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NITAAI-Veda.nyf > All Scriptures By Acharyas > Bhaktivinoda Thakura > Jaiva Dharma > Chapter-35

Chapter Thirty-five





     Again and again Krishna appeared in his thoughts. Vijaya-kumara's heart was attracted to Krishna. His ordinary dealings were now chaotic. He ate a little of what food was around, and then ran like a madman to his spiritual master, and then fell down before his feet. Gopalaguru Gosvami carefully picked him up and embraced him. Vijaya-kumara said, "O master, I wish to learn about the uddipanas in madhura-rasa." Then the saintly Gosvami carefully spoke.


     Gosvami: The qualities, names, activities, decorations, and other things directly and indirectly related to Krishna and His beloved gopis are the uddipanas in madhura-rasa.

     Vijaya-kumara: Please describe the qualities.

     Gosvami: The qualities are of three kinds: 1. mental, 2. verbal, and 3. physical.

     Vijaya-kumara: What are the mental qualities?

     Gosvami: Gratefulness, forgiveness, and kindness are included among the many mental qualities.

     Vijaya-kumara: What are the verbal qualities?

     Gosvami: The verbal qualities are words that delight the ear.

     Vijaya-kumara: What are the physical qualities?

     Gosvami: Youthfulness, splendor, charm, beauty, delight, sweetness, and gentleness are included among the physical qualities. Four kinds of youthfulness take shelter of madhura rasa. They are: 1. vayah-sandhi, 2. navya-vayasa, 3. vyakta-vayasa, and 4. purna-vayasa.

     Vijaya-kumara: What is vayah-sandhi?

     Gosvami: The point where balya and yauvana meet is called vayah-sandhi. It is also called "prathama-kaishora". When kaishora arises, that is vayah-sandhi. Here balya and paugandha are synonyms. The sweetness of the gopis' vayah-sandhi age is an uddipana that inspires Lord Krishna.

     Vijaya-kumara: What is navya-vayasa?

     Gosvami: It is the beginning of yauvana. In this age the gopis smile gently, their eyes are restless, their hearts are beginning to become agitated, and their breasts are beginning to manifest.

     Vijaya-kumara: What is vyakta-vayasa?


     As this question was spoken, a Shri Vaishnava and pandita sannyasi from the Sankara-matha came to see the Deity. The Shri Vaishnava considered himself a male servant of the Lord, and the Shankara sannyasi was plunged in dry meditation on impersonal Brahman. Neither of them were qualified to hear about the vraja-gopis. It is forbidden to discuss madhura-rasa with persons firmly convinced of their material malehood. Gopala-guru Gosvami and Vijaya-kumara at once stopped their conversation and made small talk about other things. After a short while the two guests left to see the siddha bakula tree. Gently smiling, Vijaya-kumara repeated his question.


     Gosvami: When the breasts are clearly manifested, three folds of skin are manifested on the waist, and all the limbs are splendid, then the age is said to be vyakta-vayasa.

     Vijaya-kumara: What is purna-vayasa?

     Gosvami: When the hips are large, the waist slender, all the limbs splendid with extraordinary beauty, the breasts large, and the thighs like banana trees, the age is called purna-vayasa.

     Vijaya-kumara: Now I understand these different ages. Now please describe form.

     Gosvami: When the form is so splendid and glorious that it seems to be decorated even when it is not, is called splendor. When all the limbs are beautiful, that is called splendor.

     Vijaya-kumara: What is charm?

     Gosvami: When all the limbs shine with a splendor like the splendor of pearls, that is called charm.

     Vijaya-kumara: What is beauty?

     Gosvami: When each limb is shaped in the most appropriate way, and when all the limbs are combined together in the most beautiful way, that is called beauty.

     Vijaya-kumara: What is delight?

     Gosvami: When one's wonderful qualities make those nearby also wonderful in the same way, that is called delight.

     Vijaya-kumara: What is sweetness?

     Gosvami: When the body's beauty is so great that it cannot be described, that is sweetness.

     Vijaya-kumara: What is gentleness?

     Gosvami: When the body is so soft and delicate it cannot tolerate even the slightest touch, that is called gentleness. Gentleness is of three kinds: 1. great, 2. intermediate, and 3. less.

     Vijaya-kumara: O master, now I understand all these qualities. Now please describe the names.

     Gosvami: Transcendental names, such as the name Radha-Krishna, are the birthplace of the rasas and bhavas.

     Vijaya-kumara: I understand. Now please describe the activities.

     Gosvami: The activities are of two kinds: 1. anubhava, and 2. lila. Anubhava was already described after vibhava.

