Click here to load whole tree
NITAAI-Veda.nyf > All Scriptures By Acharyas > Bhaktivinoda Thakura > Jaiva Dharma > Chapter-38

Chapter Thirty-Eight

Shringara-rasa-vicara

Shringara-rasa

 

 

     Folding his palms, Vijaya-kumara asked his spiritual master about sambhoga (enjoyment in meeting).

 

     Gosvami: Shri Krishna's pastimes are of two kinds: 1. prakata (manifested), and 2. aprakata (unmanifested). Th separation from Krishna I described occurs in the prakata pastimes. In Vrndavana Krishna eternally enjoys the rasa dance and other pastimes with the gopis. Therefore, because these pastimes are eternal, Krishna and the gopis are never separated. In the Mathura-mahatmya it is said that Krishna eternally enjoys pastimes the gopas and gopis. There the verb "kridati" (enjoys pastimes), which is in the present tense, affirms that Lord Krishna eternally enjoys pastimes in Vrindavana. Therefore in Goloka or in Vrindavana, in Lord Krishna's aparakata (unmanifested) pastimes, Krishna and the gopis always enjoy together. Krishna never goes to a faraway place. There is no separation. Gazing at each other, embracing, and enjoying many pastimes, Krishna eternally enjoys (sambhoga) with the gopis. This enjoyment (sambhoga) is if two kinds: 1. mukhya (primary) and 2. gauna (secondary).

     Vijaya-kumara: What is mukhya-sambhoga?

     Gosvami: When Krishna and the gopis enjoy while they are awake, that is called "mukhya-sambhoga". Mukhya-sambhoga is of four kinds. The sambhoga that occurs soon after the purva-raga is called sankshipta (brief). The sambhoga that occurs after jealous anger is called "sankirna" (narrow). The sambhoga that occurs after a nearby pravasa (journey) is called "sampanna" (fortunate). The sambhoga that occurs after a faraway journey is called "samriddhiman". (opulent).

     Vijaya-kumara: What is sankshipta-sambhoga?

     Gosvami: When fear, shyness, and other like emotions keep the meeting brief, that is called "sankshipta-sambhoga".

     Vijaya-kumara: What is sankirna-sambhoga?

     Gosvami: When the lovers worry that an unpleasant obstacle may thwart their pastimes, and therefore Their enjoyment becomes like drinking hot sugar-can juice, that is called “sankirna-sambhoga"

     Vijaya-kumara: What is sampanna-sambhoga?

     Gosvami: When, after a long journey the lover meets His beloved, Their enjoyment is called "sampanna-sambhoga". This sambhoga is of two kinds: 1. agati, and 2. pradhurbhava. An ordinary meeting is called "agati". When the two passionate lovers accidentally and suddenly come face-to-face, that is called "pradurbhava". Pradurbhava brings a great festival of the best transcendental happiness.

     Vijaya-kumara: What is samriddhiman sambhoga?

     Gosvami: This is when the young lovers have a rare opportunity to see each other. And why not? Because they are under the control of others, this does not always happen. Now that they are free from the control of others, they can enjoy without any obstacles. This is called "samriddhiman sambhoga". This sambhoga is of two kinds: 1. concealed, and 2. openly manifested. I need not describe them now.

     Vijaya-kumara: What is gauna-sambhoga?

     Gosvami: When one enjoys pastimes with Krishna in a dream, that is called "gauna-sambhoga". These dreams are of two kinds: 1. samanya (general), and 2. vishesha (sepcific). This gauna-sambhoga is of two kinds. When the vyabhicari-bhava sleep is prominent, it is samanya gauna-sambhoga. Vishesha gauna-sambhoga is when one wakens from the dream and sees that the waking reality is exactly the same as the dream. Thus the meeting with Krishna in the waking state is exatly like the meeting with Him in the dream. This rasa is filled with the yearnings of love. The four divisions of sankshipta, sankirna, sampanna, and samriddhiman also exist in gauna-sambhoga.

     Vijaya-kumara: Dreams aren't real. How can samriddhiman sambhoga occur in a dream?

     Gosvami: In the spiritual world waking and dreaming are the same. Usha and Aniruddha met in a dream. In the same way Krishna and His beloved gopis can meet in Their dreams. Perfected devotees (siddha-bhakta) sometimes have very wonderful dreams, and when they awaken they attain an ornament or something else that they first saw in their dream. These dreams are of two kinds: 1. being awake when one is dreaming, and 2. dreaming when one is awake. The gopis' dreams, which are filled with spiritual love, are in the fifth condition of life, far beyond the yogis' samadhi, which is in the fourth condition of life. Thus the gopis' dreams are not at all like material dreams, which are born from the mode of passion. This means that the gopis' dreams are not material and are not impelled by the material modes of nature. Rather, they are eternal spiritual reality. Therefore Lord Krishna can certainly enjoy wonderful pastimes with the gopis in their dreams.

