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NITAAI-Veda.nyf > All Scriptures By Acharyas > Bhaktivinoda Thakura > Sanmodana Bhasyam > Sloka 1

 

Shri Sanmodana Bhasyam

 

With commentary  by

SRILA BHAKTISIDDHANTA SARASVATI

 

 

SLOKA 1

 

ceto-darpana-marjanam bhava-mahadavagni-nivapanam

sreyah-kairava-candrika-vitaranam vidya-vadhu-jivanam

anandabhudhi-vardhanam prati-padam purnamrtasvadanam

sarvatma-snapanam param vijayate shri-krishna-sankirtanam

 

cetah - of the heart;  darpana - the mirror;  marjanam - cleansing;  bhava - of material existence;  maha-davagni - the blazing forest fire;  nivapanam - extinguishing;  sreyah - of

good fortune;  kairava - the white lotus;  candrika - the moonshine;  vitaranam - spreading;  vidya - of all education;  vadhu - wife;  jivanam - the life;  ananda - bliss;  ambudhi - the ocean;  vardhanam - increasing;  prati-padam - at every step; purna-amrta - of the full nectar;  asvadanam - giving taste;  sarva - for everyone;  atma-snapanam - bathing of the self;  par--am - transcendental;  vijayate - let there be victory;  shri-krishna-sankirtanam - for the congregational chanting of the holy name of Krishna.

 

          "Let there be victory for the chanting of the holy name of Lord Krishna, which can cleanse the mirror of the heart and stop the miseries of the blazing fire of material existence. That chanting is the waxing moon that spreads the white lotus of good fortune for all living entities. It is the life and soul of all education. The chanting of the holy name of Krishna expands the blissful ocean of transcendental life. It gives a cooling effect to everyone and enables one to taste full nectar at every step."

 

Shri Sanmodana Bhasyam

by Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura

 

          I begin this Sanmodana Bhasyam commentary on the eight Siksastaka verses written by Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu by offering my humble obeisance at the lotus feet of Lord Chaitanya and His eternal associates in the Shri Panca tattva, namely Nityananda Avadhuta, Advaita Prabhu, Gadadhara Pandita and Shrivasa Thakura.

 

The path of perfection

 

     The path of devotional service is the highest perfection of life, and it is sought after in all the Vedic literatures. Applying his superior intelligence to repeated research of the Vedas, Lord Brahma ascertained that the best method of self-realization is the awakening of one's loving attachment to Lord Hari, who dwells within everyone's heart.  Faith, eagerness, deep understanding and the association of pure devotees are required

 

Brahma's philosophical conclusion unequivocally establishes the supremacy of devotional service over fruitive activities, speculative knowledge, or any other process.  However,  pure devotional love of God is unattainable without great faith and intense eagerness to relish the nectarean pastimes of the Supreme Lord and without deep understanding of the confidential truths of the scriptures.  And even when profound faith has arisen, it is impossible without the association of saintly persons to discuss the transcendental topics of the Supreme Lord.  Sadhu sangha is integral to the hearing and chanting process of devotional service.

 

          Thus the Lord Himself has declared, "It is only in the association of My pure devotees that discus¬sions about My transcendental glory become spiritually potent and arouse loving devotional mellows within the inner core of one's heart." 

 

        The Lord's holy name, form, qualities and activities are particularly glorified in such company. In Lord Chaitanya's  teachings He first discusses these glories.  In the fourth line,  for example, the word param indicates that chanting Krishna's allªpurifying holy name is the very highest benediction. This follows the establishment of proper faith and association with saintly devotees.  Thus the process of devotional service begins.

The chanting of the holy name is not sentimentalism. This chanting is never to be confused with sentimental and pseudo-devotional chanting, however.  In these Siksastaka verses Shri Chaitanya explains in His own words the principles of sambandha (our eternal relationship with God), abhidheya (the means by which we can revive that relationship), and prayojana (the ultimate goal of that relationship for every living being). 

