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NITAAI-Veda.nyf > All Scriptures By Acharyas > Bhaktivinoda Thakura > Jaiva Dharma > Chapter-36

Chapter Thirty-six





     Today Vijaya-kumara came at the appointed time and offered dandavat obeisances to Shri Gopala-guru Gosvami. Seeing that today Vijaya-kumara was very eager to learn about sthayi-bhava, the spiritual master began to speak.


     Gosvami: The sthayi-bhava of madhura-rasa is madhura-rati.

     Vijaya-kumara: What causes madhura-rati to become manifested?

     Gosvami: Madhura-rati is manifested from abhiyoga, vishaya, sambandha, abhimana, tadiya-vishesha, upama, and svabhava. Each item in this list is better than the preceding item. In this way the rati that is manifested from svabhava is the best of the ratis.

     Vijaya-kumara: What is abhiyoga?

     Gosvami: To openly reveal one's love (bhava) is called “abhiyoga". One may make the revelation personally, or another person may do it.

     Vijaya-kumara: What is vishaya?

     Gosvami: The five vishayas are sound, touch, form, taste, and fragrance.

     Vijaya-kumara: What is sambandha?

     Gosvami: The five glorious sambandhas are family, beauty, virtue, and pastimes.

     Vijaya-kumara: What is abhimana?

     Gosvami: When, given the choice of many beautiful and pleasing objects, a person conclusively chooses one, and one alone, demanding, "I want that one", that is called "abhimana".

     Vijaya-kumara: What is tadiya-vishesha?

     Gosvami: The tadiya-visheshas are footprints, the land of the cows, and dear friends. In this context the land of the cows is the land of Vrindavana, and the dear friends are the devotees who love Krishna deeply.

     Vijaya-kumara: What is upama?

     Gosvami: When one thing is somewhat like another, that is called "upama".

     Vijaya-kumara: What is svabhava?

     Gosvami: The nature that manifests spontaneously, without any external cause, is called "svabhava". Svabhava is of two kinds: nisarga and svarupa.

     Vijaya-kumara: What is nisarga?

     Gosvami: A habit born from repetition is called “nisarga". Qualities, form, and hearing are included among the causes of nisarga. The meaning here is that when the soul again and again acts in a certain way, after many births he develops a habit, which is called "nisarga". Therefore, if when hearing about Lord Krishna's qualities and form a person suddenly and passionately (hathat) falls in love (bhava) with Krishna, that love is caused not by the immediate circumstances, but by repeated past devotional activities (nisarga).

     Vijaya-kumara: What is svarupa?

     Gosvami: What is unborn, beginningless, and self-perfect is called "svarupa". Svarupa is of three kinds: 1. krishna-nishtha (faith in Krishna), lalana-nishtha (faith in the gopis), and ubhaya-nishtha (faith in both Krishna and the gopis). Persons of demonic nature do not attain krishna-nishtha. On the other hand, persons of godly nature easily attain it. Persons who are spiritually enlightened can attain lalana-nishtha. Sometimes even without seeing or hearing of Krishna's form and other features a person suddenly develops intense love for Him. When one has both krishna-nishtha and lalana-nishtha, that is called "ubhaya-nishtha".

     Vijaya-kumara: Is every aspect of madhura-rasa manifested from the seven causes abhiyoga, vishaya, sambandha, abhimana, tadiya-vishesha, upama, and svabhava?

     Gosvami: The beautiful girls of Gokula love Krishna with a love that is part of their own nature (svabhava), a love that is naturally perfect (svarupa-siddha), a love that is not caused by on the seven causes that begin with abhiyoga. Rather, their love is caused by various different pastimes. However, for the sadhana-siddha (who attained perfection by engaging in sadhana-bhakti) and nisarga-siddha-sadhaka (who are still striving to attain perfection) devotees, the seven causes that begin with abhiyoga do indeed inspire love for Krishna.

     Vijaya-kumara: One or two examples here would be very pleasing to the heart.