     Vijaya-kumara: Please describe vishesha gauna-sambhoga.

     Gosvami: The following are all the vishesha gauna-sambhoga (special situations of meeting): seeing, talking, touching, blocking the path, putting an obstacle on the path, pastimes in a house, pastimes in Vrindavana forest, pastimes in the Yamuna's waters, pastimes in a boat, pastimes of stealing flowers, pastimes at a ghata (the dana-keli pastime), playing hide-and-seek in the forest, drinking madhu nectar, Krishna disguising Himself as a woman, pretending to be asleep, gambling with dice, tugging at garments, kissing, embracing, scratching with fingernails, drinking the nectar of each other's bimba-fruit lips, and enjoying amorous pastimes.

     Vijaya-kumara: O master, playful pastimes (lila-vilasa) is one thing, meeting (samprayoga) is another thing. Of the two, which brings the most happiness?

     Gosvami: Playful pastimes (lila-vilasa) bring more happiness that meeting (samprayoga).

     Vijaya-kumara: With what affectionate names do the gopis address Krishna?

     Gosvami: The gopis address Krishna with the following affectionate names: Gokulananda (O bliss of Gokula), Govinda (O pleasure of the cows, land, and senses), Goshthendra-kula-candra (O moon born from the king of Vraja), Praneshvara (O master of our lives), Sundarottamsa (O crown of all handsome men), Nagara-shirmoani (O crest-jewel of amorous heroes), Vrindavana-candra (O moon of Vrindavana), Gokula-raja (O king of Gokula), and Manohara (O enchanter of our hearts). There are many other names also.

     Vijaya-kumara: O master, Lord Krishna's pastimes are of two kinds: 1. prakata (manifested), and 2. aprakata (unmanifested). Still, all His pastimes are the same spiritual reality. What are the different kinds of His prakata pastimes in Vraja?

     Gosvami: The Lord's prakata pastimes in Vraja are of two kinds: 1. nitya (regular), and 2. naimittika (for some special occasion). The Lord's ashta-kaliya-lila (pastimes in the eight periods of the day) in Vraja are His nitya pastimes. Other pastimes, like His killing Putana and other demons, and His going far away on a journey, are His naimittika pastimes.

     Vijaya-kumara: O master, I wish to learn about the Lord's nitya pastimes.

     Gosvami: O Vijaya-kumara, would you like to hear the description given by the ancient sages, or would you like to hear the description given by the Six Gosvamis?

     Vijaya-kumara: I would like to hear the description given by the ancient sages.

     Gosvami: It is said:

 

 

nishantah pratah purvahno madhyahnash caparahnakah

     sayam pradosha-ratrish ca kalashtau ca yatha-kramam

madhyahno yamini cobhau shan-muhutra-mitau smritau

     tri-muhurta-mita jneya nishanta-pramukhah pare

 

 

     "The eight periods of the day are: 1. the end of night, 2. the early morning, 3. the late morning, 4. midday, 5. the afternoon, 6. sunset, 7. evening, and 8. night. Midday and night last for six muhurtas each. Evening and the other periods last for three muhurtas each."

 

     Two dandas (24 minutes) equal one muhurta (48 minutes). In the Sanat-kumara-samhita, Lord Sadashiva described Lord Krishna's pastimes in these eight periods of the day.

 

     Vijaya-kumara: O master, am I qualified to hear these words of Lord Sadashiva, the spiritual master of the universe?

     Gosvami: Please listen. Lord Sadashiva said (Sanat-kumara-samhita 183-188):

 

 

parakiyabhimaninyas

     tatha tasya priya-janah

pracchannenaiva bhavena

     ramayanti nijam priyam

 

 

     "Thinking of Him as their paramour, with hidden love the gopis please their beloved Krishna.

 

 

atmanam cintayet tatra

     tasam madhye manoramam

rupa-yauvana-sampannam

     kishorim pramadakritim

 

nana-shilpa-kalabhijnam

     krishna-bhoganurupinim

prarthitam api krishnena

     tato bhoga-paranmukhim

 

 

     "One should think of oneself as a beautiful young gopi girl expert in various arts, pleasing to Lord Krishna, reluctant to directly enjoy with Lord Krishna even if He were personally to invite you, . . .

.fn 2

 

radhikanucarim nityam

     tat-sevana-parayanam

krishnad apy adhikam prema

     radhikayam prakurvatim

 

 

 . . . a follower of Shri Radha, always devoted to Her service, more affectionate to Shri Radha than to Lord Krishna Himself, . . .

 

 

prityanudivasam yatnat

     tayoh sangama-karinim

tat-sevana-sukhasvada-

     bharenati-su-nirvritam

 

 

 . . . every day carefully and affectionately arranging the meeting of Shri Shri Radha-Krishna, and becoming happy to see Them pleased by your service.

