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Direct and Indirect
Considerations on the
Moods of Vraja
atraiva vraja-bhavanam shraishthyam uktam asheshatah
mathura-dvaraka-bhavas tesham pushti-kara matah
In this book the moods of Vraja have already been elaborately described. The moods of Mathura and Dvaraka nourish the moods of Vraja.
jivasya mangalarthaya vraja-bhavo vivicyate
yad bhava-sangato jivash camritatvaya kalpate
I will now discuss the moods of Vraja for the auspiciousness of the living entities. By remaining attached to the moods of Vraja, the living entities achieve eternal life.
anvaya-vyatirekabhyam vivicyayam mayadhuna
anvayat panca sambandhah shanta-dasyadayash ca ye
These moods of Vraja will now be directly and indirectly considered. Through direct consideration, shanta, dasya, sakhya, vatsalya, and madhurya are found.
kecit tu vraja-rajasya dasa-bhava-gatah sada
apare sakhya-bhavadhyah shridama-subaladayah
Some attain the service of the King of Vraja, and the devotees such as Shridama and Subala serve the Lord in the mood of friendship.
radhadyah kanta-bhave tu vartante rasa-mandale
Yashoda, Rohini, and Nanda are the examples of parental love, and gopis such as Shri Radhika are present in the rasa-mandala in the conjugal mood.
vrindavanam vina nasti shuddha-sambandha-bhavakah
ato vai shuddha-jivanam ramye vrindavane ratih
Pure relationships and their respective moods are found only in Vrindavana. That is why pure living entities have a natural attraction for Vrindavana-dhama.
tatraiva kanta-bhavasya shreshtata shastra-sammata
jivasya nitya-dharmo 'yam bhagavad bhogyata mata
All scriptures agree that the conjugal mood of Vrindavana is the topmost, because the Lord' nature as the enjoyer and the living entities' nature as the enjoyed are purely found therein.
na tatra kunthata kacit vartate jiva-krishnayoh
akhanda-paramanandah sada syat priti-rupa-dhrik
In Vaikuntha, there is no anxiety between Krishna and the living entities, as both are situated in their eternal constitutional positions. Perpetual supreme happiness in the form of love is eternally present there.
sambhoga-sukha-pushty-artham vipralambho 'pi sammatah
The ultimate goal of vraja-rasa is the happiness of enjoyment between Krishna and the living entities. The mood of separation, in the form of purva-raga, mana, prema-vaicittya, and pravasa, is extremely essential in nourishing this happiness. This becomes perfected by contemplation on Mathura and Dvaraka. Therefore the moods of Mathura and Dvaraka nourish the moods of Vraja, as previously described.
prapanca-baddha-jivanam vaidha-dharmashrayat pura
adhuna krishna-sampraptau parakiya-rasashrayah
According to their qualification, the conditioned living entities first take shelter of regulative devotional service. Later, when attachment awakens, the mood of Vraja awakens. When one externally follows the regulative process of devotional service and internally takes shelter of attachment to Krishna, then the relationship between Krishna and the devotee known as parakiya-rasa, or paramour love, is appreciated. Just as a married woman becomes overwhelmed by the beauty of another man and secretly becomes attached to him while externally respecting her own husband, similarly the lovers of Krishna take shelter of parakiya-rasa by internally cultivating attachment while externally following the regulative principles and respecting the Lord and protector of those principles. This science is very important for persons in the conjugal rasa. The uttama-adhikaris can never give this up even if they are criticized by the madhyama-adhikaris. This book is not meant for the kanishtha-adhikaris, therefore the regulative principles are not being elaborated herein. One will have to study these regulative principles from books like Hari-bhakti-vilasa. The main purport of the regulative principles is that when the conditioned living entities' constitutional duties are almost dormant, or pervertedly reflected as attachment for material objects, then whatever the learned doctors prescribe in order to cure the disease are called regulative principles. While wandering in the material world, a great personality is able to arouse his dormant attachment by certain activities. He bestows his mercy on the living entities by establishing those activities as a form of spiritual practice. The prescriptions given by those great personalities must be followed by the kanishtha-adhikaris as though they were scriptural injunctions. The sages who establish these prescriptions are all uttama-adhikaris and swanlike personalities. Those persons who cannot awaken attachment by their own efforts have no alternative other than following these prescriptions. In the Shrimad Bhagavatam those prescriptions are classified into nine divisions, beginning with hearing and chanting. Those prescriptions have been further discussed in Bhakti-rasamrita-sindhu as sixty-four limbs. The conclusion is that those whose natural attachment is practically dormant are eligible for vidhi-marga, the path of regulative principles; but as soon as attachment is awakened, the path of regulative principles becomes secondary. Those regulative principles that are followed in order to awaken one's attachment while cultivating Krishna consciousness should be followed with gratefulness long after attachment is awakened, so that people can follow that example. In any case, swanlike mahatmas reserve the right of either following or giving up the regulative principles.
