,  Paramatma, are two separate gods and Bhagavan is the Supreme  God that dominates Them. Here the individual spirit soul is the  seer, and Bhagavan is the object seen. When he first begins his  spiritual life, and he travels on the path of philosophical  speculation (jnana-marga), the soul sees the Brahman feature  of Bhagavan. When he makes some advancement on that path, the  soul begins to walk on the path of yoga (yoga-marga). When he  walks on that path, the soul sees the Paramatma feature of  Bhagavan. When by good fortune the soul walks on the path of  pure devotiuonal service (shuddha-bhakti-marga), the soul sees  Bhagavan directly. Bhagavan brings great sweetness to the eyes.  He is full of transcendental bliss. He is eternal and full of  knowledge and bliss. His form is graceful. He is a very handsome  and charming person. He has all opulence, all power, all fane,  all handsomeness, all knowledge, and all renunciation. He has  them in the best, the most sublime way. Brahman and Paramatma are  both hidden within Bhagavan. Bhagavan has all potencies. By His  wish His potencies manifest His regular and occasional pastimes.  He is supremely independent. He is the author of all rules and  regulations. Still, He is never bound by any rules or  regulations. Bhagavan has no rival. No one is equal to Him. No  one is superior to Him. His spiritual potencies are multifarious.  They have many different powers. By these spiritual potencies  Bhagavan's spiritual abode, spiritual pastimes, and spiritual  paraphernalia are all manifested. That are all transformations of  Bhagavan's spiritual potency. From His perfect spiritual potency  the spiritual world is manifest. Bhagavan's potency acts in  many different ways. One kind of action it performs is the manifestation of  the many atoms. That is seen. Spiritual effulgence, spiritual   qualities, and spiritual activities are all manifested from  Bhagavan's spiritual potency.  From the jiva-shakti potency the  many indifidual spirit souls (jivas) are manifest. The spiritual  potency has a shadow. From that shadow are manifest the five  gross manterial elements, the five sense objects, the ten senses,  and the mind, intelligence, and false ego. In this way 24 material elements are manifest. The potency that manifests the  material world is thus called the "chaya-shakti"  (shadow potency).


 Text 4


so 'rkas tat-kirano jivo


priti-dharmah cid-atma sah

      paranande 'pi daya-bhak


     so—He; arkas—sun; tat-kiranois effulgence; jivo—the  individual spirit souls; nitya—eternal anugata—following;  vigrahah—form; priti—love; dharmah—nature; cid-atma—spirit  soul; sah—he; paranande—with spiritual bliss; api—also;  daya—inheritance; bhak—possessing.


     Bhagavan (the Supreme Personality of Godhead) is like the  sun. The many individual souls are like particles of light that  come from that Bhagavan-sun. Each indivisual soul has an eternal  spiritual form like the form of Bhagavan. Each individual soul is  by nature spiritual and blissful. His nature is to love Bhayava.  He is like a son entitled to a share in his father's (Bhagavan's)  property.


Commentary by Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura



      Bhagavan is like the sun. The rays of light emanating from  that sun are the individual spirit souls. These rays-of-light  individual spirit souls have a nature like Bhagavan's. Each  individual soul has an effulgent spiritual form suited to its own  particular nature. Each soul's form is effulgent and spiritual.  Therefore each soul is spiritual in nature. Each soul has  spiritual qualities. A small particle of love is part of each  soul's spiritual nature. Therefore a particle of love is the  soul's nature. Therefore it is said, "Love is the soul's  nature." Because the soul's spiritual form and natural love are  both small, it is said that the individual souls' forms and  natural love are not perfect or complete. The individual souls  also possess a asmall particle of spiritual bliss. The bliss of  realizing impersonal Brahman is described in these words of  Shrila Rupa Gosvami's Bhakti-rasamrita-sindhu:


 brahmanando bhaved esha

      cet parardha-guni-kritah naiti bhakti-sudhambodheh

      paramanu-tulam api



      "If brahmananda, or the happiness of becoming one  with the Supreme, is multiplied by one trillionfold, it still  cannot compare to even an atomic fraction of the happiness  derived from the ocean of devotional service."*


     By his own nature each individual soul is like a son  qualified to inherit this sublimely blissful and most exalted  status of engaging in devotional service to the Lord.  Aware that  the happiness of realizing impersonal Brahman is very small by  comparison, the soul becomes Bhagavan's servant and follower.  When He is pleased by a certain soul's service, Bhagavan empowers  that soul with the powers of His spiritual potencies. Now endowed  with that spiritual potency, the soul is able to experience the  sublime bliss of devotional service.