 

 

ity atmanam vicintyaiva

     tatra sevam samacaret

brahma-muhurtam arabhya

     yavat santa maha-nisha

 

 

     "Thinking of oneself in this way, one should serve Shri Shri Radha-Krishna from the early morning of brahma-muhurta to the end of night."

 

     Vijaya-kumara: What are the pastimes at the end of night?

     Gosvami: Shri Vrinda-devi said (Shri Sanat-kumara-samhita 196-201):

 

 

madhye vrindavane ramye

     pancashat kunja-mandite

kalpa-vriksha-nikunje tu

     divya-ratna-maye grihe

 

 

     "In the middle of beautiful Vrindavana forest, which is decorated with fifty groves, in a grove of kalpa-vriksha trees, in a glittering jewel palace, . . .

 

 

nidrito tishthatas talpe

     nividalingatau mithah

mad-ajna-karibhih pashcat

     pakshibhir bodhitav api

 

 

 . . . on a graceful bed, the sleeping, tightly embracing divine couple were awakened by birds following my command.

 

 

gadhalingana-nirbhedam

     aptau tad-bhanga-katarau

na manas kurutas talpat

     samutthatum manag api

 

 

     "Their firm embrace broken, the divine couple became unhappy at the thought of Their impending separation. They had no wish to rise even slightly from Their bed.

 

 

tatash ca sharika-sanghaih

     shukadyair api tau muda

bodhitau vividhair vakyaih

     sva-talpad udatishthatam

 

 

     "Awakened by the cheerful words of many parrots and other birds, Shri Shri Radha-Krishna rose from Their bed.

 

 

upavishtau tato drishtva

     sakhyas talpe mudanvitau

pravishya cakrire sevam

     tat-kalasyocitam tayoh

 

 

     "Seeing that the divine couple had happily risen from bed, the gopis entered and served Them in ways appropriate to that time.

 

 

punash ca sharika-vakyair

     utthaya tau sva-talpatah

gacchatah sva-sva-bhavanam

     bhity-utkanthakulau mithah

 

 

     "When the female parrots spoke, the divine couple rose from Their bed. Very anxious, They returned to Their homes."

 

     Vijaya-kumara: What are the pastimes in the early morning?

     Gosvami: There it is said (Shri Sanat-kumara-samhita 202-218):

 

 

pratash ca bodhito matra

     talpad utthaya sa-tvaram

kritva krishno danta-kashtham

     baladeva-samanvitam

 

 

     "Wakened by His mother in the early morning, Lord Krishna rose from bed. Then He and Balarama brushed Their teeth.

 

 

matranumodito yati

     go-shalam dohanotsukah

radhapi bodhita vriddha-

     vayasyabhih sva-talpatah

 

 

     "With His mother's permission, Lord Krishna eagerly went to the barn to milk the cows. Then Shri Radha, wakened by the elder gopis, also rose from Her bed.

 

 

utthaya danta-kashthadi

     kritvabhyangam samacaret

snana-vedim tato gatva

     snapita lalitadibhih

 

 

     "Shri Radha rose, brushed Her teeth, anointed Herself with fragrant oils, and then went to the bathing-room, where Lalita and the other gopis bathed Her.

 

 

bhusha-griham vrajet tatra

     vayasya bhushayanty api

bhushanair vividhair divyair

     gandha-malyanulepanaih

 

 

     "Then She went to the decorating-room, where Her friends decorated Her with garlands, scents, oils, and many glittering ornaments.

 

 

tatash ca sva-janais tasyah

     shvashrum samprarthya yatnatah

paktum ahuyate turnam

     sa-sakhi sa yashodaya

 

 

     "Then, after first speaking to Radha's mother-in-law, Yashoda called Radha and Her friends to cook breakfast for Lord Krishna.

 

 

shri-narada uvaca

 

katham ahuyate devi

     pakartham sa yashodaya

satishu paka-kartrishu

     rohini-pramukhasv api

 

 

     "Shri Narada said: O goddess, why did Yashoda call Shri Radha to cook when Rohini and so many other expert cooks were present in her home?

 

 

shri-vrindovaca

 

durvasasa svayam datto

     varas tasyai maharshina

iti katyayani-vaktrac

     chrutam asin maya pura

 

 

     "Shri Vrinda said: The great sage Durvasa gave Radha a boon that She would be the best of cooks. This I heard from the mouth of Katyayani.

 

 

tvaya yat pacyate devi

     tad-annam mad-anugrahat

mishtam svadv-amrita-spardhi

     bhoktur ayush-karam tatha

 

 

     "Durvasa said to Radha: O goddess, by my mercy whatever You cook will be more delicious than nectar. It will increase the life of whoever eats it.

