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NITAAI-Veda.nyf > All Scriptures By Acharyas > Bhaktivinoda Thakura > Krishna Samhita > Sri Krishna Samhita > Chapter-V

Chapter Five

The Pastimes of Lord Krishna



priti-pravrit samarambhe        gopya bhavatmikas tada

shri krishnasya guna-gane tu        pramattas ta hari-priyah

When madhurya-rasa becomes excessively liquified, then love pours like rain during the rainy season. Then the gopis, who are most dear to Hari and fully absorbed in His thought, become maddened while chanting His glories.


shri krishna-venu-gitena        vyakulas tah samarccayan

yoga-mayah maha-devim        krishna-labhecchaya vraje

Being overwhelmed by the sound of Krishna's flute, the gopis of Vraja worshiped goddess Yogamaya with a desire to attain Krishna. The appearance of the truth of Vaikuntha in the pure consciousness of the living entities of this world is called Vraja. The word vraja means “to go.” It is impossible to elevate oneself in this material world by rejecting maya, therefore one should take shelter of favorable material items and try to search for the indescribable truth. For this reason living entities who have attained the mood of gopis take shelter of the great goddess Yogamaya to help them attain the Lord's pastimes in the spiritual world.

TEXT 3-4

yesham tu krishna-daseccha        vartate balavattara

gopaniyam na tesham hi        svasmin vanyatra kincana

etad vai shikshayan krishno        vastrani vyaharan prabhuh

dadarshanavritam cittam        rati-sthanam anamayam

Those persons who have an intense desire to serve Krishna have no secrets amongst themselves or with others. In order to teach this principle to the devotees, Krishna stole the clothes of the gopis. A heart that is situated in pure goodness is the proper abode for attachment to the Lord. He exposed the gopis' love for Him by stealing away their clothes.


brahmanamsh ca jagannatho        yajnannam samayacata

brahmana na dadur bhaktam        varnabhimanino yatah

While tending the cows near Mathura, Shri Krishna begged food grains from the brahmanas who were engaged in sacrifice. Being proud of their caste, those brahmanas considered that performing sacrifices was the highest principle and therefore did not give Krishna any food.


veda-vada-rata viprah        karma-jnana-parayanah

vidhinam vahakah shashvat        katham krishna-rata hi te

The reason for this is that high-caste brahmanas are so-called followers of the Vedas, and therefore they cannot realize the subtle purport of the Vedas. They follow the process of insignificant fruitive activities and become materialistic, or they study the science of self-realization and speculative knowledge and become absorbed in impersonalism. Such brahmanas prefer to simply remain controlled by the scriptural injunctions or previous ancestors by formally carrying out their instructions. They are unable to understand that attachment to the Lord is the primary purpose of all scriptures, so how can they become servants of Krishna? We should not misunderstand from this that all brahmanas are mundane fruitive workers or followers of speculative knowledge. Many great personalities appeared in brahmana families and attained the topmost position of devotional service. Therefore the purport of this verse is that asslike brahmanas who formally carry out the rules and regulations are averse to Krishna, but swanlike brahmanas are servants of Krishna and thus worshipable by all.


tesham striyas tadagatya        shri-krishna-sannidhim vane

akurvannatma-danam vai        krishnaya paramatmane

The wives of the asslike brahmanas represent people who are subordinate to those with undeveloped faith. Being under the control of the sweetness of Krishna, who is the Supersoul, they went to the forest and offered themselves to Him. Those who have undeveloped faith are called mundane devotees.


etena darshitam tattvam        jivanam samadarshanam

shri-krishna-priti-sampattau        jati-buddhir na karanam

By this incident the equality of all living entities is ascertained. There is no consideration of caste in pleasing Krishna, rather caste consciousness sometimes becomes an obstacle in the development of love.


naranam varna-bhago hi        samajika vidhir matah

tyajan varnashraman dharman        krishnarthah hi na doshabhak

In order to maintain social order, the Aryans divided society into four castes and four social orders. If the social system is protected, then people's spiritual lives are nourished by good association and discussion. Therefore the varnashrama system should be accepted in all respects. By this arrangement there is a possibility of gradually attaining love for Krishna. The main purpose for this arrangement is the cultivation of spiritual life, or love for Krishna. Even if one attains perfection without following this process, still it should not be disregarded. At this point one should understand that after attaining perfection, this process naturally becomes unimportant. There is no fault in the rejection of the relatively less important process of varnashrama by those who have attained perfection in the form of love for Krishna. Therefore the conclusion is that faults and qualities can be attributed only in respect to the qualification of the performer.


