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sunyayitam jagat sarvam
govinda virahena me
yugayitam - appearing like a great millennium; nimesena - by a moment; caksusa - from the eyes; pravrsayitam - tears falling like torrents of rain; sunyayitam - appearing void; jagat - theworld; sarvam - all; govinda - from Lord Govinda, Krishna; virahena me - by My separation.
"My Lord Govinda, because of separation from You, I consider even a moment a great millennium. Tears flow from My eyes like torrents of rain, and I see the entire world as void."
When bhava or rati-bhakti reaches the stage of sthayi-bhava (constancy), it mixes with four other bhavas-vibhava, anubhava, sattvika and vyabhicari and transforms into bhakti-rasa or the spiritual mellow of devotional service. Then the ecstatic symptoms of anubhava and sattvika-vikara are fully expressed.
Shrila Rupa Goswami, describing prema, writes in the Bhakti-rasamrita-sindhu, "That bhava-bhakti which from the start soexcessively affects the heart that it melts into a sublime salve of love, which brings within easy reach the highest sentiments of divine bliss, which generates an intense desire for Krishna, is known by the perfected devotees as prema." From this statement it is obvious that an extreme attraction, affection and
spontaneous dedication to Lord Krishna is synonymous with prema.
The relationship between the visaya (the object of worship, or Krishna) and the asraya (the devotee) is exchanged through the five principal rasas of neutrality, servitorship, friendship, parenthood and conjugal love. Sometimes the main rasas in the relationship subside, allowing the seven secondary rasas of laughter, wonderment, pity, bravado, anger, fear and horror to be relished.
The excellences of prema
Among the principal rasas, conjugal or madhurya-rasa is the most exalted. As madhurya-rasa increases in intensity, it manifests all the excellences of prema, which are pranaya (love that avoids respect), sneha (melting of the heart), mana (hiding of love by crooked means), raga (attachment), anuraga (further
attachment), bhava (ecstacy) and maha-bhava (great ecstacy),
one after another.
In santa-rasa (neutrality), there is a kind of affection for the Lord marked by great exultation. Such affection is displayed as an attachment for Brahman coupled with an attitude of disregard and unconcern for everyth¬ing else, including other rasas.
When this affection (known as mamata) increases, the attraction deepens to the point of dasya-rasa or servitorship.In this rasa, the intensified affection remains permanent even if the relationship is seriously tested.
When the affection for the Supreme Lord is fortified with unflinching faith and trust it is called pranaya, the very essence of sakhya-rasa or friendship. But in the presence of awe and reverential worship pranaya will not appear.
As affection increases, pranaya develops into a mischievous and crooked mood of unusual flavor known as mana. In this mood, the loving resentment of the devotee forces even the Supreme Lord to compromise, out of His desire to relish this emotional exchange.
That abundance of love that melts the heart to emotional liquid is known as sneha. Sneha is symptomatized by profuse unchecked tears; and in this stage the devotee's yearning to see Krishna never admits satiety. In vatsalya-rasa or parental love this yearning is felt as the devotee's constant anxiety for Krishna's well-being.
Sneha infected by intense craving is called raga. In thestage of raga a moment's separation from the beloved is unbearable; while in union the opposite is true even extreme grief feels like exhilaration. In raga, the object of worship (Krishna) is made to appreciate His own ever-youthful form by the attentions of the devotee; thus raga itself becomes ever new andageless and is transformed into anuraga.
In anuraga the lover and beloved enrapture one another into obedience. There is even a longing to be born as animals or other lower species that enjoy a direct connection with Krishna; this is called prema-vaicitra, the variations of love. In the anuraga stage, separa¬tion from Krishna blesses the devotee with
When anuraga is overflooded by the magnificent ocean of ecstatic love and the devotee completely loses himself in transcendental madness, maha-bhava is attained. In this stage, even the dropping of an eyelid that blocks the devotee's view of the Lord for less than a second is intolerable. In the ecstacy of separation, a mere moment is stretched to timeless eternity.