shri-gopi-bhavam-ashritya manjari-sevanam tada
sakhinam sangatis tasmat tasmad radha-padashrayah
In the upasana-kanda, or Vedic division on worship, attachment is divided into three categories—pure attachment, attachment in the mood of Vaikuntha, and attachment based on material examples of spiritual relationships. Pure attachment, or mahabhava, is the property of Radhika, who is half of Krishna's form. Similar but slightly different to mahabhava are the eight pure symptoms of transcendental ecstatic love, personified by the eight sakhis. Similar to the mood of the sakhis (please see the commentary on 7.2) are attachments based on material examples of spiritual relationships, personified by the manjaris. The worshiper should first take shelter of a manjari who has a nature similar to his own. Later he should take shelter of the sakhi who is worshiped by that manjari. By the mercy of that sakhi, one will attain the shelter of the lotus feet of Shri Radhika. The positions of a worshiper, a manjari, a sakhi, and Shrimati Radhika in the circle of the rasa dance are similar to an asteroid, a planet, the sun, and Dhruvaloka of the material world.
tatraiva bhava-bahulyan mahabhavo bhaved dhruvam
tatraiva krishna-sambhogah sarvananda-pradayakah
When the living entities approach mahabhava by gradual advancement of their loving emotions, then enjoyment with Krishna, which bestows unlimited bliss, is easily attained.
etasyam vraja-bhavanam sampattau prati-bandhakah
ashta-dasha-vidhah santi shatravah priti-dushakah
There are eighteen obstacles that pollute one's ecstatic love in the wonderful mood of Vraja. Contemplating the names of these obstacles is the indirect consideration of the mood of Vraja.
adau dushta-guru-praptih putana stanya-dayini
vatya-rupa-kutarkas tu trinavarta itiritah
Persons who are on the path of attachment should avoid the first obstacle, accepting a bogus guru, by discussing Putana's arrival in Vraja in the guise of a nurse [see Appendix A]. There are two types of gurus—antaranga, or internal, and bahiranga, or external. The living entity who is situated in samadhi is his own antaranga guru69. One who accepts argument as his guru and who learns the process of worship from such a guru is said to have accepted the shelter of a bogus guru. When argument poses as nourishment for the living entities' constitutional duties, this may be compared with Putana's falsely posing as a nurse. Worshipers on the path of attachment must immerse all arguments in spiritual subjects and take shelter of samadhi. The external guru is he from whom the science of worship is learned. One who knows the proper path of attachment and who instructs his disciples according to their qualification is a sad-guru, or eternal guru. One who does not know the path of attachment yet instructs others in this path or who knows that path and instructs his disciples without considering their qualification is a bogus guru and must be given up. The second obstacle is false arguments. It is difficult for one's ecstatic emotion to be awakened until Trinavarta, in the form of a whirlwind, is killed in Vraja. In the form of Trinavarta, the arguments of philosophers, Buddhists, and logicians are all obstacles to the ecstatic emotion of Vraja.
tritiye bhara-vahitvam shakatam buddhi mardakam
caturthe bala-doshanam svarupo vatsa-rupa-dhrik
Those who do not understand the purpose of the regulative principles but simply carry the burden of following them out of formality are unable to develop attachment. When one destroys Shakata, who personifies carrying the burden of the regulative principles, the third obstacle is overcome. Bogus gurus who did not consider their disciples' qualification for the path of attachment and thus instructed many Shakata-like people to accept service in the mood of manjaris and sakhis committed offenses in the form of disrespecting confidential subject matters and fell down. Those who worship according to such instructions also gradually fall away from spiritual life, because they do not attain the symptoms of deep attachment for those topics. Yet they may still be delivered by the association of devotees and proper instructions. This is called breaking Shakata. The living entities are sober by nature, but when they are disturbed due to possessing a body made of blood and flesh it is called bala-dosha, or juvenile offenses. This is the fourth obstacle, in the form of Vatsasura [see Appendix B].