 Text 5


tac-chaktes chayaya vishvam

      sarvam etad vinirmitam

yatra bahirmukha jivah

      samsaranti nijecchaya


     tac-chaktes—of His potency; chayaya—by a shadow;  vishvam—the material world; sarvam—all; etad—this;  vinirmitam—created; yatra—where;  bahirmukha—who have turned their faces; jivah—the individual  souls; samsaranti—wander; nijecchaya—by their own wish.


     By the shadow of Bhagavan's spiritual potency the entire  material world is created. In that material world wander the  individual souls who have turned their faces away from Bhagavan.


Commentary by Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura



      When he is a servant of Lord Krishna, the individual soul  becomes like a son who inherits the father's property. This  inheritance is transcendental bliss. When he turns his face away  from Lord Krishna and triues to be independent, the individual soul  falls into the world of birth and death. The spiritual potency  helps the individual soul become more and more elevated, and the  material potency (maya-shakti), the potency that creates the  material world, helps the individual soul become more and more  firmly shackled in the prison house of repeated birth and death.  The material potency is a shadow of the spiritual potency. The  individual souls who desrve to go to the world of birth and death  take birth in that world. There he is given a gross and subtle  material body to experience the various perceptions of the  material world. In this way he falls into the material world and  there suffers many troubles that come from the results of his  various activities (karma). There is one reason and one reason  only that these souls are in the marterial world. The reason is  that they have turned their faces away from Bhagavan (bhagavad- bahirmukha). It should be understood that the individual spirit  souls are not manifested from the material world. Neither are  they manifested from the spiritual world. They are manifested  from the border that separates those two worlds. For them  material pleasures may be more attractive than spiritual  upliftment. Therefore they may of their own will choose to stay  in the world of birth and death. For this Bhagavan is not to  blame. Showing His mercy to these souls, Bhagavan created the  material world so they could enjoy there as they wished. Bhagavan  created the material world in such a way that after only a few  days of trying to enjoy there, the souls would become intelligent  and turn from those enjoyments. In this way Bhagavan created the  path of performing devotional activities in the association of  saintly devotees. Following that path, the souls become delivered  from the material world.


 Text 6


jivato jadato vapi

      bhagavan sarvada prithak

na tau bhagavato bhinnau

      rahasyam idam eva hi


     jivato—from the individual soul; jadato—from matter;  va—or; api—also; bhagavan—the Supreme Personality of Godhead;  sarvada—always; prithak—separate; na—not; tau—them;  bhagavato—from the Supreme Personality of Godhead;  bhinnau—different; rahasyam—secret; idam—this; eva—indeed;  hi—indeed.


     Bhagavan (the Supreme Personality of Godhead) is eternally  different from the individual souls and from matter. However, the  souls and matter are not different from Bhagavan. This is a great  secret.


Commentary by Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura




     Bhagavan (the Supreme Personality of Godhead) is eternally  different from the individual souls and from matter. However, the  souls and matter are not different from Bhagavan. This is a great  secret. Bhagavan is eternally different from the individual souls  and from matter. In the form of His potency, He has entered the  individual souls and the material world. Unable to understand  this secret, Vyasa, who had revealed and carefully studied all  the scriptures, wept. Then Narada, who is a great devotee of  Bhagavan, approached Vyasa and taught Him the four verses that  are the heart of Shrimad-Bhagavatam.  That heart of Shrimad- Bhagavatam's teaching is divided into four parts: jnana,  vijnana, rahasya, and tad-anga. In the jnana part Bhagavan  teaches: "I am the only Supreme Truth. Before anything  else existed, I existed. In the beginning of the material world  neither the chain of causes and effects, nor the impersonal  Brahman, which lies beyond them, were openly manifest in this  world. When the material world is created, I manifest by My  potency whatever exists, and when the material world is  annihilated, only I, Bhagavan, will remain." In this way  Bhagavaj-jnana (knowledge of Bhagavan) is explained. In the  vijnana part Bhagavan teaches: "I am the Supreme  Truth. When the souls perceive only what is outside Me, when they  cannot perceive My true nature, that is because of the influence  of My potency. That potency is called by the name `Maya'.  When it is manifested in spirit that potency is called  `Yogamaya'. My potency is eternally different from Me and  not different from Me. How it is not different from Me is not  easily seen. How it is different from Me is easily seen. It is  different from Me in two ways: as a reflection (abhasa) and as  darkness (tamah)." Here "abhasa" refers to the individual  spirit souls and "tamah" refers to the material world.  Thus the individual spoirit souls and the material world are  both My potencies. That should be known. This next stage og  knowledge, knowledge of Bhagavan and his potencies, is called  "vijnana". In the third part, the rahasya part,  Bhagavan teaches: "The pradhana, mahat-tattva, and the  material elements beginning with earth enter the material world  and at the same time they do not enter. In the same way I,  Bhagavan, the spiritual sun, enter the individual spirit souls,  but still I am different from them eternally. When an individual  spirit soul becomes My devotee, then I become his friend. That is  the great secret." In the tad-anga part, Bhagavan sayus: “When, tormented the the sufferings of the world of birth and  death, an individual soul takes shelter of the feet of a saintly  devotee and inquires from him about the spiritual truth, then, by  his spiritual master's mercy, that soul searches for Me directly  and indirectly. Eventually he attains Me." In this way Shrimad- Bhagavatam explains the truth of acintya-bhedabheda-tattva (the  inconceivable simultaneous oneness and difference of Bhagavan  and the individual spirit souls).


