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the Lord's Energies
atraiva tattva-vijnanam jnatavyam satatam budhaih
shakti-shaktimato bhedo nasty eva paramatmani
We will now consider the science of Vaikuntha, which should be known by the learned. In the beginning it should be understood that there is no difference between the energy and the energetic. Nothing is gained if we consider the Absolute Truth as devoid of energy, therefore it is the duty of swanlike persons to accept the existence of His energies. Energy is never a truth separate from the energetic Supreme Lord. Although proper examples to illustrate the Absolute Truth are unavailable in this material world, indirect examples are sometimes found. Just as fire and heat cannot exist separately, the Absolute Truth and His energies do not exist separately.
tathapi shruyate 'smabhih para shaktih paratmanah
acintya-bhava-sampanna shaktimantam prakashayet
The Absolute Truth is manifested through the inconceivable superior energy of the energetic Absolute Truth, who is the source of the purushavataras and is realized through samadhi. If heat was separated from fire, then due to an absence of energy, fire would not exist. Similarly, if energy was separated from the Absolute Truth, then the Absolute Truth would not exist.
sa shaktih sandhini bhutva sattajatam vitanyate
pitha-satta svarupa sa vaikuntha-rupini sati
The superior energy of the Absolute Truth is realized in three different aspects—sandhini, samvit, and hladini. The first manifestation of the Absolute Truth is sat (sandhini), cit (samvit), and ananda (hladini). “In the beginning there was only the Supreme Brahman, then, after manifesting His energies, He became known as sat-cid-ananda,”—this kind of misconception arises due to consideration of material time and should not applied on the Absolute Truth. It is understood by swanlike people that the sat-cid-ananda form of the Lord is beginningless, endless, and eternal. The sandhini energy manifests the existence of the eternal abode, name, form, associates, relationships, features, and foundation of the Absolute Truth. The superior energy of the Lord has three potencies, namely cit, or spiritual, jiva, or marginal, and acit, or material. The spiritual potency, cit, is His internal potency. The marginal and material potencies are separated. These potencies are considered according to the proportion of the energy manifest. Vaikuntha is the abode of the spiritual potency of the sandhini aspect of the superior energy.
krishnadyakhyabhidha-satta rupa-satta kalevaram
radhadya-sangini-satta sarva-satta tu sandhini
The names of Krishna manifest from the abhidha-satta, the body of Krishna manifests from the rupa-satta, and the lovers of Krishna like Radha manifest from a mixture of the rupa-satta and sangini-satta.
sandhini-shakti-sambhutah sambandha vividha matah
sarvadhara svarupeyam sarvakara sad amshaka
All kinds of relationships manifest from the sandhini aspect. The sandhini aspect of the Lord is the source of all spiritual manifestations and features.
samvid bhuta para shaktir jnana-vijnana rupini
sandhini-nirmite sattve bhava-samyojini sati
The samvit aspect of the superior energy consists of knowledge and its practical application (jnana and vijnana). When samvit interacts with the manifestations of the sandhini aspect, all emotions appear.
bhavabhave ca sattayam na kincid apy lakshyate
tasmat tu sarva-bhavanam samvid eva prakashini
Without the presence of emotions, existence would be unknown. Therefore all truths are illuminated by samvit. All the emotions of Vaikuntha are created by the samvit aspect of the spiritual potency.
samvid-rupa maha-devi karyakarya vidhayini
All relationships in Vaikuntha have been established by Samvitdevi, who is the director of action and inaction. The different rasas, such as shanta and dasya, and the respective activities in those rasas have been established by samvit.
visheshabhavatah samvid brahma-jnanam prakashayet
vishesha-samyuta sa tu bhagavad bhakti-dayini
If one does not accept the quality of variegatedness, then Samvitdevi manifests for him the impersonal feature of the Absolute Truth. The living entity then takes shelter of impersonal knowledge of Brahman. Therefore impersonal knowledge of Brahman is only the impersonal consideration of Vaikuntha. For one who accepts the quality of variegatedness, Samvitdevi manifests the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The living entity then accepts the devotional service of the Lord.