pancame dharma-kapatyam namaparadha rupakam
baka-rupi mahadhurtto vaishnavanam virodhakah
The most clever Bakasura, who is the personification of cheating religion, is the fifth obstacle for Vaishnavas. This is called namaparadha, offenses against the holy name of the Lord. Those who do not understand their qualification but accept the instruction of a bogus guru and engage in the process of worship meant for exalted devotees are cheated asslike people. And those who have understood their ineligibility yet with a goal to accumulate money and prestige still follow the process of worship meant for exalted devotees are called cheaters. Until this cheating in the name of religion is destroyed, one's attachment will not awaken. Such people deceive the entire world by making a show of sectarian formalities and pseudo-renunciation.
tatraiva sampradayanam bahya-linga-samadarat
dambhikanam na sa pritih krishne vraja-nivasini
Those who see and respect such proud people's show of external formalities cannot attain love for Krishna and are like thorns in the side of the world. It is to be understood here that one should not disrespect a swanlike person just because he has accepted external formalities that are generally considered detestable. It is the eternal duty of Vaishnavas to develop the symptoms of love by associating with and serving devotees, while remaining indifferent to external formalities.
nrishamsatvam pracandatvam aghasura svarupakam
shashthaparadha rupo 'yam vartate pratibandhakah
Aghasura, the personification of intolerance and cruelty, is the sixth obstacle. Due to a lack of compassion for the living entities there is a possibility that one's attachment will gradual diminish, because compassion cannot remain separated from attachment. The basis of compassion for the living entities and devotion to Krishna is the same.
bahu-shastra-vicarena shan moho vartate satam
sa eva saptamo lakshyo brahmano mohane kila
If one intensely absorbs his mind in various arguments, opinions, and their respective literatures, then all realizations attained through samadhi are practically lost. This is called illusion based on the flowery words of the Vedas. Being overwhelmed with this illusion, Brahma doubted the supremacy of Krishna. The Vaishnavas should regard this illusion as the seventh obstacle.
dhenukah sthula-buddhih syad garddabhas tala-rodhakah
ashtame lakshyate doshah sampradaye satam mahan
Subtle discrimination is extremely important for Vaishnavas. Those who invent social distinctions and preach the unbreakable principles of Vaishnavism while breaking them to suit their needs are said to possess gross discrimination. This gross discrimination takes the form of the ass Dhenuka. The ass cannot eat the sweet palm tree fruits, and he opposes others' attempts to eat them. The purport is that the previous acaryas of the authorized sampradayas have written many spiritual literatures, which people with gross discrimination neither understand nor allow others to see. Asslike devotees who are simply interested in the regulative principles and under the control of gross discrimination are unable to attain a higher platform. Vaishnava principles are so unlimitedly exalted that those who simply remain entangled in the regulative process without endeavoring to understand the science of attachment are comparable to ordinary fruitive workers. Therefore, until the ass Dhenukasura is killed, one cannot advance in the science of Vaishnavism.
indriyani bhajanty eke tyaktva vaida-vidhim shubham
navame vrishabhas te 'pi nashyante krishna-tejasa
Many weak-hearted people give up the path of regulative principles and enter the path of attachment. When they are unable to realize the souls' spiritual attachment, they behave like Vrishabhasura [Arishtasura, the bull] by cultivating perverted material attachment. They will be killed by the prowess of Krishna. The example of this obstacle is regularly found among the selfish dharma-dvajis, the show-bottle devotees.
khalata dashame lakshya kaliye sarpa-rupake
sampradaya-virodho 'yam davanalo vicintyate
Kaliya's malice always pollutes the water of the Yamuna, which is the spiritual liquid of the Vaishnavas. It is everyone's duty to give up this tenth obstacle [see Appendix C]. The eleventh obstacle of the Vaishnavas is sectarianism, which takes the shape of the forest fire. Due to sectarianism a person cannot accept anyone outside of his own group as a Vaishnava, and as a result he faces many obstacles in finding a guru and associating with devotees. Therefore extinguishing the forest fire is most important.
