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NITAAI-Veda.nyf > All Scriptures By Acharyas > Bhaktivinoda Thakura > Krishna Samhita > Sri Krishna Samhita > Chapter-II

Chapter Two

Descriptions of

the Lord's Energies

 

TEXT 1

atraiva tattva-vijnanam        jnatavyam satatam budhaih

shakti-shaktimato bhedo        nasty eva paramatmani

We will now consider the science of Vaikuntha, which should be known by the learned. In the beginning it should be understood that there is no difference between the energy and the energetic. Nothing is gained if we consider the Absolute Truth as devoid of energy, therefore it is the duty of swanlike persons to accept the existence of His energies. Energy is never a truth separate from the energetic Supreme Lord. Although proper examples to illustrate the Absolute Truth are unavailable in this material world, indirect examples are sometimes found. Just as fire and heat cannot exist separately, the Absolute Truth and His energies do not exist separately.

TEXT 2

tathapi shruyate 'smabhih        para shaktih paratmanah

acintya-bhava-sampanna        shaktimantam prakashayet

The Absolute Truth is manifested through the inconceivable superior energy of the energetic Absolute Truth, who is the source of the purushavataras and is realized through samadhi. If heat was separated from fire, then due to an absence of energy, fire would not exist. Similarly, if energy was separated from the Absolute Truth, then the Absolute Truth would not exist.

TEXT 3

sa shaktih sandhini bhutva        sattajatam vitanyate

pitha-satta svarupa sa        vaikuntha-rupini sati

The superior energy of the Absolute Truth is realized in three different aspects—sandhini, samvit, and hladini. The first manifestation of the Absolute Truth is sat (sandhini), cit (samvit), and ananda (hladini). “In the beginning there was only the Supreme Brahman, then, after manifesting His energies, He became known as sat-cid-ananda,”—this kind of misconception arises due to consideration of material time and should not applied on the Absolute Truth. It is understood by swanlike people that the sat-cid-ananda form of the Lord is beginningless, endless, and eternal. The sandhini energy manifests the existence of the eternal abode, name, form, associates, relationships, features, and foundation of the Absolute Truth. The superior energy of the Lord has three potencies, namely cit, or spiritual, jiva, or marginal, and acit, or material. The spiritual potency, cit, is His internal potency. The marginal and material potencies are separated. These potencies are considered according to the proportion of the energy manifest. Vaikuntha is the abode of the spiritual potency of the sandhini aspect of the superior energy.

TEXT 4

krishnadyakhyabhidha-satta        rupa-satta kalevaram

radhadya-sangini-satta        sarva-satta tu sandhini

The names of Krishna manifest from the abhidha-satta, the body of Krishna manifests from the rupa-satta, and the lovers of Krishna like Radha manifest from a mixture of the rupa-satta and sangini-satta.

TEXT 5

sandhini-shakti-sambhutah        sambandha vividha matah

sarvadhara svarupeyam        sarvakara sad amshaka

All kinds of relationships manifest from the sandhini aspect. The sandhini aspect of the Lord is the source of all spiritual manifestations and features.

TEXT 6

samvid bhuta para shaktir        jnana-vijnana rupini

sandhini-nirmite sattve        bhava-samyojini sati

The samvit aspect of the superior energy consists of knowledge and its practical application (jnana and vijnana). When samvit interacts with the manifestations of the sandhini aspect, all emotions appear.

TEXT 7

bhavabhave ca sattayam        na kincid apy lakshyate

tasmat tu sarva-bhavanam        samvid eva prakashini

Without the presence of emotions, existence would be unknown. Therefore all truths are illuminated by samvit. All the emotions of Vaikuntha are created by the samvit aspect of the spiritual potency.

TEXT 8

sandhini-krita-sattveshu        sambandha-bhava-yojika

samvid-rupa maha-devi        karyakarya vidhayini

All relationships in Vaikuntha have been established by Samvitdevi, who is the director of action and inaction. The different rasas, such as shanta and dasya, and the respective activities in those rasas have been established by samvit.