hladini-nama-samprapta saiva shaktih parakhyika
mahabhavadishu sthitva paramananda-dayini
When the spiritual potency of the superior energy interacts with the hladini aspect, it creates attachment up to the state of mahabhava, in which She (hladini) bestows the topmost ecstasy.
radhika sattva-rupena krishnananda-mayi kila
This hladini is Shri Radhika, who is the energy of the energetic, who possesses the topmost loving sentiments, and who is half of the Supreme Lord's form. She expands into the indescribable forms of Krishna's inconceivable happiness.
sakhya ashta-vidha bhava hladinya rasa-poshikah
That Radha gives pleasure to Krishna. She is the embodiment of mahabhava. There are eight varieties of emotions that nourish the rasa of hladini. They are known as Radha's eight sakhis.
tat tad bhava-gata jiva nityananda-parayanah
sarvada jiva-sattayam bhavanam vimala sthitih
When the hladini energy of the living entities realizes a portion of the spiritual hladini by the association of devotees and the mercy of the Lord, then the living entities become eternally happy and attain the stage of pure eternal sentiments while remaining individual entities.
hladini sandhini samvid eka krishne paratpare
yasya samsha-vilaseshu nitya sa tritayatmika
The sandhini, samvit, and hladini energies are eternally situated in Shri Krishna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead; that is, existence, knowledge, and attachment are in perfect harmony in Him. Yet these three energies are also present in His personal expansions in His Vaikuntha pastimes.
etat sarvam svatah krishne nirgune 'pi kiladbhutam
cic-chaktir ati-sambhutam cid-vibhuti svarupatah
Although many variegated qualities are eternally manifest in Shri Krishna, He wonderfully remains nirguna, devoid of material qualities, because His qualities are the interactions of His spiritual potency and are forms of His spiritual opulence.
jiva-shakti-samudbhuto vilaso 'nyah prakirtitah
jivasya bhinna-tattvatvat vibhinnamsho nigadyate
After concluding the consideration on the sandhini, samvit, and hladini aspects of the spiritual potency of the superior energy, I will now explain the sandhini, samvit, and hladini aspects of the marginal potency of the superior energy. The living entities are created by the will of the Lord and by the inconceivable superior energy of the Lord. The living entities have been awarded minute independence, so they are classified as separated truths and their activities are said to be separated from the Lord's activities.
paramanu sama jivah krishnarka-kara-varttinah
tat teshu krishna-dharmanam sadbhavo vartate svatah
Krishna is like the spiritual sun, and the living entities are like the atomic particles of that incomparable sun's rays. Therefore all the qualities of Krishna are naturally present in the living entities.
samudrasya yatha binduh prithivya renavo yatha
tatha bhagavato jive gunanam vartamanata
Although it is inappropriate to compare the greatness of the Lord's qualities with the ocean or the earth, if we do consider His qualities in this way, then the qualities of the living entities appear like drops of the ocean or dust particles of the earth.
hladini sandhini samvit krishne purnatama mata
jive tv anu svarupena drashtavya sukshma-buddhibhih
The three aspects—hladini, sandhini, and samvit—are fully manifest in Shri Krishna, but they are also minutely present in the living entities. This is understood by persons endowed with fine intelligence.
svatantrye vartamane 'pi jivanam bhadrakankshinam
shaktayo 'nugatah shashvat krishnecchayah svabhavatah
All living entities have independence that was awarded by the Lord, yet those who desire auspiciousness naturally remain under the subordination of Krishna.
ye tu bhoga-rata mudhas te svashakti-parayanah
bhramanti karma-margeshu prapance durnivarite
Those who are unable to recognize what is auspicious and what is inauspicious and who engage in sense gratification do not accept subordination under the spiritual potency and thus live independently. They traverse the path of fruitive activities while wandering in the material world, which is difficult to leave after once entering.