indrasya karma-rupasya        nishidhya yajnam utsavan

varshanat plavanat tasya        raraksha gokulam harih

Lord Yajneshvara is the predominating Lord of the activities for protecting the social order. His representative amongst the living entities is Indra. Such activities are of two varieties—constitutional and conditional. Those regular activities which are meant for maintaining one's life are called constitutional. Any activities other than these are conditional. If we consider, we can understand that all fruitive activities fall under the category of either constitutional or conditional. Therefore activities performed either with material desire or without material desire fall under the categories of constitutional or conditional activities. Lord Krishna forbade His devotees from performing any activities other than those meant for maintaining their lives. When Indra, the lord of fruitive activities, saw Lord Krishna arrange to neglect the activities meant to nourish the world, he created a great disturbance. The Lord protected the devotees from flood and supplied their needs by accepting Govardhana, the expanding shelter of sober persons, as an umbrella.


etena jnapitam tattvam        krishna-pritim gatasya vai

na kacid vartate shanka        vishva-nasha karmanah

If the activities that nourish the world are neglected for the cultivation of Krishna consciousness, the devotees of Krishna should not feel anxiety.


yesham krishnah samuddhartta        tesham hanta na kashcana

vidhanam na balam teshu        bhaktanam kutra bandhanam

No one can destroy one whom Krishna wants to protect. The strength of regulations cannot influence such persons. What to speak of the bondage of regulations, nothing other than the bondage of love for the Lord can bind the devotees.


vishvasa-vishaye ramye        nadi cid-drava-rupini

tasyam tu pitaram magnam        uddhritya-lilaya harih

In Shri Vrindavana, the land of faith, the Yamuna, the personification of spiritual liquid, flows. Nanda Maharaja was merged in that water, and the Lord delivered him as part of His pastimes.


darshayamasa vaikuntham        gopebhyo harir atmanah

aishvaryam krishnas tattve tu        sarvada nihitam kila

Thereafter, Lord Krishna mercifully displayed the truth and opulence of Vaikuntha to the cowherd men. This shows that Krishna's sweetness is so prominent that His opulences become covered by its presence.


jivanam nitya-siddhanam        anuganam api priyah

akarod rasa-lilam vai        priti-tattva-prakashikam

The Lord, who is very dear to the eternally perfect living entities and their followers, performed His rasa-lila, which is the culmination of ecstatic love.


antarddhana-viyogena        varddhayan smaram uttamam

gopika-rasa-cakre tu        nanarta kripaya harih

After the most merciful Lord increased the amorous love of the gopis by suddenly disappearing from them, He began to dance in the circle of the rasa-lila.

TEXT 17-18

jadatmake yatha vishve        dhruvasyakarshanat kila

bhramanti mandalakarah        sasurya graha-sankulah

tatha cid-vishaye krishnasy-        akarshana-balad api

bhramanti nityasho jivah        shri-krishne madhyage sati

In this material world, which is created by maya, there is a principle constellation named Dhruva. All the suns along with their planets continually circle around Dhruva by its power of attraction. The main consideration is that there is an energy known as attraction in all material atoms. By the strength of this energy, atoms are attracted to each other and they thus create a globular planet. When these planets are attracted to a larger globular planet, they begin to move around it. This is the invariable law of this material world. Maya is the basis of the material world and only a reflection of the spiritual world. This has already been explained previously while discussing the energies of the Lord. By their eternal constitution, in the form of love, the sparklike conscious living entities in the spiritual world are attracted to one another, and they imitate one with more elevated consciousness. Those more elevated conscious persons with their subordinate conscious associates constantly move in the rasa-lila circle of Krishna, who is the superconscious supreme Dhruva. Therefore the great rasa-lila pastimes are eternally manifest in the realm of Vaikuntha. In the spiritual world the ever-existing attachment extends love up to mahabhava, and in the material world the reflection extends as an inconceivable material attraction that creates variegatedness. In order to illustrate subtle truths by gross examples we say that in the material world the sun along with the planets are constantly moving around the Dhruva constellation by the strength of its attraction, just as all pure living entities eternally circle around Krishna by the strength His attraction.


maha-rasa-vihare 'smin        purushah krishna eva hi

sarve nari-ganas tatra        bhogya-bhoktri vicaratah

In the transcendental rasa-lila pastimes, Shri Krishna is the only enjoyer and all others are enjoyed. The conclusion is that the sunlike personality of the spiritual world, Lord Shri Krishna, is the only male and the living entities are all female. All the relationships of the spiritual world are based on pure love, one therefore finds the enjoyer is male and the enjoyed are female. The males and females of the material world are perverted reflections of the enjoyer and enjoyed of the spiritual world. If one searches through all dictionaries one will not find the words to properly describe the spiritual pastimes of the supremely conscious Lord and His associates. Hence the descriptions of the man and woman of the material world are used here as an appropriate indication. There is no necessity or suggestion of obscene thoughts in this regard. If we reject these activities as obscene, then we miss the opportunity to discuss that supreme pastime. We are able to describe the truths of Vaikuntha by describing mundane emotions as the reflections of spiritual emotions. There is no other alternative in this regard. For example: Krishna is merciful. But to show how Krishna is merciful, one has to give the example of certain persons who are merciful. There is no way of expressing this quality other than by giving a well-known example. Therefore swanlike persons should give up shyness and obscene considerations and then hear, read, and think about the transcendental topics of the rasa-lila without anxiety.