TEXT 9

visheshabhavatah samvid        brahma-jnanam prakashayet

vishesha-samyuta sa tu        bhagavad bhakti-dayini

If one does not accept the quality of variegatedness, then Samvitdevi manifests for him the impersonal feature of the Absolute Truth. The living entity then takes shelter of impersonal knowledge of Brahman. Therefore impersonal knowledge of Brahman is only the impersonal consideration of Vaikuntha. For one who accepts the quality of variegatedness, Samvitdevi manifests the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The living entity then accepts the devotional service of the Lord.

TEXT 10

hladini-nama-samprapta        saiva shaktih parakhyika

mahabhavadishu sthitva        paramananda-dayini

When the spiritual potency of the superior energy interacts with the hladini aspect, it creates attachment up to the state of mahabhava, in which She (hladini) bestows the topmost ecstasy.

TEXT 11

sarvorddha-bhava-sampanna        krishnarddha-rupa-dharini

radhika sattva-rupena        krishnananda-mayi kila

This hladini is Shri Radhika, who is the energy of the energetic, who possesses the topmost loving sentiments, and who is half of the Supreme Lord's form. She expands into the indescribable forms of Krishna's inconceivable happiness.

TEXT 12

maha-bhava-svarupeyam        radha-krishna-vinodini

sakhya ashta-vidha bhava        hladinya rasa-poshikah

That Radha gives pleasure to Krishna. She is the embodiment of mahabhava. There are eight varieties of emotions that nourish the rasa of hladini. They are known as Radha's eight sakhis.

TEXT13

tat tad bhava-gata jiva        nityananda-parayanah

sarvada jiva-sattayam        bhavanam vimala sthitih

When the hladini energy of the living entities realizes a portion of the spiritual hladini by the association of devotees and the mercy of the Lord, then the living entities become eternally happy and attain the stage of pure eternal sentiments while remaining individual entities.

TEXT 14

hladini sandhini samvid        eka krishne paratpare

yasya samsha-vilaseshu        nitya sa tritayatmika

The sandhini, samvit, and hladini energies are eternally situated in Shri Krishna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead; that is, existence, knowledge, and attachment are in perfect harmony in Him. Yet these three energies are also present in His personal expansions in His Vaikuntha pastimes.

TEXT 15

etat sarvam svatah krishne        nirgune 'pi kiladbhutam

cic-chaktir ati-sambhutam        cid-vibhuti svarupatah

Although many variegated qualities are eternally manifest in Shri Krishna, He wonderfully remains nirguna, devoid of material qualities, because His qualities are the interactions of His spiritual potency and are forms of His spiritual opulence.

TEXT 16

jiva-shakti-samudbhuto        vilaso 'nyah prakirtitah

jivasya bhinna-tattvatvat        vibhinnamsho nigadyate

After concluding the consideration on the sandhini, samvit, and hladini aspects of the spiritual potency of the superior energy, I will now explain the sandhini, samvit, and hladini aspects of the marginal potency of the superior energy. The living entities are created by the will of the Lord and by the inconceivable superior energy of the Lord. The living entities have been awarded minute independence, so they are classified as separated truths and their activities are said to be separated from the Lord's activities.

TEXT 17

paramanu sama jivah        krishnarka-kara-varttinah

tat teshu krishna-dharmanam        sadbhavo vartate svatah

Krishna is like the spiritual sun, and the living entities are like the atomic particles of that incomparable sun's rays. Therefore all the qualities of Krishna are naturally present in the living entities.

TEXT 18

samudrasya yatha binduh        prithivya renavo yatha

tatha bhagavato jive        gunanam vartamanata

Although it is inappropriate to compare the greatness of the Lord's qualities with the ocean or the earth, if we do consider His qualities in this way, then the qualities of the living entities appear like drops of the ocean or dust particles of the earth.

TEXT 19

hladini sandhini samvit        krishne purnatama mata

jive tv anu svarupena        drashtavya sukshma-buddhibhih

The three aspects—hladini, sandhini, and samvit—are fully manifest in Shri Krishna, but they are also minutely present in the living entities. This is understood by persons endowed with fine intelligence.

TEXT 20

svatantrye vartamane 'pi        jivanam bhadrakankshinam

shaktayo 'nugatah shashvat        krishnecchayah svabhavatah

All living entities have independence that was awarded by the Lord, yet those who desire auspiciousness naturally remain under the subordination of Krishna.