tatraiva karma-margeshu bhramatsu jantushu prabhuh
paramatma svarupena vartate lilaya svayam
For those living entities who traverse the path of fruitive activities, the Lord, as His pastime, accompanies them in the form of the Supersoul.
esha jiveshayor lila mayaya vartatedhuna
ekah karma-phalam bhunkte caparah phala-dayakah
The pastimes of the Lord and the living entities appear mundane to the conditioned souls. The living entities enjoy the results of their fruitive activities, while the Supersoul awards those results.
jiva-shakti-gata sa tu sandhini sattva-rupini
svargadi-lokam arabhya parakyam shrijati svayam
When the marginal potency of the superior energy interacts with sandhini, the upper heavenly planets are created.
karma karma-phalam duhkham sukham va tatra vartate
papa-punyadikam sarvam ashapashadikam hi yat
Fruitive activities, the results of fruitive activities, distress, happiness, sin, piety, and all desires are also created by this interaction with sandhini. The functions of the subtle bodies are also created by this interaction. Svarloka, Janaloka, Tapoloka, Satyaloka, and Brahmaloka are all created by this interaction. Even the lower hellish planets are understood to be created by this interaction with sandhini.
jiva-shakti-gata samvid isha-jnanam prakashayet
jnanena yena jivanam atmany atma hi lakshyate
When the marginal potency of the superior energy interacts with samvit, it manifests knowledge of the Absolute Truth. By this knowledge a living entity realizes the Supersoul. This knowledge is distinct from and inferior to impersonal knowledge of Brahman, which is manifested by the interaction of the spiritual potency of the superior energy with samvit.
vairagyam api jivanam samvida sampravartate
kadacil layavanca tu prabala bhavati dhruvam
Renunciation, in the form of neglecting maya, manifests from this interaction of samvit with the marginal energy. Sometimes the living entities consider the happiness of realizing the self as insignificant and the happiness of realizing the Supersoul as relatively superior, and they therefore desire to merge with the Supersoul.
jive yahladini shaktir isha-bhakti-svarupini
maya nishedhika sa tu nirakara-parayana
When the marginal potency of the superior energy interacts with hladini, it manifests devotional service to the Supreme Lord. This devotional service nullifies the material conception of the Lord and establishes Him as nirakara, or formless.
cic-chaktir ati-bhinnatvad isha-bhaktih kadacana
na priti-rupam apnoti sada shushka svabhavatah
The rati, or attachment, of the spiritual potency is different from this type of devotional service of the Supreme Lord. Therefore this devotional service of the Lord is naturally dry, or without rasa, and is not based on love.
krita-jnata-bhava-yukta prarthana vartate harau
samshriteh pushti-vanca va vairagya-bhavanayuta
The prayers of those who perform this type of devotional service are mixed with gratefulness, therefore this cannot be called unmotivated devotional service. Rather, their prayers are filled with desires for material advancement or renunciation.
kadacit bhava-bahulyad ashru va vartate drishoh
tathapi na bhaved bhavah shri krishne cid-vilasini
Although sometimes tears are shed out of emotion while executing this type of devotional service, such persons' emotions for Shri Krishna, who enjoys spiritual pastimes, do not arise.
vibhinnamsa-gata lila krishnasya paramatmanah
jivanam baddha-bhutanam sambandhe vidyate kila
Does this mean that there is no superior emotion in the hearts of the conditioned souls than this form of devotional service? Certainly there is. Just as Shri Krishna performs His pastimes in Vaikuntha with the eternally perfect living entities, He certainly performs pastimes in relationship with the conditioned souls.
cid-vilasa-rata ye tu cic-chakti-palitah sada
tesham atma-yogena brahma-jnanena va phalam
Those who consider the happiness of the hladini aspect of the marginal potency as insignificant and consider the impersonal Brahman as incomplete understand that the pastimes of Krishna with the spiritual potency of the superior energy are more relishable, so they join those pastimes. They are qualified for receiving the highest happiness. They are servants of the Lord and are under the protection of the spiritual potency. They derive no fruits whatsoever from impersonal knowledge of Brahman or yoga. In this context, yoga refers to devotional service (as described above in verses 28-31), as practiced by the living entities. Regarding impersonal knowledge of Brahman, please refer to verse 9 of this chapter. Therefore when yogis and jnanis become fortunate, they engage in spiritual activities.