     Gosvami: This kind of love is attained by practicing raganuga-bhakti. It cannot be attained by vaidhi-bhakti. This kind of love stays far away from a person who practices vaidhi-bhakti. When a devotee engaged in sadhana-bhakti sees the loving service the beautiful girls of Vraja offer to Lord Krishna, and when that devotee yearns to serve Krishna in the same way, then the previously mentioned causes, with priyajana (the dear friends of Krishna) especially prominent, and now numbering only six because svabhava is not present here, become the causes of his ecstatic love for Krishna. In this way the devotee gradually attains rati (spiritual love). When the devotee attains the stage of sadhana-siddha, then he may attain lalana-nishtha.

     Vijaya-kumara: What are the different kinds of rati?

     Gosvami: There are three kinds of rati: 1. sadharani (ordinary), 2. samanjasa (proper), and 3. samartha (perfect). Kubja is an example of sadharani-rati. She yearned for her own personal enjoyment in Krishna's company. Therefore her love is of an inferior nature. The Dvaraka queens' love is samanjasa (proper). And why not? They enjoyed Krishna's company within the religious institution of marriage. The love of the Gokula goddesses, the gopis, is samartha. It exists in a plane above the ordinary activities of the world and the ordinary rules of religion. This samartha love is not improper (asamanjasa).  Rather, because it has the power to bring the highest goal of life, it is the most proper (ati-samanjasa). Sadharani love is like a jewel, samanjasa love is like a cintamani jewel, and samartha love, which has no equal, is like a Kaustubha jewel.

     Vijaya-kumara: (weeping and weeping) What a wonderful description this is! I wish to learn more about sadharani rati.

     Gosvami: When by directly seeing Krishna a person yearns to enjoy in His company, and in this way feels a love that is not yet very intense, that love is called "sadharani". Because that love is not yet very intense, the desire for one's own enjoyment is still present within it. When the desire for personal enjoyment becomes dwarfed, then what remains to dwarf the growth of real love?

     Vijaya-kumara: What is samanjasa rati?

     Gosvami: When by hearing the qualities of Krishna a girl yearns to become His wife, her intense love is called “samanjasa". Still, in this love there is sometimes the desire for personal enjoyment. However, without this desire the wife will not be under Krishna's dominion.

     Vijaya-kumara: What is samartha love?

     Gosvami: In rati the desire for enjoyment is always present. In sadharani rati and samanjasa rati the devotee desires her personal enjoyment. When the desire for enjoyment is completely free for the desire for one's own personal enjoyment, and one desires only the enjoyment of the beloved, that kind of love is called "samartha".

     Vijaya-kumara: What is that like? Please explain and make it more clearly understood.

     Gosvami: the desire for enjoyment is of two kinds. One kind is the desire theta the beloved will please my own senses. The other kind is the desire that I will please the senses of my beloved. The first kind of desire is called "kama" (lust). And why not? In that situation one is eager only for his own happiness. In the second kind of desire one is eager for the happiness and well-being of the beloved. That desire is the desire of love (prema). In sadharani love the desire for personal enjoyment is strong. In samanjasa love that desire is not strong. In samartha love the desire for enjoyment is of a different nature. It is, as I have already said, the desire that the beloved should enjoy.

     Vijaya-kumara: In loving affairs the touch of the beloved inevitably brings pleasure. How is it possible that in samartha love this pleasure is not desired?

     Gosvami: that desire is inevitably difficult to stop. Still, in samartha love that desire of the heart is very weak. In this kind of love the desire to please the beloved is very strong. That desire then embraces the desire for personal enjoyment, and in that embrace both desires become one. Because this is the strongest (samartha) of all kinds of love, it is called "samartha".

     Vijaya-kumara: What are the glories of samartha love?

     Gosvami: Among the seven previously described causes beginning with abhiyoga, sambandha may be manifested, or tadiya-visesa may be manifested, or svarupa may be manifeasted, and in this way samartha love may come into being. Or, forgetting all these, this very powerful love may come into being by itself.

     Vijaya-kumara: How do the desire for personal enjoyment and the desire that the beloved should enjoy join and become a single desire?

     Gosvami: The beautiful girls of Vraja love Krishna with samartha love. They desire only for His happiness. When they associate with Krishna, they certainly experience their own happiness. However, they accept only those activities that bring happiness to Krishna. Thus the desire for personal enjoyment and the desire only to please Krishna meet in the waves of sublime and wonderful pastimes. In that condition the desire for personal enjoyment does not exist apart from the desire to please Krishna. In this way the desire for personal enjoyment ceases to exist.