 

This commentary, then, will briefly examine each of these philosophical principles.  As Lord Chaitanya, the Supreme Per­sonality of Godhead who is lovingly served by all pure Vaishnava devotees, says:  "Let the congregational chanting of the holy  same be especially glorified."

 

Therefore, please hear just how the chanting of the holy name is victorious in the mundane world, which is a creation of the external energy of the Lord. 

 

The philosophical background:  simultaneous oneness and differenceœ

 

          Scripture certainly evinces the absolute oneness of the Supreme Truth. "Only the one non-dual substance existed before crea¬tion", we read.  And in another place, "Other than the one non-dual Brahman no varigatedness exist." In these statements, he all-pervading impersonal aspect of the Absolute Truth is established. 

 

          Simultaneously, the statement, "Everything is Brahman" emphasizes the personal and differentiated principle of the eternal and supreme Absolute Truth. Though differentiated personalism and undifferentaied impersonalism coexist in the Absolute Truth, it is the personal feature that is actually  perceivable; impersonalism is not.  Therefore, the personal feature of the Absolute Truth predominates. 

 

          Our spiritual master in the matter of scriptural con­clusions, Shrila Jiva Goswami, has therefore declared that the One  Absolute Truth eternally exists in four features: as His original transcendental form, as His ever expanding all-pervasive potency, as the living entities, and as the sum total of all matter.  This is analogous to the features of the sun planet: the sun god himself, Surya; the powerful sun globe; the sunshine; and the  reflections of the sun's rays on other surfaces. 

 

          The point here is that God alone is the Supreme Absolute Truth, saktiman; He is the only source of all potencies or energies.  The Brahma-sutra does argue the essential oneness of the Energetic Source (saktiman) and Energy (sakti), yet the Vedas conclude, "That Supreme Absolute Truth manifests Himself in a variety of forms.  His potencies are multifarious."  This  proves that there exists an essential and eternal difference between the energetic and His Energy, and that the inconceivable Absolute  truth acts in ways that are parad¬oxical and contradic¬tory. The monistic school of Kevalad¬vaitavada cannot successfully oppose with arguments this scriptural principle of simultaneous oneness and difference. 

 

Three categories of manifestation

 

The Absolute Potent Supreme Truth manifests Himself in three categories: as His internal potency, as His marginal potency, and as His external potency.  Through the agency of His internal spiritual potency He displays the infinite transcendental realm, and He exists there eternally as the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the proprietor  of all His energetic expansions. That He may perform various personal pas¬times, His internal potency exhibits the spiritual Vaikuntha planets within the transcendental realm.

 

          The marginal potency is made up of the eternal living entities (jiva souls) who are like rays or in¬finitesimal sparks of the sun.  They are part and parcel of the Absolute Truth, non-dif¬ferent from Him in quality and different in quantity. 

 

          The external energy (maya) is but the reflection of the eternal spiritual realm.  Maya establishes the hierarchy of various material conditions that the souls in her power become subject to.  

 

The liberated and conditioned states

 

In each of their own ways, therefore, maya (the material  energy), the living entities (the marginal spiritual energy) and Vaikuntha (transcendence) are different and non-different from the Supreme Lord.

          As long as the jiva takes full shelter of the Supreme Lord, he remains a resident of Vaikuntha; but when his innate spiritual knowledge of the Lord is covered by forgetfulness, he is placed outside the transcendental realm.  The jiva is compared to a ray of the sun, and when under the cloud of maya he becomes condi­tioned to an unconstitutional and hence unnatural type of existence. The jiva was created to support and par¬ticipate in the  Supreme Lord's transcendental pastimes, but due to his marginal nature he can fall under maya's spell to suffer the pangs of repeated birth and death.  If, however, the jiva awakens to his original self, the dark mists of ignoran¬ce are dissipated and the  long suffering of repeated birth and death at last comes to an end.  Then he regains his true spiritual identity.  

 

When the jiva meets a saintly person, he gradually acquires an eager taste for knowledge of scripture and attraction to the Supreme Lord Himself; when situated in his original constitu­tional position, the awakened soul is eligible to enter into a conjugal loving exchange with the Lord.  One gets the chance to as¬sociate with real saintly persons and take shelter of a bonafide spiritual master by sincerity and faith; only in this way can he hear the true import of the revealed scriptures.