 

 

ity ahvayati tam nityam

     yashoda putra-vatsala

ayushman me bhavet putrah

     svadu-lobhat tatha sati

 

 

     "That is why every day Yashoda calls Radha to cook. Yashoda thinks, "Eager to eat this delicious food, my son will live a very long life."

 

 

shvashrush canumodita sapi

     hrishtanandalayam vrajet

sa-sakhi-prakara tatra

     gatva pakam karoti ca

 

 

     "Receiving permission from Her mother-in-law, Radha becomes very happy. Accompanied by a host of friends, She goes to Krishna's home to cook.

 

 

krishno 'pi dugdhva gah kashcid

     dohayitva janaih parah

agacchati pitur vakyat

     sva-griham sakhibhir vritah

 

 

     "Meanwhile, Lord Krishna milked some cows and had the other boys milk the others. Then, called by His father, He and His friends returned home.

 

 

abhanga-mardanam kritva

     dasaih samsnapito muda

dhauta-vastra-dharah sragvi

     candanakta-kalevarah

 

 

     "Then the servants happily massaged Lord Krishna, bathed Him, dressed Him in clean garments, garlanded Him, and anointed His body with sandal paste.

 

 

dvi-phala-baddha-keshash ca

     griva-bhalopari sphuran

candrakara-spurad-bhala-

     tilakalaka-ranjitah

 

 

     "Then the servants gathered Lord Krishna's hair from His forehead to His neck and tied it in a topknot. They made the moon of the His forehead splendid with tilaka and curling locks of hair.

 

 

kankanangada-keyura-

     ratna-mudra-lasat-karah

mukta-hara-sphurad-vaksha

     makarakriti-kundalah

 

 

     "They decorated Lord Krishna with armlets and bracelets. They made His hands splendid with jewel rings. They placed a necklace of pearls across His chest and decorated His ears with shark-shaped earrings.

 

 

muhur akarito matra

     pravished bhojanalaye

avalambya karam matur

     baladevam anuvratah

 

 

     "Again and again called by His mother, Lord Krishna, holding His mother's hand, finally followed Balarama into the breakfast-room.

 

 

bhuktva ca vividhannani

     matra ca sakhibhir vritah

hasayan vividhair vakyaih

     sakhims tair hasitah svayam

 

 

     "Accompanied by His mother and His friends, Lord Krishna ate a breakfast-feast of many different kinds of foods. He told many jokes, laughing and making His friends laugh.

 

 

ittham bhuktva tathacamya

     divya-khattopari kshanat

vishramet sevakair dattam

     tambulam vibhajann adan

 

 

     "Then the servants brought betelnuts. After sharing them with His friends and chewing some Himself, Lord Krishna rested for a moment on a splendid bed."

 

     Vijaya-kumara: Please describe the pastimes of the late morning.

     Gosvami: It is said (Shri Sanat-kumara-sahita 220-223):

 

 

gopa-vesha-dharah krishno

     dhenu-vrinda-purah-sarah

vraja-vasi-janaih pritya

     sarvair anugatah pathi

 

 

     "When, dressed as a cowherd boy, Lord Krishna followed the cows to the pasture, all the people of Vraja affectionately followed Him on the path.

 

 

pitaram mataram natva

     netrantena priya-ganan

yatha-yogyam tatha canyan

     sannivartya vanam vrajet

 

 

     "Bowing down before His father and mother, casting sidelong glances at His gopi-beloveds, and dealing appropriately with all the others, Lord Krishna sent them all back. Then He again proceeded to the forest.

 

 

vanam pravishya sakhibhih

     kriditva ca kshanam tatah

vancayitva ca tan sarvan

     dvi-traih priya-sakhair yutah

 

 

     "Lord Krishna entered the forest, played for a while with His friends, and then slipped away with two or three especially close friends.

 

 

sanketakam vrajed dharshat

     priya-sandarshanotsukah

 

 

     "Eager to see His beloved, Lord Krishna happily went to meet Her."

 

     Vijaya-kumara: Please describe the pastimes of midday.

     Gosvami: It is said (Shri Sanat-kumara-samhita 223-262):

 

 

sapi krishne vanam yate

     drishtva tam griham agata

 

     When She saw that Lord Krishna had gone to the forest, Shri Radha returned to Her home.

 

 

suryadi-puja-vyajena

     kusumady-ahriti-cchalat

vancayitva gurun yati

     priya-sangecchaya vanam

 

 

     Then, on the pretext of gathering flowers and other things for the worship of the sun-god and other purposes, Shri Radha tricks Her superiors and, yearning to meet Her beloved, goes to the forest.

 

 

ittham tau bahu-yatnena

     militva sva-ganair vritah

viharair vividhais tatra

     vane vikridito muda

 

 

     "Finally meeting after a great effort, the divine couple enjoy many happy pastimes in the forest with Their associates.