tatraiva paramaradhya        hladini krishna-bhasini

bhavaih sa rasa-madhyastha        sakhibhi radhikavrita

The topmost expression of the rasa-lila is that Shrimati Radhika, who is the personification of hladini, who manifests the sweetness of Krishna, and who is supremely worshipable by the living entities, is surrounded by the sakhis, who are personifications of various emotions, and beautifully situated in the rasa dance.


maha-rasa-viharante        jala-krida svabhavatah

vartate yamunayam vai        drava-mayam satam kila

After the rasa-lila dance, the water sports in the spiritual waters of the Yamuna naturally take place.


mukty ahi-grasta nandas tu        krishnena mocitas tada

yashomurddhah sudurdanta        shankhacudo hatah pura

When Maharaja Nanda, who is personified happiness, was swallowed by the snake, who personifies merging with the Supreme, Krishna, the protector of the devotees, rescued him from danger. Shankhacuda was the personification of fame, because he considered fame as his life and soul. He was killed while trying to create disturbances in Vraja.


ghotakatma hatas tena        keshi rajya-madasurah

mathuram gantukamena        krishnena kamsa-vairina

When Krishna, the enemy of Kamsa, decided to go to Mathura, the horse demon Keshi, who personifies the vanity of political ambition, was killed.


ghatyanam ghatako 'kruro        mathuram anayad dharim

mallan hatva harih kamsam        sanujam nipapata ha

Akrura, the catalyst of future events, took Krishna and Balarama to Mathura, where the two Lords first killed the wrestlers and then Kamsa.


nastikye vigate kamse        svatantryam ugrasenakam

tasyaiva pitarah krishnah        kritavan kshiti-palakam

After the atheist Kamsa was killed, his father, Ugrasena, the personification of freedom, was installed on the throne by Krishna.


kamsa-bharya-dvayam gatva        pitaram magadhashrayam

karma-kanda-svarupam tam        vaidhavyam vinyavedayat

The two wives of Kamsa, Asti and Prapti, described the killing of their husband to Jarasandha, the personification of fruitive activities.


shrutvaitan magadho raja        svasainya-parivaritah

sapta-dasha-maha-yuddham        kritavan mathura-pure

Hearing their description, the King of Magadha gathered a huge army and attacked Mathura seventeen times, but was defeated each time.


harina marditah so 'pi        gatvashtadashame rane

aruddhan mathuram krishno        jagama dvarakam svakam

When Jarasandha again attacked Mathura, the Lord went to His abode of Dvaraka. The main purport is that there are ten types of purificatory activities, such as funeral rites, along with four castes and four orders of life, which brings the total to eighteen. Among these, when the eighteenth, or sannyasa, captures the abode of knowledge, then due to the desire for liberation the Lord disappears.


mathurayam vasan krishno        gurv ashramashrayat tada

pathitva sarva-shastrani        dattavan suta-jivanam

During Krishna's residence in Mathura, He left for gurukula, where He very easily studied all the scriptures. He brought the dead sons of His guru back to life and offered them to His guru.


svatah siddhasya krishnasya         jnanam sadhyam bhaven na hi

kevalam nara-citteshu        tad bhavanam kramodgatih

There is no need for Krishna, who is independently perfect, to endeavor for an education, but when one resides in Mathura, the abode of knowledge, one's knowledge gradually expands. This was illustrated in this pastime.


kaminam api krishne tu        rati-syan mala-samyuta

sa ratih kramashah pritir        bhavatiha sunirmala

Those who enjoy the fruits of their activities are called lusty. Such peoples' attachment for Krishna is contaminated with impurities, but if they cultivate attachment to Krishna for a long time, then pure devotion arises.


kubjayah pranaye tattvam        etad vai darshitam shubham

vraja-bhava-sushikshartham        gokule coddhavo gatah

While residing in Mathura, Krishna had a seemingly mundane affair with Kubja. Although there were lusty desires in the heart of Kubja, those desires were ultimately transformed into pure love. Thereafter Krishna sent Uddhava to Gokula to teach him that the loving sentiments of the residents of Vraja are the highest of all.


pandava dharma-shakha hi        kauravash cetarah smritah

pandavanam tatah krishno        bandhavah kula-rakshakah

In the smritis it is stated that the Pandavas were like the branches of religion and the Kauravas were like branches of irreligion. Therefore Lord Krishna was the friend and protector of the Pandavas.


akruram bhagavan dutam        prerayamasa hastinam

dharmasya kushalartham vai        papinam tranakamukah

The Lord sent Akrura to Hastinapura as an ambassador to establish religious principles and deliver the sinful persons.


Thus ends the Fifth Chapter of Shri Krishna-samhita, entitled

“Pastimes of Krishna.”


May Lord Krishna be pleased.