TEXT 21

ye tu bhoga-rata mudhas        te svashakti-parayanah

bhramanti karma-margeshu        prapance durnivarite

Those who are unable to recognize what is auspicious and what is inauspicious and who engage in sense gratification do not accept subordination under the spiritual potency and thus live independently. They traverse the path of fruitive activities while wandering in the material world, which is difficult to leave after once entering.

TEXT 22

tatraiva karma-margeshu        bhramatsu jantushu prabhuh

paramatma svarupena        vartate lilaya svayam

For those living entities who traverse the path of fruitive activities, the Lord, as His pastime, accompanies them in the form of the Supersoul.

TEXT 23

esha jiveshayor lila        mayaya vartatedhuna

ekah karma-phalam bhunkte        caparah phala-dayakah

The pastimes of the Lord and the living entities appear mundane to the conditioned souls. The living entities enjoy the results of their fruitive activities, while the Supersoul awards those results.

TEXT 24

jiva-shakti-gata sa tu        sandhini sattva-rupini

svargadi-lokam arabhya        parakyam shrijati svayam

When the marginal potency of the superior energy interacts with sandhini, the upper heavenly planets are created.

TEXT 25

karma karma-phalam duhkham        sukham va tatra vartate

papa-punyadikam sarvam        ashapashadikam hi yat

Fruitive activities, the results of fruitive activities, distress, happiness, sin, piety, and all desires are also created by this interaction with sandhini. The functions of the subtle bodies are also created by this interaction. Svarloka, Janaloka, Tapoloka, Satyaloka, and Brahmaloka are all created by this interaction. Even the lower hellish planets are understood to be created by this interaction with sandhini.

TEXT 26

jiva-shakti-gata samvid        isha-jnanam prakashayet

jnanena yena jivanam        atmany atma hi lakshyate

When the marginal potency of the superior energy interacts with samvit, it manifests knowledge of the Absolute Truth. By this knowledge a living entity realizes the Supersoul. This knowledge is distinct from and inferior to impersonal knowledge of Brahman, which is manifested by the interaction of the spiritual potency of the superior energy with samvit.

TEXT 27

vairagyam api jivanam        samvida sampravartate

kadacil layavanca tu        prabala bhavati dhruvam

Renunciation, in the form of neglecting maya, manifests from this interaction of samvit with the marginal energy. Sometimes the living entities consider the happiness of realizing the self as insignificant and the happiness of realizing the Supersoul as relatively superior, and they therefore desire to merge with the Supersoul.

TEXT 28

jive yahladini shaktir        isha-bhakti-svarupini

maya nishedhika sa tu        nirakara-parayana

When the marginal potency of the superior energy interacts with hladini, it manifests devotional service to the Supreme Lord. This devotional service nullifies the material conception of the Lord and establishes Him as nirakara, or formless.

TEXT 29

cic-chaktir ati-bhinnatvad        isha-bhaktih kadacana

na priti-rupam apnoti        sada shushka svabhavatah

The rati, or attachment, of the spiritual potency is different from this type of devotional service of the Supreme Lord. Therefore this devotional service of the Lord is naturally dry, or without rasa, and is not based on love.

TEXT 30

krita-jnata-bhava-yukta        prarthana vartate harau

samshriteh pushti-vanca va        vairagya-bhavanayuta

The prayers of those who perform this type of devotional service are mixed with gratefulness, therefore this cannot be called unmotivated devotional service. Rather, their prayers are filled with desires for material advancement or renunciation.

TEXT 31

kadacit bhava-bahulyad        ashru va vartate drishoh

tathapi na bhaved bhavah        shri krishne cid-vilasini

Although sometimes tears are shed out of emotion while executing this type of devotional service, such persons' emotions for Shri Krishna, who enjoys spiritual pastimes, do not arise.

TEXT 32

vibhinnamsa-gata lila        krishnasya paramatmanah

jivanam baddha-bhutanam        sambandhe vidyate kila

Does this mean that there is no superior emotion in the hearts of the conditioned souls than this form of devotional service? Certainly there is. Just as Shri Krishna performs His pastimes in Vaikuntha with the eternally perfect living entities, He certainly performs pastimes in relationship with the conditioned souls.