 

 

andolika-shakharudhau

     sakhibhir dolitau kvacit

kvacid venum kara-srastam

     priyaya coritam harih

 

 

     "Sometimes Radha and Krishna enjoy pastimes on a swing hanging from a tree branch and pushed by the gopis. Sometimes Radha steals the flute from Lord Krishna's hand.

 

 

anveshayann upalabdho

     vipralabdhah priya-ganaih

hasito bahudha tabhir

     hrita-sva iva tishthati

 

 

     "Sometimes the gopis hid and made Him search after them. Sometimes they teased and scolded Him. Sometimes they joked with Him and made Him laugh. In these ways they charmed Lord Krishna and stole His heart.

 

 

vasanta-rituna jushtam

     vana-khandam kvacin muda

pravishya candanambhobhih

     kunkumadi-jalair api

 

vishincato yantra-muktais

     tat-pankanapitau mithah

sakhyo 'py evam vishincanti

     tash ca tau sincatah punah

 

 

     "Sometimes Lord Krishna happily enters the forest in the beautiful springtime and with a sprinkler sprinkles the gopis with water mixed with sandal, kunkuma, and other colorful scents. The gopis respond by sprinkling Him. Then Radha and Krishna sprinkle each other again and again.

 

 

tathanyartu-su-jushtasu

     kridito vana-rajishu

tat-tat-kalocitair nana-

     viharaih sa-ganau dvija

 

 

     "O brahmana, in the forest groves the divine couple enjoy many different pastimes with Their associates, pastimes appropriate to the different times and seasons.

 

 

shranto kvacid vriksha-mulam

     asadya muni-sattama

upavishyasane divye

     madhu-panam pracakratuh

 

 

     "O best of sages, sometimes They become tired. Then, sitting on a splendid throne under a tree, They drink nectar.

 

 

tato madhu-padonmatto

     nidraya militekshanau

mithah panim samalambya

     kama-bana-vasham gatau

 

 

     "Intoxicated by drinking nectar, their eyes become closed with sleepiness. Holding hands, They are attacked by Kamadeva's arrows.

 

 

riramsu vishatah kunjam

     khalat-padabjakau pathi

tato vikridatas tatra

     karini yuthapau yatha

 

 

     "Desiring to enjoy, They place Their lotus feet in a forest grove. There They enjoy pastimes like two regal elephants.

 

 

sakhyo 'pi madhubhir matta

     nidraya pihitekshanah

abhitah kunja-punjeshu

     sarva eva vililyare

 

 

     "Intoxicated by drinking nectar, and their eyes closed with sleepiness, the gopis entered the nearby forest groves.

 

prithag ekena vapusha

     krishno 'pi yugapad vibhuh

sarvasam sannidhim gacchet

     priyanam parito muhuh

 

 

     "Expanding into many forms, all-powerful Lord Krishna approached each gopi individually.

 

 

ramayitva ca tah sarvah

     karinir gaja-rad iva

priyaya ca tatha tabhih

     sarovaram athavrajat

 

 

     "As an elephant king enjoys with His many wives, so Lord Krishna enjoyed with the gopis. Then Lord Krishna, His beloved Radha, and all the gopis entered a lake.

 

 

shri-narada uvaca

 

vrinde shri-nanda-putrasya

     madhurya-kridane katham

aishvaryasya prakasho 'bhud

 

 

     "Shri Narada said: O Vrinda-devi, if His pastimes of sweetness are like this, then when does Lord Krishna manifest His pastimes of opulence? Please cut apart my doubt.

 

 

shri-vrindovaca

 

mune madhurya-mayyasti

     lila-shaktir harer dridha

taya prithak kritah krided

 

 

     "Shri Vrinda said: O sage, the powerful potency of the pastimes of sweetness is one of Lord Hari's potencies. With that potency Lord Hari enjoys pastimes with the gopis.

 

 

radhaya saha rupena

     nijena ramate svayam

iti madhurya-lilayah

     shaktir naishataya hareh

 

 

     "When in His original form Lord Krishna enjoys pastimes with Shri Radha, He manifests the potency of His pastimes of sweetness. At that time He does not manifest the potency of His pastimes of opulence.

 

 

jala-sekair mithas tatra

     kriditva sa-ganau tatah

vasah-srak-candanair divya-

     bhushanair api bhushitau

 

 

     "Accompanied by Their gopi friends, the divine couple enjoy pastimes of splashing each other in the water. Then They are decorated with splendid garments, ornaments, garlands, and sandal paste.

 

 

tatraiva sarasas-tire

     divya-ratna-maye grihe

ashnitah phala-mulani

     kalpitani mayaiva hi

 

 

     "Then, in a jewel cottage by the lakeshore, the divine couple eat a snack of delicious fruits and roots carefully prepared by me.