     Vijaya-kumara: Aha! How wonderful is this love! I yearn to hear of it's highest glories.

     Gosvami: When this love (rati) matures it reaches the stage called "maha-bhava". All the liberated souls seek this stage of love. The five kinds of devotees attain it to the degree they are able.

     Vijaya-kumara: O master, I request that you explain the different stages of this love.

     Gosvami: It is said (Ujjvala-nilamani, Sthayi-bhava-prakarana):



syad dridheyam ratih prema

     prodyan snehah kramad ayam

syan manah pranayo rago

     'nurago bhava ity api



     "When rati becomes very intense, it is called “prema". As prema gradually manifests its sweetness, it is called sneha, mana, pranaya, raga, anuraga, and bhava."


     Vijaya-kumara: O master, please give an example.

     Gosvami: As there is a progression in sweetness from sugar-cane seed to sugar-cane plant, to sugar-cane juice, to molasses, to gur, to sugar granules, to rock candy, so there is a progression in love from rati to prema, to sneha, to mana, to pranaya, to raga, to anuraga, and finally to bhava. The word "bhava" in this progression refers to maha-bhava.

     Vijaya-kumara: Why are so many different stages with so many different names grouped under the general heading of “prema"?

     Gosvami: The six kinds of love, which begin with sneha, are all different pastime stages of prema. The panditas who are learned in this matter call them all by the name “prema". In this way prema is manifested.

     Vijaya-kumara: What are the characteristics of prema?

     Gosvami: Even though obstacles try to destroy their love, the love the boy and girl feel will not be destroyed. That is prema.

     Vijaya-kumara: What are the different kinds of prema?

     Gosvami: There are three kinds of prema: 1. praudha (mature), 2. madhya (intermediate), and 3. manda (slow).

     Vijaya-kumara: What is prauda prema?

     Gosvami: When the lover is anguished to think her delay may worry her beloved, that is praudha-prema.

     Vijaya-kumara: What is madhya prema?

     Gosvami: When the lover is not concerned about the beloved's anguish, that is madhya prema.

     Vijaya-kumara: What is manda prema?

     Gosvami: when the lover neither cares nor does not care, that is manda prema. This kind of love can inspire one to create obstacles to stop the exalted love of a rival. O Vijaya-kumara, Praudha, madhya, and manda are thus the three divisions of prema. They can also be described in these words: When the lover cannot tolerate the beloved's suffering, that is praudha prema. When the lover can tolerate the beloved's suffering, that is madhya prema. When the lover forgets whether the beloved suffers or not, that is manda prema.

     Vijaya-kumara: Now I understand prema. What are the characteristics of sneha?

     Gosvami: When it eaches its highest stage, prema is like a brilliant lamp. This is known as "cit-prema" (spiritual love). When it makes the heart melt, this spiritual prema is called "sneha". The by-product of sneha is that the lover never becomes satiated or disinterested, even if the lover sees the beloved at every moment.

     Vijaya-kumara: Are there different kinds of sneha, some better and some lesser?

     Gosvami: In the lowest kind of sneha, the lover's heart melts at the touch of the beloved. In the intermediate kind of sneha, the lover's heart melts at the sight of the beloved. In the best kind of sneha, the lover's heart melts simply by hearing of the beloved.

     Vijaya-kumara: What are the other different kinds of sneha?

     Gosvami: Sneha is also of two kinds: 1. ghrita-senha (ghee love) and madhu-sneha (honey love).

     Vijaya-kumara: What is ghrita-sneha?

     Gosvami: When love is very respectful (adaramaya) it is called "ghrita-sneha". When ghrita-senha is mixed with madhu-senha, the result is very palatable. Ghrita-senha is by nature cool. When the respect (adara) is increased (ghani-bhuta), this love becomes more intense. It is called “ghrita-senha" because it has the qualities of ghrita (ghee).

     Vijaya-kumara: What is respect (adara).

     Gosvami: Respect (adara) comes from honoring others (gaurava). In this way respect and honor are interdependent. When love (rati) is manifested with them it is called, in this context, "sneha".

     Vijaya-kumara: What is gaurava (honor).

     Gosvami: When one thinks of a person as a guru, that is called "gaurava". From gaurava is manifested sambhrama (esteem). This is all said to be included within adara (respect). Adara and gaurava are interdependent.