TEXT 33

cid-vilasa-rata ye tu        cic-chakti-palitah sada

tesham atma-yogena        brahma-jnanena va phalam

Those who consider the happiness of the hladini aspect of the marginal potency as insignificant and consider the impersonal Brahman as incomplete understand that the pastimes of Krishna with the spiritual potency of the superior energy are more relishable, so they join those pastimes. They are qualified for receiving the highest happiness. They are servants of the Lord and are under the protection of the spiritual potency. They derive no fruits whatsoever from impersonal knowledge of Brahman or yoga. In this context, yoga refers to devotional service (as described above in verses 28-31), as practiced by the living entities. Regarding impersonal knowledge of Brahman, please refer to verse 9 of this chapter. Therefore when yogis and jnanis become fortunate, they engage in spiritual activities.

TEXT 34

maya tu jada-yonitvat        cid-dharma-parivartini

avaranatmika shaktir        ishasya paricarika

After completing discussions on the marginal potency, I will now discuss the sandhini, samvit, and hladini aspects of maya-shakti, the external potency. All inert matter is manifested from the external potency of the superior energy. Therefore this maya potency converts spiritual characteristics into material characteristics. Maya, the external potency, covers the living entities, so she is the mother of illusion and a maidservant of the Supersoul.

TEXT 35

cic-chakteh pratibimbatvan        mayaya bhinnata kutah

praticchaya bhaved bhinna        vastuno na kadacana

After carefully studying the nature of maya, it is concluded to be the most inferior potency in the whole creation, because all of the living entities' inauspiciousness is created by maya. If maya did not exist, there would be no degradation of the living entities in the form of aversion to the Lord. Therefore many people doubt whether maya is the Lord's energy, because the Supreme Lord is all-auspicious and unaffected by sin. Those who understand the Supreme Lord as the supreme doer and controller do not accept any truth that is contrary to Him; they thus accept maya as the material potency of the Supreme Lord's spiritual energy. The external potency, which is a reflection or shadow of the spiritual potency, is not independent. By the will of the Lord, maya is the perverted reflection of, and therefore certainly subordinate to, the Lord's spiritual potency. In this context one should not accept the Mayavadi philosophers' meanings of bimba (reflection), pratibimba (reflected image), and praticchaya (shadow).

TEXT 36

tasman maya-krite vishve        yad yad bhati visheshatah

tat tad eva praticchaya        cic-chakter jala-candravat

If we consider the existence of maya, we can conclude that this world is the shadow of Vaikuntha, which is created by the spiritual potency of the superior energy of the Lord and is full of variegatedness. The example of the moon in water is applicable to this shadow [the material world]. But this world is not false in the same way as the moon in the water is false. As maya is in fact a potency of the superior energy, whatever is created by her is also a fact.

TEXT 37

mayaya bimbitam sarvam        prapancah shabdyate budhaih

jivasya bandhane shaktam        ishasya lilaya sada

As far as the work of the maidservant [Maya] is concerned, learned people say that this material world is her creation. This material existence is able to bind the living entities as part of the Lord's pastimes (please see verses 22-23 of this chapter).

TEXT 38

vastunah shuddha-bhavatvam        chayayam vartate kutah

tasman maya-krite vishve        heyatvam paridrishyate

Just as the original, pure condition of an object is not manifest in its shadow, we do not find the pleasantness of the spiritual world in the material world, which is created by maya, rather we find the perverted quality, distress.

TEXT 39

sa maya sandhini bhutva        desha-buddhim tanoti hi

akritau vistritau vyapta        prapance vartate jada

When the external potency of the superior energy interacts with sandhini, it spreads conceptions of nationalism. This mentality is found only in this world. The symptoms of this conception are spread through forms and their expansions. If one could ascertain Vaikuntha by one's thoughts, then the material forms and their expansions would certainly be useful. But the science of Vaikuntha is beyond the realm of material space, time, and argument and is realized through samadhi. Actually all the forms and expansions that are seen in Vaikuntha, the abode of transcendental pastimes, are all spiritual and auspicious. It should be known that the forms and expansions of the material world, the perverted reflection of the spiritual world, are forever devoid of bliss.