 

 

haris tu prathamam bhuktva

     kantaya pariveshitam

dvi-trabhih sevito gacchec

     chayyam pushpa-vinirmitam

 

 

     "After Their snack, Lord Hari and His beloved recline on a couch of flowers. There two or three gopis serve Them.

 

 

tambula-vyajanais tatra

     pada-samvahanadibhih

sevyamano bhrisham tabhih

     moditah presayim smaran

 

 

     "Served by the gopis who offer Him betelnuts, fan Him, and massage His feet, Lord Krishna, His thoughts fixed on His beloved, becomes filled with happiness.

 

 

shri-radhapi harau supte

     sa-gana muditantara

kanta-dattam prita-mana

     ucchishtam bubhuje tatah

 

 

     "As Lord Krishna slept, Shri Radha and Her associates happily ate the remnants of His meal.

 

 

kincid eva tato bhuktva

     vrajec chayya-niketanam

drashtum kanta-mukhambhojam

     cakori-van nishakaram

 

 

     "After eating, Shri Radha went to the bed to gaze on Her beloved's lotus face as a cakori bird gazes at the moon.

 

 

tambula-carcitam tasya

     tatratyabhir niveditam

tambulany api cashnati

     vibhajanti priyalishu

 

 

     "The gopis there gave Her the remnants of betelnuts chewed by Lord Krishna. Some She chewed and some She gave to Her friends.

 

 

krishno 'pi tasam shushrushuh

     svacchanda-bhashitam mithah

prapta-nidra ivabhati

     vinidro 'pi patavritah

 

 

     "Eager to hear what the gopis said, Lord Krishna only pretended to be asleep as He lay under the covers.

 

 

tash ca kshvelim kshanam kritva

     mithah kanta-kathashrayah

vyaja-nidram harer jnatva

     kutashcid anumanatah

 

 

     "As they playfully joked about their beloved Hari they could gradually understand that He was only pretending to sleep.

 

 

vimrishya vadanam drigbhih

     pashyantyo 'nyonyam ananam

lina iva lajjaya syuh

     kshanam ucur na kincana

 

 

     "Seeing the signs of wakefulness on Lord Krishna's face, they looked at each other and suddenly became silent out of embarrassment.

 

 

kshanad eva tato vastram

     duri-kritya tad-angatah

sadhu-nidram gato 'siti

     hasayantyo hasanti tam

 

 

     "Suddenly pulling the blanket from His limbs and exclaiming, "My, You must have had a pleasant sleep!", they laughed and make Lord Krishna laugh also.

 

 

evam tau vividhair hasai

     ramamanau ganaih saha

anubhuya kshanam nidra-

     sukham ca muni-sattama

 

 

     "O best of sages, in this way the divine couple enjoyed a pleant nap and a host of happy joking words.

 

 

upavishyasane divye

     sa-ganau vishtrte muda

pani-kritya mitho hara-

     cumbashlesha-paricchadan

 

 

     "Sitting on a splendid throne and surrounded by Their associates, the divine couple gamble at dice, with garlands, kisses, and embraces as the winner's prize.

 

 

akshair vikridatah premna

     narmalapah purah-saram

parajito 'pi priyaya

     jitam ity avadan mrisha

 

 

     "Joking with words of love, Radha and Krishna gamble with dice. Defeated by His beloved, Lord Krishna slowly pronounces, "I have lost."

 

 

haradi-grahane tasyah

     pravrittastayate taya

tathaivam taditah krishnah

     karnotpala-saroruhaih

 

 

     "Taking the necklace and other prizes, Shri Radha struck Lord Krishna with a lotus flower.

 

 

vishanna-vadano bhutva

     gata-sva iva narada

jito 'smi ca tvaya devi

     grihyatam yat pani-kritam

 

 

     "O Narada, His unhappiness showing on His face, Lord Krishna felt as if He had lost a great treasure. "O goddess, You have defeated Me", He said. "Please take the winner's prize."

 

 

cumbanadi maya dattam

     ity uktva ca tathacaret

kautilya-tad-bhruvo drashtum

     shrotum tad-bhartsanam vacah

 

 

     "To see Radha's crooked raised eyebrows and hear Her words of rebuke, Lord Krishna declared, "Now I will give You the kiss and the other prizes." Then He gave Her all the prizes.

 

 

tatah shari-shukanam ca

     shrutva vag-ahavam mithah

nirgacchatas tatah snanad

     gantu-kamau griham prati

 

 

     "Then, hearing the parrots calling, Radha and Krishna bathed and decided to return to Their homes.

 

 

krishnah kantam anujnapya

     gavam abhimukham vrajet

sa tu surya-griham gacchet

     sakhi-mandala-samyuta

 

 

     "Taking leave of His beloved, Lord Krishna returns to the cows. Accomopanied by Her friends, Shri Radha goes to the temple of the sun-god.

