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NITAAI-Veda.nyf > All Scriptures By Acharyas > Bhaktivinoda Thakura > Prema Pradipa > Tenth Ray

Tenth Ray

Consideration of rati—rati is the root of rasa


“Rasa doesn't arise without the mixing of these four bhavas—sthayi-bhava, anubhava, vibhava, and sancari-bhava.

“First, one must consider sthayi-bhava. In the act of evoking rasa, the bhava which is prominent is called sthayi-bhava. Rati itself is sthayi-bhava, because when rati gains taste it is rasa. When rati is supported by vibhava, anubhava, and sancari-bhava, it becomes rasa. On their own, vibhava, anubhava, and sancari-bhava do not become rasa. Vibhava is the cause which awakens rasa. Anubhava is the activity which awakens rasa. Sancari-bhava is that which supports the awakening of rasa. Therefore rati is the root of rasa, vibhava is the cause, anubhava is the activity, and sancari-bhava is the support. These conditions are common for the five kinds of rasas: namely, shanta, dasya, sakhya, vatsalya, and madhurya.”


Consideration of rati (1) Three different symptoms are full of bhava, full of

eagerness, and full of desire


“What is rati? The answer—sthayi-bhava. Nothing is understood! Rati is a favorable expression of full eagerness and jubilation. The atma's first function is rati. The atma is full of knowledge. Therefore its function is to discriminate. It is of two kinds—one is thoughtful and the other is full of rasa. When thoughtful discrimination is nourished, all branches of knowledge are revealed. When discrimination full of rasa is manifest, it is called rati. The symptoms of rati are that it is favorable, or full of feelings which serve the purpose of the worshipable Lord; it is full of joy, or full eagerness related to the worshipable Lord; and it is full of eager desire, or full of strong desire to please the worshipable Lord.”


Consideration of rati (2) The origination of the endeavor for rasa is called rati, not ruci


“The beginning of the soul's first endeavor for rasa is called rati. Some people call the beginning of that endeavor ruci, but this is not befitting because the origin of the atma's endeavor for rasa with knowledge is called ruci. The origin of the endeavor for pure rasa is called rati. The origination of the endeavor for pure knowledge is called vedana. Because other bhavas are supported by rati and can exist in the act of awakening rasa, rati is called sthayi-bhava. In vaikuntha-rasa one's spontaneous self attachment is called sthayi-bhava. In svargiya-rasa one's mental attachment is the sthayi-bhava. That is why ordinary word jugglers have described this rati as jubilation of the mind. In parthiva-rasa that which makes the senses jubilant, that rati is known as sthayi-bhava.

“Out of the five relationships beginning with shanta and dasya, as each is adjoined to bhava, the hidden rati is manifest and gradually illuminates into prema, sneha, pranaya, mana, rati, raga, anuraga, and ultimately mahabhava. With the nourishment of rati the desired rasa is nourished.”

The differences of vishaya and ashraya, which are two kinds of alambana within vibhava

“Vibhavas are of two kinds—alambana and uddipana. Ashraya is that which possesses rati. Vishaya is the object of one's rati. Although the Absolute Truth is one, there are different examples in the different rasas. Lord Narayana is the example in the rasa of opulence. Shri Krishna is the example in the rasa of sweetness. With the help of shringara-rasa, I will give one example. Krishna and His devotees are examples of alambana. In the case of Krishna's attachment for His devotee; the ashraya is Krishna and the vishaya is the devotee. And in the case of the devotee's attachment for Krishna, the vishaya is Krishna and the ashraya is the devotee.”

Uddipana within vibhava


“Uddipana is all the qualities of ashraya and vishaya. Particularly, uddipana is the qualities of vishaya which attract rati. Shri Krishnacandra's qualities, pregnant with sweetness, are unlimited and boundless. Living entities are enchanted by those qualities. Those qualities are the uddipana of the living entity's attachment to Krishna. Krishnacandra is also attracted by the devotees' qualities such as their affection. All those qualities are the uddipana of Krishna's attachment. This bhava related to the manifestation of one's attachment is subservient to vibhava.”

Conjugal rasa is of two varieties—svakiya and parakiya—which should not be discussed in this assembly


“In shringara-rasa, Krishna is the purusha, or enjoyer, and all devotees are stri, or the enjoyed. Krishna is the husband and the devotees are His wives. Regarding svakiya and parakiya, these are confidential truths which should be privately learned at the feet of one's spiritual master. If I explain this topic in the assembly, it could be harmful for the unqualified devotees. Higher truths cannot be attained unless one is situated on a higher platform. Just as higher knowledge gradually arises in all scientific literature, likewise, confidential truths are attained in devotional literatures by proper qualification.”