 Text 7


jada-jala-gata jiva

      jadasaktim vihaya ca

svakiya-vrittim alocya

      shanakair labhate param


     jada—of matter; jala—in the trap; gata—gone; jiva—the  souls; jada—to matter; asaktim—attachemnt; vihaya—abandoning;  ca—and; svakiya—own; vrittim—action; alocya—considering;  shanakair—gradually; labhate—attains; param—the Supreme.


     When the souls caught in the trap of material life renounce  their attachment to matter, and then carefully engage in  spiritual activities, eventually they attain the Supreme.


Commentary by Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura



      The individual spirit souls may be divided into two groups:  the souls eternally imprisoned in the material world (nitya- baddha), and the souls free from that prison (nitya-mukta). The  eternally free souls are always attracted to serve Lord Krishna.  When the souls caught in the trap of material life renounce their  attachment to matter, and then carefully engage in spiritual  activities, eventually they attain the Supreme. Spiritual  activities here means devotional service to Bhagavan. As one  engages favorably in devotional spiritual activities, ones  attachment for material things becomes gradually diminished.  When those spiritual activities reach completeness and  perfection, then then attachment for material things becomes  completely and perfectly eliminated. Then the individual spirit  soul attains the feet of Bhagavan, the Supreme Truth, the Supreme  Master of the spiritual world. As one again and again performs  spiritual activities, one gradually finds them sweeter and  sweeter. To the extent they are attached to matter, the  individual souls remain averse to spirit.


 Text 8


cintatitam idam tattvam



      chuddha-jive pratiyate


     cinta—thought; atitam—beyond; idam—this; tattvam—truth;  dvaitadvaita—dual and not dual; svarupakam—nature;  chaitanya—of Lord Chaitanya; carana—of the feet; asvadat—from  the sweet taste; shuddha-jive—in the pure soul; pratiyate—is  known.


     This Supreme Truth, who is different and non-different from  everything, cannot be known by the material mind. Only the pure  souls, who taste the sweet nectar of taking shelter of Lord  Chaitanya's feet, have the power to know the Supreme Truth.


Commentary by Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura



      The material mind has no power to understand how the Supreme  can be both different and not different from everything. Why not?  Because in the material, world no one sees mutually contradictory  qualities residing in the same place. Therefore the souls  imprisoned in the material world, souls whose knowledge is only  of material things, will not be inclined to believe that mutually  contradictory qualities exist in Bhagavan. Manifested by His  inconceuivable potencies, numberless mutually contradictory  qualities happily and gracefully reside in Bhagavan. He is the  formless Brahman and He is also a person with a sublimely  graceful form. He is smaller than the smallest and larger than  the largest. He is impartial, but still He loves His devotees. He  has no qualities, but then again He certainly does have  qualities. He is the impersonal Brahman, and He is also Krishna  surrounded by many cowherd friends. He is the greatest  philosopher, full of knowledge, and He is also a lover, His whole  being is made of love. Bhagavan is the shelter where these and all  other mutually contradictory qualities reside. The Lord cannot be  compared to material things. The soul imprisoned in the material  world possesses intelligence made of matter. That material  intelligence has no power to touch what is beyond the world of  matter. For this reason the souls imprisoned in the world of  matter cannot understand the qualities of Bhagavan. In this way  they do not believe that Bhagavan's nature is like that. As long  as they remain in the prison of the material world, the  indicvidual spirit souls cannot understand how Bhagavan is  simultaneously one and different from everything. Will the souls  imprisoned in matter never understand this point?  The answer is  that the souls who taste the nectar of devotional service to Lord  Chaitanya's feet will gradually become purified. In this way they  will eventually be able to understand it. As he becomes purified,  the soul realizes his original nature. Then he understands how  Bhagavan is simultaneously one and different. Here the phrase  "chaitanya-caranasvadat" has two meanings, although in  truth the two meanings are actually one.  One meaning is, “By serving Lord Chaitanya's feet one attains transcendental  bliss." The second meaning is, "By serving the feet of  the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who knows everything, one  attains transcendental bliss." Lord Chaitanya is not different  from the all-knowing Supreme Personality of Godhead. Therefore  the two meanings are actually one. In the first part of this book  were considered the opinions of different philosophers,  philosophers who are all individual spirit souls imprisoned in  the material world. Now that I have refuted all their  philosophies, I will describe the supreme spiritual truth, the  truth taught by supremely pure Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabhu.