pralambo dvadashe cauryam atmano brahma-vadinam
pravishtah krishna-dasye 'pi vaishnavanam sutaskarah
The impersonalists desire to merge the soul in the impersonal Brahman. In other words, searching for the liberation of complete merging is the defect of stealing the self, because there is no happiness in this state. Neither the living entity nor the Lord gain anything from this. If one believes the impersonalists' philosophy, then he must accept this material world as false. One then denounces Brahman as indifferent and gradually develops doubts about the basis of Brahman. If one deeply discusses this topic, then he is compelled to accept meaningless nescience and nonexistence of the living entities. Thus all of mankind's endeavors and considerations become meaningless. Sometimes this philosophy enters amongst Vaishnavas in the form of Pralambasura to spread anarthas, in the form of stealing the self. This is the twelve obstacle in the Vaishnavas' science of love.
karmanah phalam anvikshya devendradi-prapujanam
trayodashatmako dosho varjaniyah prayatnatah
The thirteenth obstacle for the Vaishnavas is the worship of minor demigods such as Indra with a desire for fruitive results even after becoming situated in the process of devotional service.
cauryanrita mayo dosho vyomasura svarupakah
shri-krishna-priti-paryaptau naranam pratibandhakah
The fourteenth obstacle in developing love for Krishna is stealing others' property and speaking lies. These create disturbances in Vraja in the form of Vyomasura.
varunalaya sampraptir nandasya citta-madakam
varjaniyam sada sadbhir vismritir hy atmano yatah
The transcendental happiness of the living entities in Vraja is known as nanda. In order to enhance that happiness, some deluded people drink wine, and as a result they create the great anartha of forgetting themselves. Kidnapping Nanda to the abode of Varuna is the fifteenth obstacle for the Vaishnavas. People who are absorbed in the mood of Vraja never drink wine.
pratishthaparata bhakti cchalena bhoga-kamana
shankhacuda iti proktah shodashah pratibandhakah
The desire for gaining fame and sense gratification through bhakti is called Shankhacuda. This is the sixteenth obstacle. Those whose actions are motivated by a desire for fame are also proud, therefore Vaishnavas should always be careful of such persons.
ananda-varddhane kincit sayujyam bhasate hridi
tan nanda-bhakshakah sarpas tena muktah suvaishnavah
As the Vaishnavas' happiness continually increases in the process of worship, they sometimes lose consciousness. At that time the feeling of merging overcomes them. This feeling of merging with the Lord is the snake that swallowed Nanda Maharaja. A practitioner who remains free from this snake will become a qualified Vaishnava.
bhakti-tejo-samriddhya tu svotkarsha-jnanavan narah
kadacid dushta-buddhya tu keshi-ghnam avamanyate
Keshi, a demon in the form of a horse, personifies the practitioner's conception of being more expert than others in devotional service. When he comes to Vraja, he creates a great disturbance. As a Vaishnava gradually begins proclaiming his own superiority, a mentality of disrespect for the Lord arises and the devotee falls from his position. Therefore it is most important to prevent this evil mentality from entering the heart. Even if one is expert in devotional service, a Vaishnava will never give up the quality of humility. If one does so, then there is a need for killing Keshi. This is the eighteenth obstacle.
doshash cashtadasha hy ete bhaktanam shatravo hridi
damanayah prayatnena krishnananda nishevina
Those who want to happily serve Krishna in the pure mood of Vraja should carefully destroy the above-mentioned eighteen obstacles. Some of these obstacles should be destroyed by a person's own endeavor and purity, and some should be destroyed by the mercy of Krishna. A living entity is able to personally destroy the obstacles that are found under the shelter of religious duties through samadhi known as savikalpa. The Shrimad Bhagavatam explains that these obstacles are actually destroyed by Baladeva. But it is also described that the obstacles that are destroyed by taking shelter of Krishna are actually destroyed by Him. Swanlike persons with subtle discrimination should carefully discuss these topics.
jnaninam mathura doshah karminam pura-vartinah
varjaniyah sada kintu bhaktanam vraja-dushakah
Those who are on the path of jnana should give up the offenses found in the realm of Mathura, and those who are on the path of fruitive activities should give the offenses found in Dvaraka. But devotees should give up the obstacles that pollute the mood of Vraja and be absorbed in love for Krishna.
Thus ends the Eight Chapter of Shri Krishna-samhita, entitled
“Direct and Indirect Considerations on the Moods of Vraja.”
May Lord Krishna be pleased.