     Vijaya-kumara: What is madhu-sneha?

     Gosvami: When the lover thinks, "The beloved is my property", then that is called "madhu-sneha". many different rasas meet in this sweet love. This love is passionate, and therefore it brings warmth. Because this love is sweet (madhura), therefore it is called "madhu-sneha".

     Vijaya-kumara: What does it mean to think "The beloved is my property"?

     Gosvami: Love is manifested in two ways. In one way the lover thinks, "I am the property of my beloved". In the other way the lover thinks, "My beloved is the property of me." In ghrita-sneha the idea "I am the property of my beloved" is prominent. In madhu-sneha the idea "My beloved is the property of me" is prominent. Candravali possesses ghrita-sneha. Radha posseses madhu-sneha.

     Vijaya-kumara: (after offering dandavat obeisances to his spiritual master). What is mana?

     Gosvami: When sneha becomes exalted and manifests a new kind of sweetness, the lover manifests various crooked dealings with the beloved. That is called "mana".

     Vijaya-kumara: What are the different kinds of mana?

     Gosvami: There are two kinds of m.ana: 1. udatta, and 2. lalita.

     Vijaya-kumara: What is udatta-mana?

     Gosvami: It is of two kinds. In one kind the lover is straightforward, open, and free of diplomacy. In the other kind the lover engages in concealment and crooked diplomacy. Udatta-mana is manifested in ghrita-sneha.

     Vijaya-kumara: What is lalita-mana? I cannot say why, but somehow I feel attracted to it.

     Gosvami: Lalita-mana is of two kinds. In kautilya-lalita-mana there is independence and crookedness. In narma-lalita-mana there are joking words. Both kinds of lalita-mana are manifested in madhu-sneha.

     Vijaya-kumara: What is pranaya?

     Gosvami: When the lover trusts the beloved and feels one at heart with the beloved, that is called "pranaya".

     Vijaya-kumara: What does "trust" (vishrambha) mean in this situation?

     Gosvami: The real nature of pranaya is trust, which is called "vishrambha". Vishrambha is of two kinds: 1. maitra, and 2. sakhya. Vishrambha means "firm trust". This trust is not merely the secondary cause of pranaya. It is the original cause of it, the very ingredient of which it is made.

     Vijaya-kumara: What is maitra-vishrambha?

     Gosvami: When vishrambha is joined with humility, that is called "maitra".

     Vijaya-kumara: What is sakhya-vishrambha?

     Gosvami: When the lover is free from all fear and convinced that the beloved is completely under the lover's control, that is called "sakhya-vishrambha".

     Vijaya-kumara: Please clearly explain how pranaya, sneha, and mana are related to each other.

     Gosvami: In some situations sneha gives birth to pranaya, and from pranaya mana is manifested. In other situations sneha gives birth to mana, ans from mana pranaya is manifested. Therefore mana and pranaya may assume both roles of either cause or effect. Vishrambha requires a separate explanation. Udatta and lalita exist in both maitra and sakhya. However, in sakhya they are also called "su-maitra" and "su-sakhya".

     Vijaya-kumara: What is raga?

     Gosvami: When pranaya becomes exalted even great suffering is considered happiness. That stage of pranaya is called “raga".

     Vijaya-kumara: What are the different kinds of raga?

     Gosvami: There are two kinds: 1. nilima-raga and 2. raktima-raga.

     Vijaya-kumara: How many kinds of nilima-raga are there?

     Gosvami: There are two kinds of nilima-raga: 1. nili-raga and shyama-raga.

     Vijaya-kumara: What is nili-raga?

     Gosvami: In this raga there is no possibility of loss or destruction. Externally there is great glory, and love is concealed within the heart. That is nili-raga. Candravali manifests this raga before Lord Krishna.

     Vijaya-kumara: What is shyama-raga?

     Gosvami: When the beloved's delay makes the worried lover water the forest plants with a stream of tears, that is called shyama-raga.

     Vijaya-kumara: How many kinds of raktima-raga are there?"

     Gosvami: Raktima-raga is of two kinds: 1. kusumbha, and 2. manjishtha-sambhava.

     Vijaya-kumara: What is kusumbha-raga?