maya tu jada-yonitvat cid-dharma-parivartini
avaranatmika shaktir ishasya paricarika
After completing discussions on the marginal potency, I will now discuss the sandhini, samvit, and hladini aspects of maya-shakti, the external potency. All inert matter is manifested from the external potency of the superior energy. Therefore this maya potency converts spiritual characteristics into material characteristics. Maya, the external potency, covers the living entities, so she is the mother of illusion and a maidservant of the Supersoul.
cic-chakteh pratibimbatvan mayaya bhinnata kutah
praticchaya bhaved bhinna vastuno na kadacana
After carefully studying the nature of maya, it is concluded to be the most inferior potency in the whole creation, because all of the living entities' inauspiciousness is created by maya. If maya did not exist, there would be no degradation of the living entities in the form of aversion to the Lord. Therefore many people doubt whether maya is the Lord's energy, because the Supreme Lord is all-auspicious and unaffected by sin. Those who understand the Supreme Lord as the supreme doer and controller do not accept any truth that is contrary to Him; they thus accept maya as the material potency of the Supreme Lord's spiritual energy. The external potency, which is a reflection or shadow of the spiritual potency, is not independent. By the will of the Lord, maya is the perverted reflection of, and therefore certainly subordinate to, the Lord's spiritual potency. In this context one should not accept the Mayavadi philosophers' meanings of bimba (reflection), pratibimba (reflected image), and praticchaya (shadow).
tasman maya-krite vishve yad yad bhati visheshatah
tat tad eva praticchaya cic-chakter jala-candravat
If we consider the existence of maya, we can conclude that this world is the shadow of Vaikuntha, which is created by the spiritual potency of the superior energy of the Lord and is full of variegatedness. The example of the moon in water is applicable to this shadow [the material world]. But this world is not false in the same way as the moon in the water is false. As maya is in fact a potency of the superior energy, whatever is created by her is also a fact.
mayaya bimbitam sarvam prapancah shabdyate budhaih
jivasya bandhane shaktam ishasya lilaya sada
As far as the work of the maidservant [Maya] is concerned, learned people say that this material world is her creation. This material existence is able to bind the living entities as part of the Lord's pastimes (please see verses 22-23 of this chapter).
vastunah shuddha-bhavatvam chayayam vartate kutah
tasman maya-krite vishve heyatvam paridrishyate
Just as the original, pure condition of an object is not manifest in its shadow, we do not find the pleasantness of the spiritual world in the material world, which is created by maya, rather we find the perverted quality, distress.
sa maya sandhini bhutva desha-buddhim tanoti hi
akritau vistritau vyapta prapance vartate jada
When the external potency of the superior energy interacts with sandhini, it spreads conceptions of nationalism. This mentality is found only in this world. The symptoms of this conception are spread through forms and their expansions. If one could ascertain Vaikuntha by one's thoughts, then the material forms and their expansions would certainly be useful. But the science of Vaikuntha is beyond the realm of material space, time, and argument and is realized through samadhi. Actually all the forms and expansions that are seen in Vaikuntha, the abode of transcendental pastimes, are all spiritual and auspicious. It should be known that the forms and expansions of the material world, the perverted reflection of the spiritual world, are forever devoid of bliss.
jivanam martya-dehadau sarvani karanani ca
tishthanti parimeyani bhotikani bhavaya hi
The activities and bodies of the conditioned living entities are material and limited and are meant for performing work and enjoying its results. They are created by the sandhini aspect of the external potency. If one tries to understand words like “tiny” and “atomic” in descriptions of the living entities and “greatness” in descriptions of the Supreme Lord in terms of material space, then one will not attain knowledge of the Absolute Truth.