 

          After submissively hearing, one can chant the holy name; and gradually the real self, the re-spiritualized jiva, overcomes the illusory energy as his original nature becomes prominent. Such is the sublime effect of chanting the Lord's holy name. Chanting alone cleanses the heart - ceto-darpana-marjanam - and eventually brings out seven types of perfections in the spirit soul.

 

The phrase ceto-darpana-marjanam indicates the original transcendental nature of the living entity.  Shrila Jiva Gosvami explains that the living entity is a part and parcel of the Supreme Absolute Energetic Truth; He is the aggregate of all  jivas.  Like rays of the sun, the jivas are of the same spiritual nature as the Supreme; but they are infinitesimal in size. 

          Shrila Baladeva Vidyabusana has similarly analyzed Godhead as the infinite Supreme Lord, with the jiva being His infinitesimal part.  All transcendental qualities are eternally present in perfect fullness in the Supreme Lord.  His pure ego is manifest as both absolute knowledge and  knower. The jiva is also in possession of transcendental knowledge and pure ego, but to a partial degree.  By logic, qualities of the sun like heat and light present must also be present in the sun's rays. 

 

Of the two, then, it is the Supreme Godhead who is fully independent.  He possesses and embodyies all transcendental qualities.  He is the origin of everything, and He enters into material nature and as its controller;  He alone creates and maintains the material world. As the reservoir of all spiritual bliss, He relishes His own spiritual self and distributes the nectar of pure love of Godhead by the means of His pure devotion­al service.  Indeed, He forces all living entities to taste that sweet nectar.

 

Innumerable living entities move through varied stages of  existence; some become eternally conditioned, some become eternally liberated.  When the jiva rejects the Supreme Lord, he is eternally ensnared by matter; but if he again aspires for the shelter of the Lord, the curtain of maya that separates the jiva from his own transcendental identity and qualities is forever removed; he is and immediately restored to his original pure self.  Cleansing the mirror of the mind reveals five truths.

 

Therefore, it is clear that the jiva is in¬šfinitesimal. Though he is of a transcendental nature having pure ego, pure consciousness and pure form, if he turns away from God and  con­templates material energy, his pure nature becomes contaminated by nescience. 

 

          In this way, the soul's consciousness is like a mirror: just as it is impossible to see one's face in a dusty mirror, it is similarly impossible to see the real self in the mirror of  consciousness when it is covered by the dust of ignorance.  But if one begins to render loving devotional service  (particularly hearing and chanting the holy names and pastimes of Shri Krishna) under the influence of the Lord's hladhini pleasure potency, the material contamination of nescience is completely eradicated.

 

          Then jiva's pure consciousness, which is a function of his pure ego, manifests itself.  He sees reflected on the mirror of his pure ego the five principles of the Supreme Lord, the jiva, prakriti (nature), kala (time), and karma (action), with absolute clarity. He sees the reflection of his original identity without any distortion, and this helps him to know his inherent nature as an eternal servant of the Lord. When one becomes truly expert in  serving the Lord, the propensity to enjoy material life is converted into a loving devotional mood of service. 

 

Chanting is the soul's svadharma

 

        The word bhava indicates the jiva's forcible subjection to repeated births in this world.   Bhava is a continuous cycle of birth and death called mahadavagni (blazing fire), a raging  conflagration that cannot be extinguished by any means other than the congregational chanting of Krishna's holy name. 

 

          A question may arise at this point: when one is at last enlightened about his svadharma or eternal function as a liber­ated soul, does he then cease chanting Krishna's holy name?  The answer is no; the stoppage of chanting never occurs, because chanting God's name is verily the soul's sva-dharma. The phrase sreyah-kairava-¬candrika-vitarana confirms this by specifically conveying the sense of the eternal activity of the spirit soul inhis original spiritual condition.