     Gosvami: When the other ragas manifest their beauty and glory, that is called "kusumbha-raga". Kusumbha-raha rests in a particular object. When it mixes with manjishtha-raga, it produces withering and melancholy in a gopi who loves Krishna (krishna-pranayi).

     Vijaya-kumara: What is manjishtha-raga?

     Gosvami: The eternal, unchanging, unalloyed, eternally very glorious love that Shri Shri Radha and Madhava feel for each other is called manjishtha-raga. The final conclusion is that ghrta, sneha, udatta, maitra, su-maitra, nilima, and other like bhavas that have been described here are manifested in Candravali and by the queens headed by Rukmini. On the other hand, madhu, sneha, lalita, sakhya, su-sakhya, raktima, and other like bhavas are manifested in Shri Radha. Sometimes they are also seen in Satyabhama. I have already explained that the beautiful girls of Vraja are divided into many rival (sva-paksa and vipaksa) groups. In this way there is much dissension among them. When they relate to the other bhavas, these create many different features. Only panditas learned in this particular topic can understand all this. In other words, I will not give a more elaborate explanation of it.

     Vijaya-kumara: To which bhavas does the phrase "the other bhavas" refer?

     Gosvami: It refers to sthayi-madhura-bhava, the 33 vyabhicari-bhavas, and the seven bhavas that begin with hasya. Thus it refers to 41 bhavas. These are the "other bhavas" referred to here.

     Vijaya-kumara: Now I understand raga. Please explain anuraga.

     Gosvami: The raga that is always newer and newer and makes the beloved newer and newer at every moment is called “anuraga".

     Vijaya-kumara: What is the glorious wonder that this raga manifests?

     Gosvami: It brings the lover under the beloved's control and the beloved under the lover's control. It creates prema-vaicittya. It makes one yearn to take birth even as a very lowly being (if that birth is within the holy abode of Shri Vrindavana). It is limitless and most exalted. It makes Krishna present even when the devotee is separated from Him.

     Vijaya-kumara: I can easily understand how anuraga brings the lover and beloved under each other's control and how it makes one yearn to take birth as a tree or other lowly being (within the holy abode of Shri Vrindavana). But, O master, what is prema-vaicittya?

     Gosvami: Prema-vaicittya is the love the devotee feels in separation from Krishna. You will learn about that later.

     Vijaya-kumara: Now please describe maha-bhava.

     Gosvami: O Vijaya-kumara, I am a very insignificant person. I am not really qualified to describe the wonders of the rasas of Vraja. Whatever Shrila Rupa Gosvami and Shrila Pandita Gosvami have mercifully taught me, I will now reveal to you. Please consider it their mercy upon you.

     Vijaya-kumara: O master, I, the asker of questions, and very fallen and unintelligent. Please explain maha-bhava so even my heart can understand it.

     Gosvami: Shri Radha is the ashraya of anuraga, and Lord Krishna is the vishaya. Shri Krishna, who is the son of Nanda, is the vishaya in madhura-rasa. Shri Radha is the ashraya. Anuraga is the sthayi-bhava. What that anuraga reaches its highest, most glorious stage, it is called maha-bhava.

     Vijaya-kumara: Aha! Maha-bhava! Maha-bhava! Today I can understand something of maha-bhava. The highest point of all the bhavas is maha-bhava. Please place on my ears an example of maha-bhava.

     Gosvami: O Vijaya-kumara, you are very fortunate. The following verse is an example of maha-bhava:



radhaya bhavatash ca citta-jatuni svedair vilapya kramat

     yunjann adri-nikunja-kunjara-pate nirdhuta-bheda-bhramam

citraya svayam anvaranjayad iha brahmanda-harmyodare

     bhuyobhir nava-raga-hingula-bharaih shringara-karu-kriti



     "Vrinda-devi said to Lord Krishna: O regal elephant who wanders in the jungles and mountains, Your amorous pastimes have shaken away Radha sadness in separation from You. With the red color of ever-new love, the artist of Your amorous pastimes paints a gloriosu picture in the palace of the world."


     Vijaya-kumara: Where does maha-bhava reside?

     Gosvami: Maha-bhava does not reside in the Dvaraka queens. In resides only in the gopis, the goddesses of Vraja.

     Vijaya-kumara: What does all this mean?