     Vijaya-kumara: Please describe lila.

     Gosvami: Beautiful pastimes, dancing, playing the flute, milking the cows, herding the cows from the hill, and other like activities are all called lila.

     Vijaya-kumara: What are beautiful pastimes?

     Gosvami: The rasa dance, and playing games with a ball are included among the numberless beautiful pastimes that charm the heart.

     Vijaya-kumara: What are the decorations?

     Gosvami: garments, ornaments, garlands, and ointments are the four kinds of decorations.

     Vijaya-kumara: What are the things directly related to Krishna and the gopis?

     Gosvami: Two kinds of things are directly related to Krishna and the gopis. They are: 1. things touching, and 2. things nearby.

     Vijaya-kumara: What are the things touching?

     Gosvami: The sound of the flute, the sound of the buffalo-horn bugle, the singing, fragrance, tinking of the ornaments, footprints, sound of the vina, and artistic skill are included among the things touching.

     Vijaya-kumara: What is the sound of the flute?

     Gosvami: From Krishna's mouth, nectar flute-music flows. That music is the best of the uddipanas.

     Vijaya-kumara: Please be kind and describe the things nearby.

     Gosvami: Flower remnants, peacock feathers, mineral dyes from the hills, the cows, the stick, the flute, the buffalo-horn bugle, the sight of Krishna's dear associates, the dust raised by the cows, Vrindavana, The living entities and things that have their shelter in Vrindavana, Govardhana Hill, the Yamuna, and the rasa-dance arena are included among the things nearby.

     Vijaya-kumara: Who are the living entities that have taken shelter in Vrindavana?

     Gosvami: Many birds, bees, deer, forest groves, vines, tulasi plants, karnika flowers, and kadamba trees have taken shelter of Vrindavana.

     Vijaya-kumara: What are the things indirectly related to Krishna and the gopis?

     Gosvami: The moonlight, clouds, lightning, springtime, autumn, full moon, breeze, and birds are included among what is indirectly related.


     After hearing about all these uddipanas, Vijaya-kumara was silent for a moment. Pushed by the uddipabas, ecstatic love arose in his heart. Then the anubhavas became manifested on his body. With a choked voice, Vijaya-kumara said, "O master, please describe the anubhavas. When describing His lilas, you said they were part of Lord Krishna's activities. When I understand the anubhavas I will be able to know the full outline of Krishna's activities."


     Gosvami: The anubhavas are of three kinds: 1. alankara, 2. ubhasvara, and 3. vacika.

     Vijaya-kumara: What are the alankaras?

     Gosvami: In their yauvana age the beautiful girls of Vraja manifest twenty kinds of alankara (ornaments). With these ornaments they conquer their beloved. These ornaments are:


     Ornaments manifested from the body: 1. bhava, 2. hava, 3. hela.

     Ornaments manifested spontaneously: 4. shobha, 5. kanti, 6. dipti, 7. madhurya, 8. pragalbhata, 9. audarya, 10. dhairya.

     Natural ornaments: 11. lila, 12. vilasa, 13. vicchitti, 14. vibhrama, 15. kila-kincita, 16. mottayita, 17. kuttamita, 18. vibboka, 19. lalita, and 20. vikrita.


     Vijaya-kumara: What is bhava in this context?

     Gosvami: When the heart is steady in madhura-rasa, that state is called "rati". The first manifestation of rati is called "bhava". When the heart is stady in rati, that state is called "sattva". When the heart becomes agitated with ecstatic love, that is called "bhava".

     Vijaya-kumara: O master, what is hava?

     Gosvami: To tilt the neck, move the eyes or eyebrows, or give other hints of love is called "hava".

     Vijaya-kumara: What is hela?

     Gosvami: When the amorous hints of hava are more openly expressed, that is called "hela".

     Vijaya-kumara: What is shobha?

     Gosvami: The beauty that amorous pastimes use to decorate the limbs is called "shobha".

     Vijaya-kumara: What is kanti?

     Gosvami: When amorous desires are satisfied, the splendor then manifested is called "kanti".

     Vijaya-kumara: What is dipti?

     Gosvami: When youthfulness, enjoyment, place, time, virtues, and other like things bring a great and glorious splendor, that splendor is called "dipti".

     Vijaya-kumara: What is madhurya?

     Gosvami: Skill in all activities is called “madhurya".

     Vijaya-kumara: What is pragalbhata?

     Gosvami: To be self-assured and free from doubt is called "pragalbhata". This brings great splendor to every limb.

     Vijaya-kumara: What is audarya?