 

The greatest benefit

 

Jivas who are enslaved by maya prefer to enjoy material life, and this desire perpetuates their bondage to the cycle of birth and death. This the root cause of the three fold miseries. But when the spirit soul becomes disgusted with material  enjoyment and re-dedicates his time and energy to Lord Krishna's loving service, he reaps the greatest benefit. 

 

This benefit is compared to a the cluster of pristine white lotuses, for just as  the moon's soothing rays  cause the white lotuses to blossom, the rasa laden rays of the chanting of the holy name stirs the en­folded petals of the lotus of the jiva's good fortune, causing it to open.

 

          As it is said, "devotion gives birth to devotion": the sincere and faithful devotee must therefore follow the principles of elementary bhakti by regularly hearing and chanting the holy name until the first light of pure devotion begins to dawn in the heart.  The closed lotus flower touched by the moon's rays awakens in full bloom, and similarly, when the congregational chanting of the holy name spreads the rays of bhava (the essence of hladini) and impregnates the soul's heart, rati (conjugal love for Shri Krishna) then lights up his consciousness, bestowing the highest benediction.  This is what is meant by the "rays of the benediction moon."

 

The holy name reveals the soul's ternal relationship with Krishna

 

 When does a person, having attained this level of pure devo­tion, acquire his pure spiritual identity?  Lord Chaitanya answers this question by saying, vidya-vadhu-jivanam, "the life of all transcendental knowledge."  The Supreme Lord's sakti has two spects, vidya (knowledge) and avidya (ignorance).  Yogamaya, the svarupa-sakti, is the Lord's internal spiritual potency.  This potency is called vidya, whereas mahamaya, His external energy,  is avidya; it is the latter that creates the material universe and covers the soul's svarupa.

 

          When, by his sincerely following the process of hearing and  chanting, the first rays of pure devotion finally appear on the horizon of the sadhaka's heart, then the Bhakti-devi, the eradicatress of all unwanted material desires detrimental to the Lord's service, eclipses the avidya potency.  By suffusing the soul with spiritual knowledge, Bhakti-devi destroys both the gross and subtle coverings of the soul. Simultaneously, the  jiva's original spiritual form becomes manifest so that he acquires the form of a gopi, for example, if his pure devotional propensities are steeped in the conjugal mood.  Thus it stands  proven that Krishna's holy name is the life and the soul of all transcendental knowledge (vidya-vadhu-jivanam.)  Svarupa-sakti is therefore often said to be Krishna's wife.    

          

When the gross and subtle material bodies of the jiva are completely destroyed, the infinitesimal soul regains his original pristine purity.  Although the jiva is anu or minutely small, his capacity for spiritual happiness is not minute.  To remove any  doubt about this fact, Lord Chaitanya adds, anandambudhi-vardhana, "It is an ever increasing ocean of bliss."

 

          The Holy Name of the Lord, through the hladini potency,  endlessly expands the natural bliss inherent in the soul; thus his happiness increases by leaps and bounds, fixing the soul eternally in one of the spiritual mellows (of dasya, sakhya, vatsalya or madhurya).  When thus established in his eternal spiritual mellow, he continues to relish the limitless nectar at every step of the exchange of loving emotions in his transcenden­tal relationship with the Supreme Lord. 

 

Lord Krishna's enchanting beauty, His divine qualities, and His sublime pastimes are eternal and ever-fresh in ecstacy. Inebriated with divine prema, the pure jiva continuously drinks that ecstatic nectar, yet still the Lord's captivating beauty is  forever new. 

 

Pure love is never selfish

 

Now, one final question may arise: isn't the pursuit of happiness self-motivated and hence contrary to the principles of pure spiritual love?  If so, how can jiva's happiness be  called unalloyed and transcendental?  As the answer, Lord Chaitanya uses the expression sarvatma-snapanam: the bliss of Krishna consciousness is completely pure, being wholly free of any desire for self-satisfaction.  Specifically, this means that in the natural course of pure devotional service the devotee attains the form of a maid-servant of Shrimati Radharani, whoembodies the zenith of mahabhava, or divine ecstasy. In in Her service, the devotee participates in conjugal pastimes with the Lord and experiences unlimited bliss. 