     Gosvami: When the the lover and beloved are bound by ties of marriage, the relationship is svakiya-rasa, and the love is samanjasa. In this situation samartha love, which brings the possibility of maha-bhava is not present. In Vraja, although svakiya-rasa is also present, parakiya-rasa predominates. In the highest stage of parakiya-rasa samartha love, maha-bhava is manifested.

     Vijaya-kumara: How many are the different kinds of maha-bhava?

     Gosvami: When it appears, maha-bhava floods the heart with nectar. Maha-bhava is of two kinds: 1. rudha, and 2. adhirudha.

     Vijaya-kumara: What is rudha maha-bhava?

     Gosvami: When all the sattvika-bhavas shine very brightly, that is rudha maha-bhava.

     Vijaya-kumara: Please describe the anubhavas in maha-bhava.

     Gosvami: Inability to tolerate the the eye's natural activity of blinking, agitating the hearts of those nearby, thinking a kalpa to be as long as a moment, worrying that Krishna may be suffering, even when it is obvious that He is be happy, forgetting everything, thinking a moment to be as long as a kalpa, and although they are not bewildered, they forget everything about themsleves. These anubhavas are present in both meeting the beloved (sambhoga) and separation from the beloved (vipralambha).

     Vijaya-kumara: What is "inability to tolerate the the eye's natural activity of blinking"?

     Gosvami: in this bhava the feeling of separation (vipralambha) is present in meeting (sambhoga). Here the lover is unable to tolerate even a brief moment's separation from the beloved. At Kurukshetra the vraja-gopis cursed the creator Brahma for creating eyelashes that impeded their always seeing Krishna. And why not? The blinking of their eyelashes became an obstacle that stopped them from seeing Krishna for a moment.

     Vijaya-kumara: What is "agitating the hearts of those nearby"?

     Gosvami: When they saw the gopis' ecstatic love, the kings and queens present at Kurukshetra felt deeply moved at heart.

     Vijaya-kumara: What is "thinking a kalpa to be as long as a moment"?

     Gosvami: the rasa dance lasted for an entire night of Brahma. Still, ht egopis thought it lasted for only a moment.

     Vijaya-kumara: What is "worrying that Krishna may be suffering, even when it is obvious that He is be happy"?     Gosvami: In Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.31.19) the gopis worry that Krishna will suffer if He places His lotus feet on their hard breasts.

     Vijaya-kumara: What is "although they are not bewildered, they forget everything about themsleves"?     

     Gosvami: Because Krishna is always present before them, they are not bewildered. However, when Krishnais present, they forget everything about their own bodies and about everything else in the material world.

     Vijaya-kumara: What is "thinking a moment to be as long as a kalpa"?

     Gosvami: Krishna said to Uddhava, "When I was with the gopis in Vrndavana, all the nights seemed to pass like half a moment. But now that I am separated from them, every night seems like a kalpa." This is an example of "thinking a moment to be as long as a kalpa"?

     Vijaya-kumara: Now I understand the rudha-bhavas. Please describe the adhirudha-bhavas.

     Gosvami: When these rudha-bhava anubhavas I have just described become very wonderful, the become the adhirudha-bhavas.

     Vijaya-kumara: How many kinds of adhirudha-bhava are there?

     Gosvami: There are two kinds: 1. modana, and 2. madana.

     Vijaya-kumara: What is modana?

     Gosvami: When Radha and Krishna both feel adhirudha-bhava, and when They both manifest all the sattvika-bhavas with the most brilliant glory, that is called "modana".  In modana-bhava Radha and Krishna both become very agitated. This condition is the highest good fortune of spiritual love manifested among the gopi lovers of Lord Krishna.

     Vijaya-kumara: Where does modana-bhava reside?

     Gosvami: Modana-bhava does not reside outside of Shri Radha's group. Modana-bhava is manifested in the very dear pastimes of the hladini-shakti. When the lovers are separated, modana gives birth to mohana.When there is great distress because of separation, the sattvika-bhavas are very brilliantly manifest.

     Vijaya-kumara: Please describe the anubhavas of mohana?

     Gosvami: Embraced by His beloved, Krishna falls unconscious. Although she suffers unbearably, a gopi still thinks only of how Krishna will be happy. Thirsting for the touch of Krishna, a gopi becomes mad and decides to commit suicide, thus filling the spiritual and material worlds with anxiety and making the nearby animals weep. Mohana-bhava is possible in Shri Radha, the queen of Vrindavana. These mohana vyabhicari-bhavas are not present in anyone but Radha.