     Gosvami: To be humble in every situation is called “audarya".

     Vijaya-kumara: What is dhairya?

     Gosvami: When the mind is exalted, that is called “dhairya".

     Vijaya-kumara: What is lila?

     Gosvami: To imitate the beloved's graceful garments and actions is called "lila".

     Vijaya-kumara: What is vilasa?

     Gosvami: When walking, staying still, sitting, the mouth, the eyes, and many other things are all employed to give amorous hints to the beloved, that is called "vilasa".

     Vijaya-kumara: What is vicchitti?

     Gosvami: If there is great beauty, even though the ornaments are few, that is called "vicchitti". In the opinion of some scholars of rasa, when the lover commits an offense, the sakhis carefully decorate Him, and in spite of all efforts, the girl remains angry, her condition is called vicchitti.

     Vijaya-kumara: What is vibhrama?

     Gosvami: When, at the time of going to meet her beloved, a girl is so bewildered with amorous desire that she decorates herself with necklace, garland, and other ornaments in the wrong way, that is called "vibhrama".

     Vijaya-kumara: What is kila-kincita?

     Gosvami: Pride, desire, weeping, laughing, envy, fear, and anger, when they are manifested as symptoms of happiness when one meets the beloved, are called "kila-kincita".

     Vijaya-kumara: What is motöayita?

     Gosvami: When, by remembering the beloved or receiving news of him, the lover feels love and then desire, that is called “moööayita".

     Vijaya-kumara: What is kuööamita?

     Gosvami: When the lover touches the beloved's breast, and the beloved, although actually pleased, puts on an outward show of anger, that is called "kuööamita".

     Vijaya-kumara: What is vibboka?

     Gosvami: When pride and jealous make the beloved insult the lover, that is called "vibboka".

     Vijaya-kumara: What is lalita?

     Gosvami: When the movements of the body and the eyebrows show softness, that is called "lalita".

     Vijaya-kumara: What is vikrita?

     Gosvami: When shyness, pride, and anger are expressed not by words but by actions, that is called "vikrita". In this weay twenty ornaments are manifested from the body and mind. Some scholars of rasa add two more ornamentsmaugdhya and cakitato this list.

     Vijaya-kumara: What is maugdhya?

     Gosvami: When, even though she already knows the answer, the beloved, as if she didn't already know, asks the lover anyway, that is called "maugdhya".

     Vijaya-kumara: What is cakita?

     Gosvami: When, even though there is no reason to fear, the beloved tells her lover that she is very afraid, that is called "cakita".

     Vijaya-kumara: O master, thus I have heard about these alankaras (ornaments). Now please teach me about the udbhasvaras.

     Gosvami: When the ecstatic love present in the heart is splendidly manifested in the body, that is called “udbhasvara". When in madhura-rasa the belt, bodice, and braids become loosened, the limbs are agitated, the mouth is opened wide, and, with dilated nostrils there is heavy breathing, that is called "udbhasvara".

     Vijaya-kumara: All these udbhasvaras could easily have been included within moööayita and vilasa.

     Gosvami: They have a different kind of glory. Therefore they are considered separately.

     Vijaya-kumara: O master, now please describe the verbal anubhavas.

     Gosvami: Alapa, vilapa, samlapa, pralapa, anulapa, apalapa, sandesha, atidesha, apadesha, upadesha, nirdesha, and vyapadesha are the twelve verbal anubhavas.

     Vijaya-kumara: What is alapa?

     Gosvami: When one speaks pleasing, flattering words, that is called "alapa".

     Vijaya-kumara: What is vilapa?

     Gosvami: When one laments, that is called "vilapa".

     Vijaya-kumara: What is samlapa?

     Gosvami: Pleasing conversations are called “samlapa".

     Vijaya-kumara: What is pralapa?

     Gosvami: Meaningless words are called "pralapa".

     Vijaya-kumara: What is anulapa?

     Gosvami: Repeating the same thing over and over is called "anulapa".

     Vijaya-kumara: What is apalapa?

     Gosvami: To explain something a second time is called “apalapa".

     Vijaya-kumara: What is sandesha?

     Gosvami: To send a letter to a beloved in a faraway place is called "sandesha".

     Vijaya-kumara: What is atidesha?

     Gosvami: To say, "His words are my words" is called “atidesha".

     Vijaya-kumara: What is apadesha?

     Gosvami: While speaking about one thing to reveal another is called "apadesha"

     Vijaya-kumara: What is upadesha?

     Gosvami: To give instruction is called "upadesha".

     Vijaya-kumara: What is nirdesha?