sambid-rupa maha-maya linga-rupa-vidhayini
ahankaratmakam cittam baddha-jive tanoty aho
When the external potency of the superior energy interacts with samvit, it creates the subtle body of conditioned souls in the form of intelligence and false ego. The constitutional position of a pure living entity is beyond the gross and subtle bodies. The samvit aspect of the external potency is known in the scriptures as nescience. Due to this nescience, the gross and subtle bodies of the living entities are created. When pure living entities reside in Vaikuntha, the first knot of nescience, in the form of false ego, does not entangle them. Pure living entities cannot remain steady after giving up spiritual activities. Therefore as soon as the living entities become situated in their own happiness through the minute independence given by the Lord, they become shelterless and are compelled to take shelter of Maya. On account of this, pure living entities have no shelter other than Vaikuntha. The living entities of Vaikuntha are very insignificant, like fireflies in comparison to the powerful sunlike Lord. As soon as the living entity leaves Vaikuntha, he is simultaneously awarded a subtle body and thrown into the material world, created by Maya. All manifestations of the sandhini, samvit, and hladini aspects of the marginal potency are mixed with maya as soon as the living entity leaves the shelter of Vaikuntha. When one considers material existence as his own, this is called false ego. Absorption in this false ego is the function of the heart, cultivating material sense objects through the heart is the function of the mind, and realization through this cultivation is called material knowledge. The mind, being superior to the senses, manifests as the functions of the senses in their association. When the impression of contact between the senses and sense objects is established within, it is protected by the strength of remembrance. When one cultivates those protected memories by following the process of elaborating and condensing them, then whatever one conjectures is called argument. By this argument, knowledge of sense objects and related items is acquired.
sa shaktish cetasau buddhir indriye bodha-rupini
manasy eva smritih shashvat vishaya-jnana-dayini
The samvit aspect of the external energy creates the intelligence of the heart, the feelings of the senses, the remembrance of the mind, and the knowledge of sense objects.
vishaya-jnanam evasyan mayikam natma-dharmakam
prakriter guna-samyuktam prakritam kathyate janaih
Knowledge of sense objects is completely mundane. It has nothing to do with one's constitutional duties. It is called material knowledge because it is connected with the qualities of the material world.
sa maya hladini pritir vishayeshu bhavet kila
karmananda svarupa sa bhukti-bhava-pradayini
The hladini aspect of the external energy manifests as attachment for material objects. That attachment spreads the conception of enjoyment in the form of happiness derived from fruitive activities. Attachment for the material world, the endeavor for material prosperity, and the desire for sense gratification all naturally arise from this attachment to sense objects. In order to maintain life peacefully, the four castes—brahmana, kshatriya, vaishya, and shudra—are established according to people's natural characteristics, and the four ashramas—grihastha, vanaprastha, brahmacari, and sannyasi—are established according to people's position. According to necessity, constitutional and conditional occupational duties are ascribed. When the upper and lower planets, which are created by the sandhini aspect of the marginal potency (see verses 24-25), are connected with the results of these duties, then they become the object of the fruitive workers' hopes or fears. It is to be mentioned at this point that the samvit and hladini aspects of the marginal potency, being almost covered by the samvit and hladini aspects of the external potency, time to time manifest renunciation and knowledge of the self, which are ultimately overcome by maya due to the absence of spiritual activities.
yajnesha bhajanam shashvat tat priti-karakam bhavet
trivarga-vishayo dharmo lakshitas tatra karmibhih
The Supersoul is perceived at this point as Yajneshvara, the Lord of sacrifice. People of the material world try to please Him by their activities, and they worship Him by sacrifices. The name of this religion is trivarga, or dharma, artha, and kama. But there is no possibility of moksha, or liberation, by this path.
Thus ends the Second Chapter of Shri Krishna-samhita, entitled
“Descriptions of the Lord's Energies.”
May Lord Krishna be pleased.