     Vijaya-kumara: O master, if you think it is right, then please describe divyonmada (transcendental madness).

     Gosvami: When it enters a certain indescribable state, mohana-bhava becomes like a bewildered condition. This very surprising and wonderful state is called "divyonmada". This state has many different divisions, such as udghurna (agitation) and citra-jalpa (surprising talk).

     Vijaya-kumara: What is udghurna?

     Gosvami: Many different kinds of activities can be called "udghurna". When Krishna went to Mathura, Shri Radha manifested udghurna.

     Vijaya-kumara: What is citra-jalpa?

     Gosvami: Seeing one of the beloved's friends, with wonderful anger the lover harshly expresses her anxiety and longing. This is called "citra-jalpa".

     Vijaya-kumara: What are the different kinds of citra-jalpa?

     Gosvami: The ten kinds of citra-jalpa are: 1. prajalpa, 2. parijapita, 3. vijalpa, 4. ujjalpa, 5. sanjalpa, 6. avajalpa, 7. abhijalpa, 8. ajalpa, 9. pratijalpa, and 10. sujalpa. All these different kinds of citra-jalpa are manifested in the Bhramara-gita chapter of Shrimad-Bhagavatam's Tenth Canto.

     Vijaya-kumara: What is prajalpa?

     Gosvami: Citra-jalpa has numberless wonderful forms. Therefore it is very difficult to describe it with any kind of completeness. When the lover spitefully, maliciously, and passionately insults the beloved, that is called “prajalpa".

     Vijaya-kumara: What is parijalpita?

     Gosvami: When the lover claims that the beloved, who is the master of her heart, is merciless, crooked, and fickle, is called "parijalpita".

     Vijaya-kumara: What is vijalpa?

     Gosvami: When in the heart one honors and loves Krishna, although externally one casts spiteful glances and speaks spiteful words, is called "vijalpa".

     Vijaya-kumara: What is ujjalpa?

     Gosvami: When the lover angrily, arrogantly, and spitefully insults Krishna, calling Him a rake and a rogue, that is called "ujjalpa".

     Vijaya-kumara: What is sanjalpa?

     Gosvami: When the lover mocks Krishna with many sarcastic words and asserts that Krishna is ungrateful, that is called “sanjalpa".

     Vijaya-kumara: What is avajalpa?

     Gosvami: When the lover says that because Krishna is harsh, lusty, and crooked, she is afraid of what loving Krishna may bring, that is called "avajalpa".

     Vijaya-kumara: What is abhijalpa?

     Gosvami: When the lover says, "It is foolish and useless to fall in love with Krishna. He is so cruel he tortures even the innocent birds.", these crooked words are called “abhijalpa".

     Vijaya-kumara: What is ajalpa?

     Gosvami: When the lover, filled with disgust, declares, “Krishna is crooked and deceptive. He only gives us pain. We should stop talking of Him, and instead talk about something else, something more pleasant." that is called ajalpa".

     Vijaya-kumara: What is pratijalpa?

     Gosvami: When the lover declares, "Krishna is a highwayman in loving affairs. He is a rake who likes to enjoy pastimes with many girls. Therefore he should not come anywhere near me." that is called "pratijalpa".

     Vijaya-kumara: What is sujalpa?

     Gosvami: When the lover sincerely, deeply, humbly, and restlessly asks many questions about Krishna, that is called “sujalpa".

     Vijaya-kumara: O master, am I qualified to understand madana?

     Gosvami: When the most exalted love of the hladini-shakti, a love that is the best of all the bhavas, is splendidly manifested, that is called "madana". Madana-bhava is eternally manifested in Shri Radha.

     Vijaya-kumara: Does envy exist in madana-bhava?

     Gosvami: Envy is very prominent in madana-bhava. It is seen that even inanimate objects are envied. Again, sometimes it is seen that words of praise are offered to to all who have a relationship with Krishna. Words describing envy of the Krishna's flute and words praising the pulinda girls may be cited as examples here.

     Vijaya-kumara: At what stage is madana seen?