 

 

kiyad duram tato gatva

     paravritya harih punah

vipra-vesham samasthapya

     yati surya-griham prati

 

 

     "Lord Krishna goes a short distance, disguises Himself as a brahmana, and then goes to the temple of the sun-god.

 

 

suryam ca pujayet tatra

     prarthitas tat-sakhi-janaih

tadaiva kalpitair vedaih

     parihasyavagarbhitaih

 

 

     "Requested by the gopis, the disguised Krishna worships the sun-god. Lord Krishna then recites a host of imaginary Vedic prayers, prayers made up on the spot and filled with a host of errors.

 

 

tatas ta api tam kantam

     parijnaya vicakshanah

ananda-sagare lina

     na viduh svam na caparam

 

 

     "Finally understanding that this person was their beloved Krishna, the intelligent gopis became plunged in an ocean of bliss. Intoxicated with bliss they did not know who they were or who anyone else was.

 

 

viharair vividhair evam

     sardham yama-dvayam mune

nitva griham vrajeyus tah

     sa ca krishno gavam vrajet

 

 

     "O sage, in this way the divine couple and Their associates passed six hours enjoying many pastimes. Finally the gopis returned to their homes and Lord Krishna returned to the cows."

 

     Vijaya-kumara: What are the afternoon pastimes?

     Gosvami: It is said (Shri Sanat-kumara-samhita 263-270):

 

 

sangamya tu sakhin krishno

     grihitva gah samantatah

agacchati vrajam karshan

     tatratyan murali-ravaih

 

 

     "Meeting with His gopa friends, taking the cows with Him, and attracting everyone with the music of His flute, Lord Krishna returned to Vraja Village.

 

 

tato nandadayah sarve

     shrutva venu-ravam hareh

go-dhuli-patalair vyaptam

     drishtva capi nabha-sthalam

 

krishnasyabhimukham yanti

     tad-darshana-samutsukah

 

 

     "Hearing the sound of Krishna's flute and seeing the sky filled with the dust raised by the cows, King Nanda and all the men, women, and children of Vraja stopped all they were doing and ran to see Krishna.

 

 

radhikapi samagatya

     grihe snatva vibhushita

sampadya kanta-bhogartham

     bhakshyani vividhani ca

 

sakhi-sangha-yuta yati

     kantam drashtum samutsukah

 

 

     "Shri Radha, bathed and decorated, came, bringing many delicious foods for Her beloved. She and Her friends were all eager to see Krishna.

 

 

raja-marge vraja-dvari

     yatra sarve vrajaukasah

krishno 'py etan samagamya

     yathavad anupurvashah

 

 

     "On the royal road at the entrance to Vraja Village Lord Krishna met all the people of Vraja one after another.

 

 

darshanaih sparshanair vapi

     smita-purva-vilokanaih

gopa-vriddhan namaskaraih

     kayikair vacikair api

 

 

     "He met them with embraces, glances, and smiling glances. He bowed before the elder gopas and He honored them with His words.

 

 

sashtanga-pataih pitarau

     rohinim api narada

sutranta-sucitenaiva

     vinayena priyas tatha

 

 

     "O Shri Narada, Lord Krishna prostrated His entire body to show respect to His parents and to Rohini-devi. From the corner of His eye He shyly glanced at His gopi beloveds.

 

 

evam taish ca yatha yogyam

     vrajaukobhih prapujitah

gavalayam tatha gash ca

     sampraveshya samantatah

 

 

     "Then, in the ways proper for each, all the people of Vraja worshiped Lord Krishna. Then Lord Krishna took the cows into the barn.

 

 

pitribhyam arthito yati

     matra saha nijalayam

snatva pitva tatha kincid

     bhuktva matranumoditah

 

gavalayam punar yati

     dogdhu-kamo gavam payah

 

 

     "Requested by His parents, Lord Krishna went home with mother Yashoda. Requested by her, He bathed and then He ate and drank, and then He went to milk the cows."

 

     Vijaya-kumara: What are the sunset pastimes?

     Gosvami: It is said (Shri Sanat-kumara-samhita 271-272):

 

 

tash ca dugdhva dohayitva

     payayitva ca kashcana

pitra sardham griham yati

     payo-bhara-shatanugah

 

 

     "After milking some of the cows, having the other gopas milk the other cows, and allowing the calves to also drink some of the milk, Lord Krishna, accompanied by His father and by servants carrying the milk, returned home.

 

 

tatrapi matri-vrindaish ca

     tat-putraish ca balaih saha

sambhunkte vividhannani

     carvya-cushyadikani ca

 

 

     "Then, accompanied by Lord Balarama, the gopa boys, and the boys' mothers, Lord Krishna ate a feast of many different kinds of foods, foods to be chewed, licked, or consumed in other ways."