 

          This sublime mood of service is therefore untainted by even  the slightest tinge of lust or self-indulgent craving. Sarvatma- snapanam also confirms that in this state of perfect bliss neither the contamination of sayujya-mukti (becoming one with the Lord's impersonal aspect) nor the impurity of self-gratification can divert the devotee from his fixed position in pure Krishna consciousness. 

 

May the chanting of the holy name of Krishna be ever vic­torious, for it is adorned with seven transcendental qualities;  it is the form of eternality, knowledge, and the highest bliss, steeped in the wonderful and variegated amorous pastimes of Shri Shri Radha-Krishna.

 

Shri Chaitanya Caritamrita, Antya 20.11,13,14:

Simply by chanting the holy name of Lord Krishna one can be freed from all undesirable habits.  This is the means of awaken­ing all good fortune and initiating the flow of waves of love for  Krishna. 

 

          "By performing congregational chanting of the Hare Krishnamantra one can destroy the sinful condition of material exis­tence, purify the unclean heart and awaken all varieties ofdevotional service. 

 

          "The result of chanting is that one awakens his love for Krishna and tastes transcendental bliss.  Ultimately, one attains the association of Krishna and engages in His devo¬tional service, as if immersing himself in a great ocean of love."

 

 

Commentary by Shrila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati

 

There are innumerable engagements in the execution of devotional service, and Shrimad Bhagavatam and Hari-bhakti-vilasa have described many of them.  Broadly, sixty-four limbs of devo­tional service are considered as the main engagements of bhakti. 

 

 

          Vaidhi-bhakti (devotional service according to rules and regulations) and raganuga-bhakti (spontaneous devotional  service) are the two methods of executing these sixty fourprinciple engagements. In Shrimad Bhagavatam Prahlada Maharaja glorifies pure and spontaneous devotional service as the best method; Lord Gaurasun¬dara has identified the best engagement by saying, "The congregational chanting of the holy name of Lord  Krishna is the most perfect form of devotional service."

 

The Absolute Truth defined

 

Those who know the transcendental Absolute Truth have defined the Supreme non-dual Substance as Brahman when it is preliminarily realized as eternity; when realized as eternity and knowledge, it is defined as Paramatma; when its transcendental  nature of full knowledge, eternity and bliss is realized with all potencies, that Supreme Absolute Truth is known as Bhagavan. 

 

          That Supreme Personality of Godhead  (Bhagavan) is called  Vasudeva when He manifests His supreme opulence; when His opulence gives way to His loving conjugal mood, He is known as  Krishna.  As Narayana, He particularly reciprocates with His  devotees in the rasas of santa and dasya; Lord Krishna is the worshipable object of all five rasas.

 

          Lord Krishna's vaibhava prakasa expansion is Lord Balarama, who rules Vaikuntha in His eternal catur-vyuha forms.

 

Japa, kirtana and samkirtana

 

The chanting of mantras that is properly supposed to take place in the mind is called japa; by japa, the chanter receives his desired perfection. Audible chanting in which the lips move is called kirtana; it is more effective than japa and avails the greatest benefit to the hearer.  Samkirtana means total or perfect kirtana; all other devotional activities become unnecessary if one does samkirtana. 

 

          Samkirtana can never be partial or imperfect glorification of Lord Krishna's holy name, because partial or imperfect chanting of Krishna's name is unable to cause a wonderful transformation in the living entities.  Partial or imperfect kirtana should not be accepted as samkirtana, as people would then doubt the potency of kirtana.

 

          Let samkirtana, the total and perfect chanting of Krishna's holy name, be victorious.  The experience of something mundane can only be incomplete, but the transcendental plane is never touched by material nature. Therefore, by the discussion of transcendental subject matter -Krishna, the supreme subject one experiences all supra-mundane perfection.  Amongst these perfections are seven that are especially invoked by chanting  Lord Krishna's holy name, as explained in this verse by Lord  Chaitanya.