     Gosvami: The wonderful madana-bhava is manifested when the lover's meet and enjoy pastimes together. Madana-bhava is manifested in thousands of ways in the eternal pastimes.

     Vijaya-kumara: O master, do the great sages give a description of madana-bhava?

     Gosvami: Madana-rasa is limitless. Even Lord Krishna Himself could not understand everything about the spiritual madana-rasa. The great sage Shukadeva Gosvami found himself unable to describe it completely. The rasa-acarya Bharata Muni and many others were also unable to properly describe madana-rasa.

     Vijaya-kumara: What wonderful things have I heard! Even Lord Krishna Himself, the enjoyer of madana-rasa, cannot understand it completely. Why is that?

     Gosvami: Lord Krishna is rasa personified. He is limitless, all-knowing, and all-powerful. Nothing is unknown by Him, unattainable for Him, or impossible for Him to do. He is inconceivably and simultaneously one and different from the rasas. He is each rasa and He is all rasas. He accepts each rasa. In this way He is "atmarama" (the enjoyer of the spiritual rasas). Nothing in the rasas is apart from Him. He is present in all the rasas simultaneously. Aside from Krishna's own (atma) rasa, there is also the rasa of others (para). Both these kinds of rasas bring the experience of the happiness of spiritual pastimes. When the rasa of others (para) is manifest in its highest stage, it is called "parakiya-rasa". This highest stage is manifested in all its glory in the land of Vrindavana. When the atma-rasa (svakiya-rasa) is completely unknown, and only parakiya-rasa is known, that is the highest stage of madana-rasa. In this way madana-rasa is purely manifested in the Lord's aprakata (invisible to material eyes) pastimes in Goloka. It is also manifested in the land of Vraja situated in the material world.

     Vijaya-kumara: O master, your mercy to me has no limit. I request that you please give a summary of the whole madhura-rasa.

     Gosvami: The various bhavas manifested by the vraja-gopis are all spiritual, beyond the touch of the material world. They are beyond the understanding of material logic. Therefore the human intelligence cannot describe the completely. I have heard in the scriptures that Shri Radha had raga (love) for Krishna was manifested even in Her purva-raga (the beginnings of love). From this raga came the anuraga sneha. From that came mana and pranaya. These topics cannot be understood completely. In sadharani-rati is manifested dhumayita. Senha, mana, pranaya, raga, and anuraga are manifested in samanjasa-rati. From that comes splendid dipta-rati. Then are manifested rudha, uddipta, modana, and sudipta-rati. Please know that this is merely a general summary. And why not? There may be exceptions according to time, place, and object. Sadharani-rati culminates in prema. samanjasa-rati culminates in anuraga. Samartha-rati culminates in maha-bhava.

     Vijaya-kumara: What is the extent of rati in sakhya-rasa?

     Gosvami: The highest stage of the narma-sakhas is anuraga. However, Subala and some others among them attain maha-bhava.

     Vijaya-kumara: I have already described sthayi-bhava. Sthayi-bhava culminates in maha-bhava. Why are different rasas seen in sthayi-bhava, even though it has only one nature?

     Gosvami: Sthayi-bhava is manifested in the different rasas. The secret activities of sthayi-bhava are not openly manifested. When there is contact with the samagris, then the different rasas may be seen. The appropriate samagris are manifested in sthayi-bhava.

     Vijaya-kumara: Are svakiya-rasa and parakiya-rasa both eternally manifested in madhura-rasa?

     Gosvami: Yes. Svakiya and parakiya are both eternal. The difference between them is not merely a material designation. If the difference between them were material, the madhura-rasa and the other rasas would all be material in nature. The rasas are eternal, and they are manifested eternally. In the rasas there are ruci (attraction to Krishna), bhajana (service to Krishna), and prapti (attainment of Krishna). Svakiya-rasa is also present in Vraja. In that rasa the devotee thinks of Krishna as her husband. In that rasa, ruci, sadhana (spiritual practice), bhajana, and prapti are all manifested. The svakiya-rasa manifest in Dvaraka is the same as that of Vaikuntha. However, please know that the svakiya-rasa of Vraja is different from the rasas of Goloka. In other words, Lord Krishna, the master of Vraja, resides in the highest portion of the Vaikuntha world.


     With great love Vijaya-kumara offered dandavat obeisances and returned to his residence.