 

     Vijaya-kumara: What are the evening pastimes?

     Gosvami: It is said (Shri Sanat-kumara-samhita 273-277):

 

 

tan matuh prarthanat purvam

     radhayapi tadaiva hi

prasthapyante sakhi-dvara

     pakvannani tad-alayam

 

 

     "On Mother Yashoda's request, Shri Radha and Her friends had cooked this feast.

 

 

shlaghayamsh ca haris tani

     bhuktva pitradibhih saha

sabha-griham vrajet taish ca

     jushtam vandi-janadibhih

 

 

     "After enjoying the feast in the company of His father and the others, Lord Krishna praises in with many words. Then, accompanied by the poets ansd reciters, Lord Krishna goes to the assembly-house.

 

 

pakvannani grihitva ya

     sakhyas tatra samagatah

bahuni ca punas tani

     pradattani yashodaya

 

 

     "Then mother Yashoda gave abundant remnants from the feast to the gopis who had brought it in the first place.

 

 

sakhya tatra taya dattam

     krishnocchishtam tatha rahah

sarvam tabhih samaniya

     radhikayai nivedyate

 

 

     "Mother Yashoda gives them the remnants from Lord Krishna's plate. The gopis take it and in a secluded place present it before Shri Radha.

 

 

sapi bhuktva sakhi-varga-

     yuta tad-anupurvashah

sakhibhir mandita tishthed

     abhisartum mudanvita

 

 

     "Then Shri Radha and Her friends honor Lord Krishna's remnants. Then, to prepare for Her meeting with Lord Krishna, the gopis decorate joyful Radha."

 

     Vijaya-kumara: O master, I yearn to hear the pastimes of night.

     Gosvami: Shri Vrinda-devi described them in these words (Shri Sanat-kumara-samhita 278-277):

 

 

prasthapyate 'naya kacid

     ita eva tatah sakhi

tasyabhisarita satha

     yamunayah samipatah

 

 

     "One of the gopis has already made arrangements for Shri Radha's secret meeting with Lord Krishna by the Yamuna's shore.

 

 

kalpa-vrksha-nikunje 'smin

     divya-ratna-maye grihe

sita-krishna-nisha-yogya-

     vesha yati sakhi-yuta

 

 

     "Accompanied by Her friends and dressed in garments suitable for a bright or a dark night, Shri Radha goes to a jewel palace in a kalpa-vriksha grove.

 

 

krishno 'pi vividham tatra

     drishtva kautuhalam tatah

kavitvani manojnani

     shrutva ca gitakany api

 

 

     "Meanwhile Lord Krishna saw many festive ceremonies and heard many beautiful poems and songs.

 

 

dhana-dhanyadis tamsh ca

     prinayitva vidhanatah

janair akarito matra

     yati shayya-niketanam

 

 

     "Then Lord Krishna pleases the artists and performers with many valuable gifts and then, called by His mother, He goes to bed.

 

 

matari prasthitayam tu

     bhojayitva tato grihan

sanketakam kantayatra

     samagacched alakshitah

 

 

     "When, after giving Him a nightime snack, mother Yashoda left the bedroom, unseen by anyone, Lord Krishna left His home and went to meet His beloved.

 

 

militva tav ubhav atra

     kriditau vanarajishu

viharair vividhai rasa-

     lasya-gita-purah-saraih

 

 

     "Meeting in the forest groves, Shri Shri Radha and Krishna enjoy singing, dancing, and many other pastimes.

 

 

sardha-yama-dvayam nitva

     ratrer evam viharatah

sushupsur vishet kunjam

     pancashabhir alakshitaih

 

 

     "After enjoying pastimes for seven and a half hours of the night, Lord Krishna becomes sleepy. Accompanied by five or six gopis and unseen by the others, He enters another forest.

 

 

nirvrinta-kusumaih klpte

     keli-talpe manohare

suptavatishtham tatra

     sevyamanau priyalibhih

 

 

     "Served by Their dear gopi friends, the divine couple sleeps there on a beautiful pastime-bed made of unstemmed flowers.

 

     O Vijaya-kumara, These are the ashta-kaliya pastimes. They have all the samagris (ingredients) of the rasas. All these pastimes have been described in the books of the ancient sages. In every time, place, and situation, you should meditate on these pastimes and engage in devotional service.

 

     Hearing these pastimes, the learned pandita Vijaya-kumara became plunged into the nectar of ecstatic love. Streams of tears flowed from his eyes. The hairs of his body stood up. He spoke one or two broken words in a choked voice. He fell before Shri Gopala-guru's Gosvami's feet, offering obeisances for a long time. Then he rose up and slowly walked home. Day and night these words about the rasas stayed in his heart.