 

Samkirtana cleanses the heart

 

The chanting of Lord Krishna's holy name acts as a purifying  agent upon the mirror of the living entities' contaminated hearts. The heart of the conditioned soul is completely covered over by three impurities: the desire to lord over matter, the  godless attitude of being the sole enjoyer and/or renouncer of the fruits of one's actions, and atheism. These three  treacherous contaminations form a sheath that covers the mirror of consciousness, causing one to reject His true nature as a jiva. 

          Krishna's holy name alone frees the consciousness of these impurities.  By constantly chanting and thus taking complete  shelter of the holy name, the jiva gradually perceives the reflection of his original form as the servant of Lord Krishna in the mirror of his consciousness.  Samkirtana extinguishes the fire of material existence.

 

This material existence appears to be pleasurable and sweet, but in reality it is like a fire in the depths of a forest; such a fire can reduce the entire forest to ashes.  The faithless non-devotees must constantly tolerate the excruciating burning pain of the flaming forest fire of material existence.  But when Lord Krishna's holy name is congregationally chanted in full perfection, the devotees, even though they may dwell in the material world, are never scorched by those flames.

 

Samkirtana spreads the rays of the benediction moon

 

Lord Krishna's holy name imparts the supreme goodness and munificence.  Sreyah means benediction; kairava- white lilies; candrika - moon rays or white luminescence.  Just as the rising  moon illuminates and reveals the whiteness of the white water lily, similarly the chanting of Krishna's holy name reveals the greatest benedic¬tion for the entire universe.  Human society cannot benefit from material desires for sense enjoyment, fruitive work or speculative knowledge.  Chanting Krishna's name blesses all with the greatest prosperity.

 

Samkirtana is the life of all transcendental knowledge

 

The Mundaka Upanishad notes two types of knowledge or education: material knowledge and transcendental knowledge. Indirectly, the chanting of Lord Krishna's holy name is the cause and sustainer of even material knowledge, but primarily  it is the life and soul of all transcendental knowledge. Chanting induces the jiva to break free from the shackles of false ego and prestige arising from material education and leads him to understand his eternal relationship with Lord Krishna. The ultimate purpose of transcendental knowledge is to simply chant Krishna's holy name. 

 

Samkirtana expands the ocean of transcendental bliss

 

The chanting of the Holy name expands the ocean of  transcendental bliss. A limited expanse of water cannot be described as an ocean; therefore "unlimited bliss" is being  compared to a boundless ocean. Chanting Krishna's name causes one to relish the sweet nectar of that ocean fully at every step. Because this transcendental experience is unfettered by imper­fections, one can always relish full spiritual nectar from  the chanting of Krishna's holy name.

 

Samkirtana awards the cooling shelter of Lord Krishna's lotus feet

 

The forms and features of Transcendence radiate a tender and cooling sheen that is perceivable through the chanting of Krishna's holy name.  In the mundane realm, the body, mind and above them the soul not only become purified by chanting the holy name, but they too gradually and inevitably are touched by the cooling tenderness of the spiritual realm. The subtle and gross con­taminations of the material conception of life and the acceptance of false designations have devoured the spirit soul, but all these afflictions can be ended by chanting the holy name. When the soul finds release from material designa¬tions, he becomes eager to reach Lord Krishna. He thus engages in devotional service, taking shelter in the cooling shade of the Lord's lotus feet.

 

Samkirtana completes all other processes of bhakti

 

In Bhakti-sandarbha 273 and in the Krama-sandarbha of the Seventh Canto of Shrimad Bhagavatam, Shrila Jiva Goswami writes, ata eva yadyapyanya bhaktih kalau kartavya, tada kirtanakhya-bhakti-samyogenaiva, which means: "Although it is required even in Kali-yuga to practice the other eight limbs of devotional service, they must be performed in conjunction with the chant¬ng of the holy name of the Lord."

 

 

References and quotes from Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura's Shri Bhajanarahasya

 

The first perfection:  ceto-darpana-marjanam –

"The holy name cleanses the mirror of the heart."