One is not qualified in any rasaother than one's own


“One who is a devotee in shanta-rasa trembles while addressing the Lord as friend. One who is a devotee in vatsalya-rasa hesitates to address the Lord as husband. One who is a servant in the conjugal rasa of svakiya is completely unable to display mana, or anger, and other moods of the vamya devotee. Great rasikas like Jayadeva know how much Krishna becomes subservient in proportion to the devotees' qualification. You are also rasika-bhaktas, therefore I will not speak more on this subject. Other than the basic topics of rasa-tattva, I will not enter into subtle examples. Regarding vibhava, I'll explain up to the point of Krishna becoming the alambana, or shelter, as husband and paramour and the devotees are of three types—svakiya, parakiya, and sadharana. All these subjects will be particularly known by studying Ujjvala-nilamani.”



“There are two kinds of anubhavas: (I) angika and (II) satvika. Some persons describe satvika-anubhava as an independent limb. In fact, the essence will be the same.

 (I) Angika anubhava is of three varieties:(A) alankara, ornaments of emotional love; (B) udbhasvara, external manifestations of emotional love; and (C) vacika, verbal manifestations of emotional love.

 ( A) Alankara is of three kinds:(1) angaja, in relation to the body; (2) ayatnaja, in relation to the self; and (3) svabhavaja, in relation to nature.

 (1) Angaja anubhava is of three kinds:(a) bhava, ecstasy; (b) hava, gestures; and (c) hela, negligence.

 (2) Ayatnaja anubhava is of seven kinds:(a) shobha, beauty; (b) kanti, luster; (c) dipti, brilliance; (d) madhurya, sweetness; (e) pragalbhata, impudence; (f) audarya, magnanimity; and (g) dhairya, patience.

 (3) Svabhavaja anubhava is of ten kinds:(a) lila, pastimes; (b) vilasa, enjoyment; (c) vicchitti, breaking off; (d) vibhrama, puzzlement; (e) kila-kincita; (f) mottayita; (g) kuttamita; (h) vivvoka, neglect; (i) lalita, charm; and (j) vikrita<$FIn Chaitanya-caritamrita (2.8.175) Shrila Prabhupada says, “There are no English equivalents for the words kila-kincita, motöayita, and kuööamita.” There are, however, some examples in Madhya-lila Ch. 14.170-200.>.

This ends the description of (A) alankara anubhavas.

 (B) There are five kinds of udbhasvaras:(1) vesha-bhushara shaithilya, slackening of the belt and a dropping of clothes and hair; (2) gatra-moöanam, bodily contortions; (3) jrimbha, yawning; (4) ghranasya phullatvam, trembling of the front portion of the nostrils; and (5) nihshvasa-prashvasa, heavy breathing.

 (C) There are twelve kinds of vacika anubhavas:(1) alapa, (2) vilapa, (3) samlapa, (4) pralapa, (5) anulapa, (6) upalapa, (7) sandesha, (8) atidesha, (9) apadesha, (10) upadesha, (11) nirdesha, and (12) vyapadesha.

This concludes the description of (I) angika anubhavas.

 (II) There are eight types of satvika anubhavas:(1) stambha, being stunned; (2) sveda, perspiring; (3) romanca, hairs standing on end; (4) svarabhanga, choking; (5) vepathu, trembling; (6) vaivarnya, change in the bodily color; (7) ashru, crying; and (8) pralaya, devastation.

Consideration of the difference betweenangika and satvika anubhavas


“Unless the subtle difference between anga and satva is understood by consideration, the above mentioned divisions will never make sense. Citta is the director of all angas. The perversion of citta is called satva. In the state of satva, as bhavas manifest and pervade the limbs, then by consideration of the place of their origination, those bhavas are called satvika vikara. But all angika bhavas awaken in every limb and shine. Satvika vikaras awaken in every satva. All angika vikaras awaken in the angika bhavas. It takes time to understand these subtle divisions.”

Thirty-three sancari-bhavas


“Just as sthayi-bhava and vibhava are two main divisions related to rasa, similarly anubhava is understood to be one main division. As anubhava is one division, in the same way all sancari-bhavas are also one division. The thirty-three varieties are as follows: (1) nirveda, indifference; (2) vishada, moroseness; (3) dainya, meekness; (4) glani, a feeling that one is in a faulty position; (5) shrama, fatigue; (6) mada, madness; (7) garva, pride; (8) shanka, doubt; (9) trasa, shock; (10) avega, intense emotion; (11) unmada, craziness; (12) apasmara, forgetfulness; (13) vyadhi, disease; (14) moha, bewilderment; (15) mriti, death; (16) alasya, laziness; (17) jadya, invalidity; (18) vrida, shame; (19) avahittha, concealment; (20) riti, remembrance; (21) vitarka, argument; (22) cinta, contemplation; (23) mati, attention; (24) dhriti, forbearance; (25) harsha, jubilation; (26) autsukya, eagerness; (27) augrya, violence; (28) amarsha, anger; (29) asuya, jealousy; (30) capalya, impudence; (31) nidra, sleep; (32) supti, deep sleep; and (33) prabodha, awakening.”