 Text 9 

cid eva paramam tattvam

      cid eva parameshvarah

cit-kano jiva evasau

      visheshash cid-vicitrata


     cid—spirit; eva—indeed; paramam—supreme; tattvam—truth;  cid—spirit; eva—indeed; parameshvarah—the Supreme Personality of  Godhead; cit-kano—particle of spirit; jiva—the individual soul;  eva—indeed; asau—he; visheshas—sepcific; cid—of spirit;  vicitrata—variety.


     The Supreme Truth is spiritual. The Supreme Personality of  Godhead is spiritual. The individual spirit soul is a tiny  particle of spirit. Great variety exists in the realm of spirit.


Commentary by Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura



      Spirit, matter, and the individual spirit souls are the  three divisons of existence. The Supreme Truth is spiritual. The  Supreme Personality of Godhead is spiritual. The individual  spirit soul is a tiny particle of spirit. Great variety exists in  the realm of spirit. Bhagavan (the Supreme Personality of  Godhead) is like a sun shining in the spiritual world. The  particles of light emanating from that sun are the individual  spirit souls. Thus the individual souls are tiny particles of  spirit. Great variety exists in the realm of spirit. Nothing is  superior to spirit. The variety present in the material world is  only a reflection of the variety in the spirital world.


 Text 10


anandash cid-gunah proktah

      sa vai vritti-svarupakah

yasyanushilanaj jivah

      parananda-sthitim labhet


     anandah—bliss; cid-gunah—the qualities of spirit;  proktah—said; sa—that; vai—indeed; vritti-svarupakah—actions;  yasya—of which; anushilanat—by cultivating; jivah—the  individual spirit soul; parananda-sthitim—the position of  transcendental bliss; labhet—attains.


     Spirit is by nature full of bliss. By performing spiritual  activities one becomes blissful.


Commentary by Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura



      Free will is one quality of spirit, and bliss is another  quality of spirit. Bliss is part of the nature of spirit.  Therefore, by again and again performing spiritual activities the  individual soul becomes blissful. In the Vedas it is said:


 esha hy anandayati



      "When one understands the Personality of God, the  reservoir of pleasure, Krishna, he actually becomes  transcendentally blissful."*


     In this way the Vedas affirm that bliss is part of the  nature of spirit. As the power to burn is part of the nature of  fire, and as fluidity is part of the nature of water, so bliss is  part of the nature of spirit. Even the souls imprisoned by matter  enjoy a certain material version of that bliss. Everything has  two features. One feature is its nature and the other its  activities. The activities of spirit bring spiritual bliss. A  soul who again and again engages in blissful spiritual activities  eventually attains spiritual bliss. Gradually he becomes  qualified to enjoy the bliss of personal association with  Bhagavan.


 Text 11


cid-vastu jadato bhinnam

      svatantrecchatmakam sada

pravishtam api mayayam

      sva-svarupam na tat tyajet


     cid-vastu—spirit; jadato—from matter; bhinnam—different;  svatantra—independent; iccha—desire; atmakam—self;  sada—always; pravishtam—entered; api—also; mayayam—in  illusion; sva-svarupam—own nature; na—not; tat—that;  tyajet—abandons.


     Spirit is different from matter. Spirit always has free  will. Even when it enters the world of illusions, spirit never  loses its nature.