 

The contaminations that cover the mirror of consciousness is swept away by chanting the holy name; the holy name is the embodiment of profound spiritual bliss. For example Shrila Rupa  Goswami writes in the seventh stanza of the Namasthaka - 

 

suditashrita-janartti-rasaye

ramya-cidghana sukhasvarupine

nama gokula mahotsavaya te

krishna purna-vapuse namo namah

 

"O holy name!  O Lord Krishna!  You dissipate the sufferings (offenses against the holy name) of Your surrendered devotees;  You possess a transcendental form of ecstatic beauty and bliss and You appear as the figure of sublime joy for the residents of

Gokula.

 

"You are therefore a fully spiritual entity of the same spiritual nature as the Vaikuntha planets. I offer my repeated  obeisances to You."

 

The second perfection: bhava-maha-davagni-nirvapanam

"The blazing fire of material existence is extinguished."

 

     In Shrimad Bhagavatam it is stated: 

 

natah param karma-nibandha-krntanam

mumuksatam tirtha-padanukirtanat

na yat punah karmasu sajjate mano

rajas-tamobhyam kalilam tato 'nyatha

 

        "Therefore one who desires freedom from material bondage should adopt the process of chanting and glorifying the name, fame, form and pastimes of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, at whose feet all the holy places stand. One cannot derive the  proper benefit from other methods, such as pious atonement, speculative knowledge and meditation in mystic yoga, because even after following such methods one takes to fruitive activities  again, unable to control his mind, which is contaminated by the base qualities of nature, namely passion and ignorance."

 

The third perfection: reyah-kairavacandrika-vitaranam

"The moonlight opens the white lotus of good fortune."

 

A quote from Skanda Purana appears in Hari-bhakti-vilasa 11.234: 

 

madhura-madhuram-etan-mangalam mangala nam

sakala-nigamaballi-satphalam citsvarupam

sakrd-api parigitam sraddhaya helaya va

bhrgu-vara nara-matram tarayet krishna-nama

 

        "The holy name of Krishna the highest benediction above all  other benedictions for humanity, sweeter than the sweet honey,  the eternal fruit of transcendental knowledge of the tree of  entire sruti scriptures.  O best of Bhagavas! If anyone chants Lord Krishna's name just once without offence, whether he chants  qith faith or indifferently, the holy name immediately liberates him."

 

The fourth perfection: vidya-vadhu-jivanam

"The holy name is the life of transcendental knowledge  (the Lord's own wife)."

 

     In the Garuda Purana it is stated: 

 

yadicchasi param jnanam jnanad yat paramam padam

tadadarena rajendra kuru govinda kirtanam

 

"O best of kings!  If you are desirous of acquiring that extraordinary knowledge by which the Supreme Goal is realized, then chant Lord Govinda's name with love and devotion."

 

Again in Shrimad Bhagavatam 3.5.40:

 

dhatar yad asmin bhava isa jivas

tapa-trayenabhihata na sarma

atman labhante bhagavams tavanghri-

cchayam sa-vidyam ata asrayema

 

"O Father, O Lord, O Personality of Godhead, the living entities in the material world can never have any happiness because they are overwhelmed by three kinds of miseries.  Therefore they take shelter of the shade of Your lotus feet, which are full of knowledge, and we also thus take shelter of  them."

 

          In S.B. 4.29.49, there is the phrase sa vidya tanmatiryaya, which means: "real knowledge or education is that realization which increases our attachment for the Supreme Lord."

ye saktite krsne mati kare udbhabana

bidya-name sei kare abidya khandana

krishna-nama sei bidyabadhura jibana

krishna-padapadme ye karaye sthira mana

 

         "That potency which invokes loving attachment for Krishna in the heart is called the knowledge that destroys nescience. The holy name of Krishna is the life and soul of all knowledge and it fastens the heart firmly at Krishna's lotus feet."

 

The fifth perfection: anandambudhi-vardhanam

"The holy name increases the ocean of bliss."