“These sancari-bhavas may also be called vyabhicari-bhavas. Rati of sthayi-bhava is nourished by all of these. If sthayi-bhava is compared to the ocean, then these sancari-bhavas may be compared to waves. Just as waves time to time quickly rise and expand the ocean, in the same way sancari-bhavas expand rasa by repeatedly dunking the rasa sadhaka's rati. These sancari-bhavas rush specially towards sthayi-bhava and are therefore called vyabhicari-bhavas.”

Sancari-bhavas nourish rati


“All sancari-bhavas are special ecstasies situated in the heart. These thirty-three ecstasies naturally arise in the heart. When one awakens a conjugal relationship with Krishna they are sancari-bhavas of conjugal rasa. Those various ecstasies are of contradictory natures. It is not that all ecstasies act at the same time. Sancari-bhavas awaken according to which kind of rasa is functioning. Sometimes it is nirveda, and sometimes mada. Sometimes it is alasya, and sometimes prabodha. Sometimes it is vishada, and sometimes harsha. Sometimes it is moha, and sometimes mati. Unless these sancari-bhavas awaken, how will rati be nourished?”

Rati mixed with one's relationship is prema


“Now you will come to understand that rati in the form of sthayi-bhava is like a hero. The related vibhava is the hero's throne. Anubhava, in the form of activities, is the hero's power. And sancari-bhavas are the soldiers. Five divisions of rasas manifest according to the different relationships. Rati is like the indivisible root of the science of rasa. When rati is alone it is called rati, but when it is joined with one's relationship it becomes prema. As rati attains vibhava when it takes shelter with one's relationship, similarly, as rati  transforms into the appropriate prema when it joins with one's relationship. As that rasa flourishes, the sadhaka leaves aside other rasas. According to the rasa in which one advances, that rasa is beneficial and best. This is the consideration on the constitution of the science of rasa.”

A comparative study of rasa with impartial consideration, as well as a consideration on shanta-rasa


“With impartial consideration, dasya-rasa is superior to shanta-rasa. Sakhya-rasa is superior to dasya-rasa. Vatsalya-rasa is superior to sakhya-rasa, and madhurya-rasa is superior to vatsalya-rasa. This comparison is seen with impartial consideration. In shanta-rasa, rati alone is present; vibhava and sancari-bhava are, as yet, undeveloped. In that state, having given up maya, the sadhaka is spiritually situated and observed to be nearly impersonal, like unseen matter. Though it is a sort of liberation, the fruit of liberation is not enjoyed. Unseen rati is impotent like an imaginary flower in the sky. For the superior sadhaka, those results are truly insignificant. However much the Brahmo sadhaka glorifies that position, the Vaishnava knows it is no better that the womb.”

Consideration of dasya, sakhya, vatsalya, and madhurya rasas


“When vibhava is added, then dasya-rasa is awakened. Dasya-rasa is of two kinds—siddha-dasya and unnati-garbha. In siddha-dasya, dasya is the limit. In unnati-garbha-dasya, sakhya, vatsalya, and madhurya rasas germinate.

“In this way sakhya is of two kinds—siddha and unnati-garbha. In siddha-sakhya, rati, prema, and pranaya are found to be steady. In unnati, vatsalya and conjugal feelings germinate.

“Vatsalya is always siddha. Vatsalya does not turn into any other rasa. When sakhya is nourished, it becomes vatsalya or madhurya. Although vatsalya is one form of culmination, it is inferior to madhurya. In madhurya-rasa, pranaya, mana, sneha, etc. are not reckoned. They are completely independent.”

One must know rasa-tattva by relishing it with Shri Gurudeva


“O saintly Vaishnavas! I have briefly explained the science of rasa. Only by speaking some words, more cannot be said on this topic. Rasa is something to be relished. One cannot understand rasa just by hearing. When you relish that pure rasa, then you know the feelings that arise. One can never express that with words. If anyone present has not relished rasa-tattva, he should take shelter of a suitable guru, confidentially relish rasa, and realize this science. I'm unable to say any more. Offering unlimited obeisances at the feet of the Vaishnavas, I stop here.”

Anand Babu and Naren Babu attain the Vaishnava platform

Pleased by Pandita Babaji's nectarean words, all the Vaishnavas exclaimed, “Sadhu!

Sadhu!” and went to their own residences. After hearing Babaji Mahashaya's talk, Anand Babu and Naren Babu became most eager to drink the nectar of rasa. They both took shelter of Yogi Babaji's feet to receive further instruction on rasa. What they received from the feet of Shri Guru is too confidential to describe. As a result of his previous activity, Mallik Mahashaya became a master in the yoga-shastra. But he could not understand the science of rasa at all.