Commentary by Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura



      What is the nature of spirit? Many times that question is  asked. In this material world one does not find a perfect or  complete answer. Even though the soul is spiritual, it has now  forgotten its own nature. Shackled in Maya's prison, the soul  finds it hard to give a clear answer about its own nature. The  soul's nature is to be a tiny particle of spirit. Although that  nature is pervertedly reflected in the material world, the soul  never really abandons its own nature. First this question may be  asked: "If the spirit soul is different from matter, then  the spirit soul must be different from all material things. What  is that difference?" First one should seek the answer to that  question. Many qualities may be seen in material things, but free  will is never seen in them. Neither is consciousness ever seen in  them. Unless the soul is completely restricted in its  activities, these two qualities are not covered. They remain  manifest. Qualities like heat and liquidity may be seen in  matterial elements like fire and water, but the liquidity of  water is not a sign of free will present in the water.The water  is not liquid of its own accord. Many different material elements  may be considered, but none of them acts by its own free will.  For example, we do not see that fire acts of its own free will.  However, in spiritual beings, in souls, even though they may be  covered by the material bodies of lowly species like worms and  ants, we see free will is present. Walking and walking, an ant  considers which way he should go, and then he walks on that path.  This power of the ant to think and to choose are the signs of  free will. We do not see these signs in inert matter. We see them  only in spirit, in living beings. Therefore consciousness and  free will are part of the nature of spirit. Of this there is no  doubt. In conclusion, consciousness, free will, bliss, and the  idea "It is I" are all parts of the nature of spirit.  Even when it enters the material world of five elements, the  spirit soul never abandons that nature.


 Text 12


phalgum nirarthakam viddhi

      sarvam jadamayam jagat

bahirmukhasya jivasya

      griham eva puratanam


     phalgum—false; nirarthakam—useless; viddhi—please know;  sarvam—all; jadamayam—material; jagat—universe;  bahirmukhasya—who has turned his face away; jivasya—of the soul;  griham—home; eva—indeed; puratanam—ancient.


     Please know that the material world is meaningless and  illusory. It is an ancient prison house for the souls who have  turned their faces from the Supreme Lord.


Commentary by Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura



      The material world is meaningless and illusory. It is an  ancient prison house for the souls who have turned their faces  from the Supreme Lord. Following Narada Muni's instruction,  Vyasa entered a trance of meditation. His heart purified by  devotional service, in that trance Vyasa saw the truth. This is  described in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (1.7.4-6):


 bhakti-yogena manasi

      samyak pranihite 'male apashyat purusham purnam

      mayam ca tad-apashrayam



      "Thus he fixed his mind, perfectly engaged by  linking it in devotional service (bhakti-yoga) without any tinge  of materialism, and thus he saw the Absolute Personality of  Godhead along with His external energy, which was under full  control.*


 yaya sammohito jiva

      atmanam tri-gunatmakam

paro 'pi manute 'nartham

      tat-kritam cabhipadyate



      "Due to this external energy, the living entity,  although transcendental to the three modes of material nature,  thinks of himself as a material product and thus undergoes the  reactions of material miseries.*


 anarthopashamam sakshad

      bhakti-yogam adhokshaje



      "The material miseries of the living entity, which  are superfluous to him, can be directly mitigated by the linking  process of devotional service."*


     The material world created by Maya is a useless and  illusory place for the individual souls, who are small particles  of spirit. Why do the indivcidual souls reside in this worthless  place? The answer to this question is that the material world is  an ancient prison for the individual souls who have turned their  faces away from the Supreme Lord. Only the souls who have turned their faces  away from the Supreme Lord have entered the material world.  The souls who do not turn their faces away from the Supreme Lord  remain always free from the prison of matter. They do not enter  the material world. They stay always in the spiritual world. The  Maya-sakti (potency opf material illusion) is always under Lord  Krishna's control. As darkness must stay always far away from the  shining sun, so the illusory potency Maya must stay always far  away from Lord Krishna, far away from the spiritual world. The  individual souls who have turned their faces away from Lord  Krishna are attracted to the bewildering variety of Maya's world.  In this way they fall under Maya's spell. In truth the individual  souls are always beyond the modes of material nature. But when  they fall under Maya's spell, the individual souls think they  themselves are products of the material modes. Then they try to  enjoy the pathetic pleasures the three material modes offer. That  is the condition of the souls who have turned their faces away  from the Supreme Lord. The other spirit souls, the souls who  remain in the spiritual world, do not turn their faces away from  the Supreme Lord. Only the souls who turn their faces away from  the Supreme Lord leave the spiritual world and go to the world of  matter.


 Text 13


desha-kaladikam sarvam

      mayaya vikritam sada

mayatitasya vishvasya

      sarvam tac cit-svarupakam


     desha—place; kala—and time; adikam—beginning;  sarvam—all; mayaya—by Maya; vikritam—transformed;  sada—always;  mayatitasya—beyond Maya; vishvasya—of the world; sarvam—all;  tac—that; cit-svarupakam—spiritual in nature.