In maha-bhava, in both union and separation, all the symptoms of sattvika and sancari bhavas manifest to the fullest degree. Lord Chaitanya pours an ocean of meaning from the pitcher of this sloka for a full elaboration on the different gradations of loving ecstacy that are hinted at here, one should consult Shrila Jiva Goswami's Priti-sandarbha.
The word yugayitam is a simple and direct expression of timelessness; the phrase govinda virahena conveys deep feelings of separation (vipralambha). Fully Krishna conscious rasika devotee have subdivided vipralambha into purva raga (preliminary attraction), mana (seeming anger) and pravasa (separation by istance). In this sloka, Chaitanya Mahaprabhu reveals that the sadhaka dwelling within this world need only relish the purva raga stage of vipralambha ecstacy.
The scriptures declare that the mood of separation engenders ten conditions in the sadhaka's person. They are: pondering, sleeplessness, perturbation, emaciation, pallor, incoherent speech, a stricken condition, madness, delusion and death (unconscious).
Shri Chaitanya Caritamrita, Antya 20.40-41:
"In My agitation a day never ends, for every moment seems like a millennium. Pouring incessant tears, My eyes are like clouds in the rainy season.
"The three words have become void because of separation from Govinda. I feel as if I were burning alive in a slow fire."
"O Govinda, the entire world is but a void in Your absence; My eyes are raining tears like monsoon clouds, and each batting of My eyelids seems like a millennium."
This is an excellent expression of vipralambha-rasa. This sloka was composed to teach the jata-rati devotee that it is absolutely essential he take up the vipralambha rasa not
caring for sambhoga or enjoyment. In material life, viraha or separation causes only grief. But on the transcendental plane, viraha produces extreme ecstacy within, though externally the inner ecstacy is reflected as acute anguish.
Vipralambha therefore nourishes sambhoga or enjoyment within. In fact, sambhoga is an external feature of the vipralambha-rasa in the state known as prema vaicitra or loving variegatedness. The devotee incessantly and intensely recollects Krishna and His pastimes in vipralambha-rasa, to the point of never forgetting Krishna. This is indeed the super-excellent stage of bhajana.
The error of the Gauranga-nagari sect
The sambhoga exhibited by the pretentious group known as gauranga-najari, who do not sincerely practice Krishna consciousness but claim to be devotees, is simply a result of their insincerity. That sambhoga is a severe impediment on the pure devotional path. It is factually only self-pleasure; hence it is bereft of sincere devotion to Krishna.
Just by knowing the meaning of the sloka, "The desire to gratify one's own senses is kama (lust), but the desire to please the senses of Lord Krishna is prema (love)" (C.C. Adi 4.165), one is spared from the urge to sense enjoyment. Unfortunately, unscrupulous pseudo devotees try to disguise their lusty urges by presenting Lord Chaitanya to the world as a pleasure seeker (nagari). But the true meaning of Lord Chaitanya's pastimes is that Lord Krishna descended as Lord Chaitanya to accept the sentiments of an asraya tattva devotee who is constantly absorbed in the vipralambha mood.
As mentioned, vipralambha nourishes enjoyment, but it is Krishna's enjoyment that is being nourished by the pure devotee in this mood. Chaitanya Mahaprabhu is eternally the embodiment of vipralambha-rasa, and He personally propagates this means of
nourishing Krishna's pleasure among the jivas, who must discard their futile attempts for sambhoga-rasa.
Scriptural statements relevant to this sloka:
Shri Krishna Karanamrita, sloka 41:
"O supreme shelter of the destitute, O Lord Hari, You are an ocean of mercy! Alas! Oh alas! Without seeing Your lovely face how am I going to live through these wretched days and nights?"
Shrila Madhavendra Puri's words as recorded in Padyavali, text 400:
"O compassionate Lord of the helpless! O Lord of Mathura! When will I be able to see You? Your absence has made mystricken heart extremely anxious. O my beloved! What am I to do now?"
In Ujjvala-nilamali, text 64:
"Shrimati Radharani is completely smitten. She is experiencing the limitless ocean of suffering as the ten conditions of separation overcome Her. She ponderings without sleeping and suffers pertur¬ba¬tions, she has become emaciated and pallid, she speaks in¬coherently, is stricken, mad and deluded and swoons almost to death."