     Gosvami: To affirm, "I am that person" is called "nirdesha"

     Vijaya-kumara: What is vyapadesha?

     Gosvami: To misrepresent one's true desire is called “vyapadesha". All these anubhavas are present in all the rasas. However, they are famous for making the madhura-rasa sweet.

     Vijaya-kumara: O master, why are these rasa anubhavas considered separately?

     Gosvami: When the alambanas and uddipanas enter the heart, bhava is manifested. Then the symptoms called “anubhavas" are manifested on the body. If all the anubhavas were not discussed separately, then it would not be possible to see their natures clearly.

     Vijaya-kumara: Now please describe the sattvika-bhavas in madhura-rasa.

     Gosvami: The eight sattvika-bhavas, beginning with being stunned and perspiring, which I had previously described, are also present in madhura-rasa. However, in this rasa they are manifested in a different way.

     Vijaya-kumara: How is it different?

     Gosvami: Look at the Lord's Vraja pastimes. being stunned comes from joy, fear, wonder, melancholy, and anger. perspiration comes from joy, fear, and anger. Standing up of the body's hairs comes from wonder, joy, and fear. Choking up of the voice comes from melancholy, wonder, anger, and fear. Trembling of the body comes from fear, joy, and anger. Becoming pale comes from melancholy, anger, and fear. Shedding tears comes from joy, anger, and melancholy. Devastation comes from either happiness or distress.

     Vijaya-kumara: Are these sattvika ecstatic symptoms manifested differently in madhura-rasa?

     Gosvami: Yes. They are. When before I described the sattvika-bhavas I explained that they were manifested as either dhumayita (smoky), jvalita (blazing), dipta (shining), or uddipta (brightly shining). In madhura-rasa these bhavas are manifested in only two ways, as either uddipta (brightly shining) or sudipta (brilliantly shining).

     Vijaya-kumara: O master, please be kind to me. Please describe the vyabhicari-bhavas in madhura-rasa and make me happy.

     Gosvami: The thirty-three vyabhicari-bhavas or sancari-bhavas, which begin with nirveda (disappointment), and which I have previous described to you, are almost all present in madhura-rasa. Only augrya (violence) and alasya (laziness) are not present in this rasa. In madhura-rasa these sancari-bhavas are very wonderful.

     Vijaya-kumara: What is the most wonderful thing about them in this situation?

     Gosvami: The love for Krishna (krishna-prema) that Krishna's friends and superiors feel for Him in sakhya-rasa and the other rasas, becomes sancari-bhava in madhura-rasa. In in other words what was sthayi-bhava in the other rasas becomes sancari-bhava or vyabhicari-bhava in madhura-rasa.

     Vijaya-kumara: What else is wonderful in this situation?

     Gosvami: The vyabhicari-bhavas are not considered direct ingredients of madhura-rasa. Even tha vyabhicaris that begin with marana (death) are not direct ingredients. Instead of being ingredients, the vyabhicari-bhavas are considered the qualities of madhura-rasa. The vyabhicari-bhavas are the qualities, and madhura-rasa is the possessor of the qualities. That is the proper conclusion.

     Vijaya-kumara: How are the vyabhicari-bhavas manifested in this rasa?

     Gosvami: Nirveda (disappointment) is born from suffering, unpleasantness, envy, melancholy, calamity, and offense.

     Vijaya-kumara: From what is dainya (humilty) born?

     Gosvami: Dainya is born from unhappiness, fear, and offense.

     Vijaya-kumara: From what is glani (guilt) born?

     Gosvami: Glani is born from fatigue, anxiety, and attraction.

     Vijaya-kumara: From what is shrama (fatigue) born?

     Gosvami: Shrama is born from losing one's way, dancing, and attraction.

     Vijaya-kumara: From what is mada (intoxication) born?

     Gosvami: Mada is born from drinking liquor. In this way one becomes jubilant and one also loses one's power of discrimination.

     Vijaya-kumara: From what is garva (pride) born?

     Gosvami: Garva is born from good fortune, beauty, virtue, and obtaining what is the best of all.

     Vijaya-kumara: From what is shanka (doubt) born?

     Gosvami: Shanka is born from theft, offense, cruelty to others, lighting, fearsome creatures, and fearsome sounds.

     Vijaya-kumara: From what is avega (intense emotion) born?

     Gosvami: Avega is born from seeing the object of love, hearing about the object of love, seeing what is not loved, and hearing about what is not loved. The heart becomes bewildered by these intense emotions.

     Vijaya-kumara: From what is unmada (madness) born?

     Gosvami: Unmada is born from intense bliss or separation from the beloved.