     The time, place, and everything else of the material world  is a grotesque perversion created by Maya. In the world far  away from Maya's world, everything is made of spirit.


Commentary by Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura



      The spiritual world is far from Maya. The material world is  created by Maya. What is the relationship of these two worlds? To  this question we answer:The time, place, and everything else of  the material world is a grotesque perversion. However, the time,  place, and everything else of the spiritual world far from Maya  are all spirituasl. This means that everything there is supremely  pure. in that grotesue material world there are many obstacles to  happiness. Therefore it is seen that the material world is very  grotesque and horrible. Innthe material world time is divided  intop past, present, and future. By that division many things are  destroyed and many kinds of sufferings are created. In this way  the material eworld is filled with many horrible and grotesque  things. Therefore the whole material world is horrible and  grotesque. In the spiritual world time, place, and everything  else are all spiritual. Everything there is full of bliss.  Everything there is full of love. In the spiritual world there is  not even the slightest fragrance of matter. The spiritual world is gracefully described in these words of Chandogya Upanishad's  Eighth Chapter:



      harih om. atha yad idam asmin brahmapure daharam  pundarikam veshma daharo 'sminn antarakashas tasmin yad- antas tad anveshtavyam tad vava vijijnasitavyam iti.



      "Hari. Om. In the heart of this spiritual city is a lotus  abode. The internal part of that abode should be sought. That  part one should desire to know.



      tam ced bruyur yad idam asmin brahmapure daharam  pundarikam veshma  daharo 'sminn antarakashah kim tad atra vidyate yad  anveshtavyam yad vava vijijnasitavyam iti.



      "If they (the students) ask: What does it mean that in the  heart of this spiritual city is a lotus abode, the internal part  of that abode should be sought, and that part one should desire to  know? . . .



      bruyad yavan va ayam akashas tavan esho 'ntar  hridaya akasha ubhe asmin dyav-aprithivi antar eva samahite  ubhav agnish ca vayush ca surya-candra-samav ubhau vidyun- nakshatrani yac casyehasti yac ca nasti sarvam tad asmin  samahitam iti.


  . . .then he (the guru) may say: As in the external world there  is a sky, so inside this heart there is also a sky. In both the  external world and within this heart there are heaven and earth.  In both are fire and air. In both are sun and moon and lightning  and stars. Whatever is in the external world and whatever is not  in the external world is present in this heart.



      tam ced bruyur asmimsh ced idam brahmapure sarvam tad  asmin samahitam sarvani ca bhutani sarve ca kama yadaitaj  jarav apnoti pradhvamsate va kim tato 'tishishyata iti.



      "If they say: If in this spiritual city all material elements  and desires are assembled, then when the body reaches old age or is  destroyed at death, what remains after that? . . .



      sa bruyann asya jarayaitaj jiryati na vadhenasya hanyata  etat satyam brahma-puram asmin kamah samahita esha atmapahata- papma vijaro vimrityur vishoko vijighatso 'pipasah satya-kamah  satya-sankalpo yatha hy eveha praja anvavishanti  yathanushasanam yam yam antam abhikama bhavanti yam janapadam  yam kshetra-bhagam tam tam evopajivanti.


  . . .then he (the guru) may say: It is not withered by old age.  It is not killed by death. This spiritual city is eternal. Within  it are all desires. The soul is free from sin, old-age, death,  lamentation, hunger, and thirst, and its desires and thoughts are  all automatically fulfilled. As by following good advice people  attain their desires, so the spiritualists also attains their  desires.



      tad yatheha karma-jito lokah kshiyate evam evamutra punya- jito lokah kshiyate tad ya ihatmanam ananuvidya vrajanty etamsh ca  satyam kamams tesham sarveshu lokeshv akama-caro bhavaty atha ya  ihatmanam anuvidya vrajanty etamsh ca satyam kamams tesham sarveshu  lokeshu kama-caro bhavati.



      "Just as the fruits of work in this lifetime are all  ultimately destroyed, in the same way the benefits in the next  life are also all ultimately destroyed. One who does not  understand the nature of the soul remains unfulfilled and  unsatisfied, even though he may obtain all his desires. He does  not attain the spiritual world on the death of the body. One  who understand the nature of the soul remains  becomes satisfied and fulfilled. He obtains all his  desires in this world. He attains the spiritual world on the  death of the body.



      sa yadi pitriloka-kamo bhavati sankalpad evasya pitarah  samuttishthanti tena pitrilokena sampanno mahiyate.