TEXT 40

jivanam martya-dehadau        sarvani karanani ca

tishthanti parimeyani        bhotikani bhavaya hi

The activities and bodies of the conditioned living entities are material and limited and are meant for performing work and enjoying its results. They are created by the sandhini aspect of the external potency. If one tries to understand words like “tiny” and “atomic” in descriptions of the living entities and “greatness” in descriptions of the Supreme Lord in terms of material space, then one will not attain knowledge of the Absolute Truth.

TEXT 41

sambid-rupa maha-maya        linga-rupa-vidhayini

ahankaratmakam cittam        baddha-jive tanoty aho

When the external potency of the superior energy interacts with samvit, it creates the subtle body of conditioned souls in the form of intelligence and false ego. The constitutional position of a pure living entity is beyond the gross and subtle bodies. The samvit aspect of the external potency is known in the scriptures as nescience. Due to this nescience, the gross and subtle bodies of the living entities are created. When pure living entities reside in Vaikuntha, the first knot of nescience, in the form of false ego, does not entangle them. Pure living entities cannot remain steady after giving up spiritual activities. Therefore as soon as the living entities become situated in their own happiness through the minute independence given by the Lord, they become shelterless and are compelled to take shelter of Maya. On account of this, pure living entities have no shelter other than Vaikuntha. The living entities of Vaikuntha are very insignificant, like fireflies in comparison to the powerful sunlike Lord. As soon as the living entity leaves Vaikuntha, he is simultaneously awarded a subtle body and thrown into the material world, created by Maya. All manifestations of the sandhini, samvit, and hladini aspects of the marginal potency are mixed with maya as soon as the living entity leaves the shelter of Vaikuntha. When one considers material existence as his own, this is called false ego. Absorption in this false ego is the function of the heart, cultivating material sense objects through the heart is the function of the mind, and realization through this cultivation is called material knowledge. The mind, being superior to the senses, manifests as the functions of the senses in their association. When the impression of contact between the senses and sense objects is established within, it is protected by the strength of remembrance. When one cultivates those protected memories by following the process of elaborating and condensing them, then whatever one conjectures is called argument. By this argument, knowledge of sense objects and related items is acquired.

TEXT 42

sa shaktish cetasau buddhir        indriye bodha-rupini

manasy eva smritih shashvat        vishaya-jnana-dayini

The samvit aspect of the external energy creates the intelligence of the heart, the feelings of the senses, the remembrance of the mind, and the knowledge of sense objects.

TEXT 43

vishaya-jnanam evasyan        mayikam natma-dharmakam

prakriter guna-samyuktam        prakritam kathyate janaih

Knowledge of sense objects is completely mundane. It has nothing to do with one's constitutional duties. It is called material knowledge because it is connected with the qualities of the material world.

TEXT 44

sa maya hladini pritir        vishayeshu bhavet kila

karmananda svarupa sa        bhukti-bhava-pradayini

The hladini aspect of the external energy manifests as attachment for material objects. That attachment spreads the conception of enjoyment in the form of happiness derived from fruitive activities. Attachment for the material world, the endeavor for material prosperity, and the desire for sense gratification all naturally arise from this attachment to sense objects. In order to maintain life peacefully, the four castes—brahmana, kshatriya, vaishya, and shudra—are established according to people's natural characteristics, and the four ashramas—grihastha, vanaprastha, brahmacari, and sannyasi—are established according to people's position. According to necessity, constitutional and conditional occupational duties are ascribed. When the upper and lower planets, which are created by the sandhini aspect of the marginal potency (see verses 24-25), are connected with the results of these duties, then they become the object of the fruitive workers' hopes or fears. It is to be mentioned at this point that the samvit and hladini aspects of the marginal potency, being almost covered by the samvit and hladini aspects of the external potency, time to time manifest renunciation and knowledge of the self, which are ultimately overcome by maya due to the absence of spiritual activities.

TEXT 45

yajnesha bhajanam shashvat        tat priti-karakam bhavet

trivarga-vishayo dharmo        lakshitas tatra karmibhih

The Supersoul is perceived at this point as Yajneshvara, the Lord of sacrifice. People of the material world try to please Him by their activities, and they worship Him by sacrifices. The name of this religion is trivarga, or dharma, artha, and kama. But there is no possibility of moksha, or liberation, by this path.

 

Thus ends the Second Chapter of Shri Krishna-samhita, entitled

“Descriptions of the Lord's Energies.”

 

May Lord Krishna be pleased.