 

        In the Shrimad Bhagavatam, 8.3.20:

 

ekantino yasya kancanartham

vanchanti ye bhagavat-prapannah

aty-adbhutam tac-caritam sumangalam

gayanta ananda-samudra-magnah

 

"Unalloyed devotees, who have no desire other than to serve the Lord, worship Him in full surrender and always hear and chant about His activities, which are most wonderful and auspicious. Thus they always merge in an ocean of transcendental bliss. Such  devotees never ask the Lord for any benediction."

 

The sixth perfection: pratipadam purna-amrta-asvadanam

"The holy name gives a taste of the full nectar at every step."

 

        From the Padma Purana: 

 

tebhyo namo'stu bhava-baridhi-jirna-panka-

sammagna-moksana-vicaksana-padukebhyah

krsneti varna-yugalam sravanena yesam

anandathur-bhavati narttitaromavrnda

 

     "I offer my respectful obeisances at the feet of that extraordinary personality whose body shivers with sublime joy and  horripilates with ecstasy at the sound of Krishna's sweet name,  and who is expert in redeeming the conditioned souls engrossed in the mire of the ocean of repeated birth and death." 

 

The seventh perfection: sarvatma-snapanam

"The holy name bathes everyone in the cooling sheen of the Supreme Self."

   

In the Shrimad Bhagavatam, 12.12.48:

 

sankirtyamano bhagavan anantah

srutanubhavo vyasanam hi pumsam

pravisya cittam vidhunoty asesam

yatha tamo'rko'bhram ivati-vatah

 

"When people properly glorify the Supreme Personality of  Godhead or simply hear about His power, the Lord personally enters their hearts and cleanses away every trace of misfortune,  just as the sun removes the darkness or as a powerful wind drives away the clouds."

 

        sruta anubhuta yata anartha-sanyoga

shri-krishna-kirtane saba haya ta'biyoga

yerupa bayute megha surya tamah nase

eitte prabesiya dosa asesa binase

krishna-nama-asraye eittadarpana-marjana

ati sighra labhe jiba krishna-prema-dhana

 

"All the unwanted things that were heard and experienced  (pertaining to this world of nescience) are immediately expelled from the mind and heart by chanting the holy name of Krishna.  Just as the clouds that blocked the sunlight are riven by the winds, so the name upon entering the heart destroys the dark  nescience within.  By taking shelter of the holy name of Krishna  the jiva's heart is cleansed very quickly, thus he attains the highest spiritual experiences of love of Godhead." 

 

In the Namastaka, stanza 8:

 

narada-vinojjivana sudharmi-niryyasa-madhuripura

tvam krishna-nama kamam sphura me rasane rasena sada

 

“O holy name of Krishna!  You are the life-sustaining elixer of Shri Narada Muni's vina and the exhilarating waves on the ocean of nectar.  Therefore I beg You to eternally remain ecstatically  dancing on my tongue."

 

Again in the Namastaka, stanza 2:

 

jaya namadheya munivrndaeya janaranjanaya paramaksarakrte

tvamanadaradapi managudiritam nikhilograta papataham vilumpasi

 

"All glory to You, O holy name!  The sages have always sung hymns praising You, You have now appeared in the transcendental  form of the supreme syllable for the pleasure of the entire  humanity.  Even if one chants those syllables with indifference  (i.e. the four types of namabhasa -indirectly, jokingly, derisively, neglectfully) even then You are capable of destroy¬ng the most dreadful sinful reactions; thus all of one's sufferings are extirpated.  You are always victorious."  

 

In Chaitanya Bhagavata, Madhya 23.76-77:

 

hare krishna hare krishna krishna krishna hare hare

hare rama hare rama rama rama hare hare

prabhu kahe - kahilan ei mahamantra

iha japa giya sabe kariya nirbandha

iha haite sarba-siddhi haibe sabara

sarba-krishna baka'ithe bidhi nahi ara

 

         'Lord Chaitanya said, "I am giving you this mahamantra:  hare krishna hare krishna krishna krishna hare hare hare rama hare rama  rama rama hare hare; now go and chant it with earnest enthusiasm. Since by this chanting you receive all the perfections in life, you should continue to chant incessantly. There are no rules or regulations for chanting this mahamantra."'