      "If he desires to go to Pitriloka, simply by that desire alone  the Pitris appear before him, they take him to Pitriloka and  he becomes happy.



      sa yadi matriloka-kamo bhavati sankalpad evasya matarah  samuttishthanti tena matrilokena sampanno mahiyate.



      "If he desires to go to Matriloka, simply by that desire alone  the Matris appear before him, they take him to Matriloka and  he becomes happy.



      sa yadi bhratriloka-kamo bhavati sankalpad evasya bhratarah  samuttishthanti tena bhratrilokena sampanno mahiyate.



      "If he desires to go to Bhratriloka, simply by that desire alone  the Bhratris appear before him, they take him to Bhratriloka and  he becomes happy.



      sa yadi svashriloka-kamo bhavati sankalpad evasya svasarah  samuttishthanti tena svashrilokena sampanno mahiyate.



      "If he desires to go to Svashriloka, simply by that desire alone  the Svashris appear before him, they take him to Svashriloka and  he becomes happy.



      sa yadi sakhiloka-kamo bhavati sankalpad evasya sakhayah  samuttishthanti tena sakhilokena sampanno mahiyate.



      "If he desires to go to Sakhiloka, simply by that desire alone  the Sakhis appear before him, they take him to Sakhiloka and  he becomes happy.



      sa yadi gandhamalyaloka-kamo bhavati sankalpad evasya  gandhamalye samuttishthanti tena gandhamalyalokena sampanno  mahiyate.



      "If he desires to go to Gandhamalyaloka, simply by that desire alone  the Gandhamalyas appear before him, they take him to Gandhamalyaloka and  he becomes happy.



      sa yady annapanaloka-kamo bhavati sankalpad  evasyannapane samuttishthanti tena annapanalokena sampanno  mahiyate.



      "If he desires to go to Annapanaloka, simply by that desire alone  the Annapanas appear before him, they take him to Annapanaloka and  he becomes happy.



      sa yadi gitavaditraloka-kamo bhavati sankalpad evasya  gitavaditre samuttishthanti tena gitavaditralokena sampanno  mahiyate.



      "If he desires to go to Gitavaditraloka, simply by that desire alone  the Gitavaditras appear before him, they take him to Gitavaditraloka and  he becomes happy.



      sa yadi striloka-kamo bhavati sankalpad evasya striyah  samuttishthanti tena strilokena sampanno mahiyate.



      "If he desires to go to Striloka, simply by that desire alone  the Stris appear before him, they take him to Striloka and  he becomes happy.



      yam yam antam abhikamo bhavati yam kamayate so 'sya  sankalpad eva samutishthati tena sampanno mahiyate.



      "Whatever he desires appears simply by his desiring it. In  this way he becomes happy.



      te ime satyah kama anritapidhanas tesham satyanam satam  anritam apidhanam yo yo hy asyetah praiti na tam iha darshanaya  labhate.



      "When the real spiritual desires of the soul are covered by  false material desires, the soul is not able to meet the Supreme  Personality of Godhead after death.



      atha ye casyeha jiva ye ca preta yac canyad icchan na  labhate sarvam tad atra gatva vindate 'tra hy asyaite satyah kama  anrtapidhanas tad yathapi hiranya-nidhim nihitam akshetrajna upary  upari sancaranto na vindeyur evam evemah sarvah prajna ahar ahar  gacchanty atra etam brahmalokam na vindanty anritena hi  pratyudhah.



      "Both in this life and the next, they who desire something  other than spiritual happiness never attain the fulfillment of  their desire. Their real, spiritual desires are covered by  material illusion. They are like persons searching for buried  treasure. Not knowing the location of the treasure, they walk  over it again and again, but never attain it. They are always  near the spiritual realm, but material illusion prevents them  from entering it.



      sa eva esha atma hridi tasyaitad eva niruktam hridy ayam iti  tasmad dhridayam ahar ahar va evamvit svargam lokam eti.



      "The Supreme Personality of Godhead resides in the hearts of  the living entities, and for this reason He is known as Hridayam,  which means `The person (ayam) in the heart (hrid)'. A person  constantly aware of the Lord's presence in his heart attains the  spiritual world.



      atha ya esha samprasado 'smac charirat samutthaya param  jyotir upasampadya svena rupenabhinishpadyata esha atmati  hovacaitad amritam abhayam etad brahmeti tasya ha va etasya  brahmano nama satyam iti.



      "When such a soul leaves the present material body, he enters  the effulgent spiritual world. His original spiritual form is  manifested there. He is named `soul'. He is immortal and  fearless. He is named `satya' (the truth).



      tani ha va etani triny aksharani satiyam iti tad yat sat  tad amritam atha yad dhi tan martyam atha yady antenobhe yacchati  yad anenobhe yacchati tasmad yam ahar ahar va evamvit svargam  lokam eti.



      "The word `satyam' contains three syllables: `sat',  `i', and  `yam'. `Sat' refers to the immortal Supreme Personality of  Godhead, who is always free from the cycle of repeated birth and  death, and `i' refers to the individual spirit soul, who may  become subject to the cycle of birth and death. `Yam' refers to  the process that brings the individual spirit soul into contact  with the Supreme Person. A person aware of  these facts, attains the spiritual world.



      atha ya atma sa setur vidhritir esham lokanam asambhedaya  naityam setum aho-ratre tarato na jara na mrityur na shoko na  sukritam na dushkritam. sarve papmano 'to nivartante 'pahata-papma  hy esha brahmalokas tasmad va etam setum tirtvandhah sann anandho  bhavati viddhah sann aviddho bhavaty upatapi sann anupatapi  bhavati tasmad va etam setum tirtvapi naktam ahar  evabhinishpadyate sakrid vibhato hy evaisha brahmalokah.



      "The Supreme Personality of Godhead is the controller of all  the worlds. He is the eternal boundary which day, night, old- age, death, lamentation, piety, and impiety do not  cross. Sins turn from Him. He is free from sin. A blind man  crossing the boundary into His spiritual realm becomes free from  blindness. A person wounded by material sufferings becomes free  from them, and a person burning in the pain of repeated birth and  death also becomes free from suffering by crossing the boundary  into His realm. Crossing beyond the days and nights of material  time, the spiritual realm of the Supreme Personality of Godhead  is eternally manifested."


 Text 14


cic-chakteh para-tattvasya

      svabhavas tri-vidhah smritah

sva-svabhavas tatha jiva-

      svabhavo mayikas tatha


     cit—spiritual; shakteh—from the potency; para-tattvasya—of  the Supreme Truth; svabhavas—nature; tri-vidhah—three kinds;  smritah—considered;  sva-svabhavas—own nature; tatha—so; jiva—of the individual  spirit souls; svabhavo—nature; mayikas—of Maya; tatha—so.


     The Supreme Truth's spiritual potency has three natures:  its own nature, the nature of the individual spirit souls, and  the nature of Maya.


Commentary by Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura



      The Supreme Truth's spiritual potency has three natures:  its own nature, the nature of the individual spirit souls, and  the nature of Maya. Limitless varietry is present in the  spiritual nature. The mayavadi impersonalists do not think  variety is present in spirit. They say, "Variety is  present only in Maya. When one renounces Maya and turns to  spirit, variety is cast far away. When the individual spirit soul  attains its original nature, all variety disappears, and  everything becomes one." On what foundation are these ideas of  the mayavadis built? From what root do they grow? The answer is:  These ideas are based only on their whims. In what scripture are  these ideas described? By what chain of logical arguments are  they attained? That no one can say. In the prewviously quoted  passage of Chandogya Upnaisad we saw a description of spiritual  variety. In the spiritual world are present the form of the  Supreme Personality of Godhead, the forms of the individual  spirit souls, a great variety of places, the moon, sun, and other  luminaries, rivers, streams, and many other beautiful and  glorious things. A great variety of blissful tastes (rasa) are  also present in the world of spirit. The nature of the individual  souls is that they are the Lord's marginal potency (tatastha). They are between the spiritual and material potencies. The  individual souls therefore may be under the influence of the Maya  potency or under the influence of the spiritual potency. The  nature of Myaa is that it is a perverted reflection of spirit.  The individual spirit souls who have turned their faces away from  the Supreme Lord must be covered by a gross and subtle material  body.


 Text 15


tishthann api jadadhare


vartate yo maha-bhagah

      sva-svabhava-paro hi sah


     tishthan—standing; api—even; jadadhare—in the material  world; cit-svabhava-parayanah—devoted to the spiritual nature;  vartate—is; yo—who; maha-bhagah—very fortunate; sva-svabhava- paro—devoted to his own nature; hi—indeed; sah—he.


     Even though he may still reside in the material world, an  individual soul intent on reviving his original spiritual nature  is very fortunate. In the end he regains his original spiritual  nature.


 Thus ends Tattva-viveka