     Vijaya-kumara: From what is apasmara (forgetfulness) born?

     Gosvami: Apasmara is born from unhappiness, which upsets the body and the mind.

     Vijaya-kumara: From what is vyadhi (disease) born?

     Gosvami: Vyadhi is born from fever and other like causes. it is also born from anxiety, intense emotion, and other feelings.

     Vijaya-kumara: From what is moha (confusion) born?

     Gosvami: Moha is bewilderment of the mind. Moha is born from joy, separation, and sorrow.

     Vijaya-kumara: From what is mriti (death) born?

     Gosvami: Mriti is not directly manifested in madhura-rasa. Sometimes there is the desire for death.

     Vijaya-kumara: From what is alasya (laziness) born?

     Gosvami: Alasya is not directly manifested in madhura-rasa. When a strong person pretends that he is not strong, that is called alasya. Alasya does not exist in devotional service to Lord Krishna. However, it is seen indirectly, as the opposite of true devotional service.

     Vijaya-kumara: From what is jadya (inertness) born?

     Gosvami: Jadya is born from hearing about the beloved, seeing the beloved, seeing what is unpleasant, and separation from the beloved.

     Vijaya-kumara: From what is vrida (bashfulness) born?

     Gosvami: Vrida is born from first meeting, doing what should not be done, words of praise, and words of insult.

     Vijaya-kumara: From what is avahittha (concealment) born?

     Gosvami: Avahittha, or concealment, is born from treachery, shyness, cleverness, fear, and respect.

     Vijaya-kumara: From what is smriti (remembrance) born?

     Gosvami: Smriti is firm belief based on previous direct perception.

     Vijaya-kumara: From what is vitarka (argumentativeness) born?

     Gosvami: Vitarka is born from melancholy or doubt.

     Vijaya-kumara: From what is cinta (anxiety) born?

     Gosvami: Cinta is born from failing to attain what one desires, or attaining what one does not desire.

     Vijaya-kumara: From what is mati (thoughtfulness) born?

     Gosvami: Mati is giving though to understand something.

     Vijaya-kumara: From what is dhriti (endurance) born?

     Gosvami: Dhriti is steadiness of the mind. It born from the absence of suffering and the attainment of the best thing.

     Vijaya-kumara: From what is harsha (happiness) born?

     Gosvami: When, because of seeing or attaining the object of one's desires, one is pleased, that is called "harsha".

     Vijaya-kumara: From what is autsukya (eagerness) born?

     Gosvami: Autsukya is born from the desire to see or attain the beloved.

     Vijaya-kumara: From what is augrya (violence) born?

     Gosvami: Violence is called "augrya". As I have already said, it is not manifested in madhura-rasa.

     Vijaya-kumara: From what is amarsha (haughtiness) born?

     Gosvami: Inability to tolerate disrespect and insult is called "amarsha".

     Vijaya-kumara: From what is asuya (ency) born?

     Gosvami: Asuya is hatred of another person's good fortune. It comes from good fortune and virtue.

     Vijaya-kumara: From what is capala (impudence) born?

     Gosvami: Lightness of the mind is called "capala". It is born from attraction and revulsion.

     Vijaya-kumara: From what is nidra (dizziness) born?

     Gosvami: Nidra is born from exhaustion.

     Vijaya-kumara: What is supti (sleepiness)?

     Gosvami: Supti is sleepiness.

     Vijaya-kumara: What is bodha (alertness)?

     Gosvami: Bodha is the opposite of sleepiness.


     O Baba Vijaya-kumara, all these vyabhicaris are manifested in four ways: 1. utpatti, 2. sandhi, 3. shavalya, and 4. shanti. When the bhava is first manifested, that is called “utpatti". When two bhavas join together, that is called “bhava-sandhi". When two different manifestations of one kind of bhava join together, that is called "svarupa-sandhi". When different kinds of bhavas join together, that is called “bhinna-sandhi". When many different bhavas are mixed together, that is called "bhava-shavalya". When a bhava disappears, that is called "bhava-shanti".


     Thus hearing about the vibhavas, anubhavas, sattvika-bhavas, and vyabhicari-bhavas of madhura-rasa, Vijaya-kumara could understand the samagris (ingredients) of this rasa. His heart became plunged in prema (pure love). Still, he thought he had no prema. Falling at His spiritual master's feet, and weeping and weeping, he said, "O master, why is my heart not plunged in prema? Please be merciful and tell me." Gopalaguru Gosvami replied, "Come tomorrow, and I will teach you about prema. You have understood the samagris (ingredients) of prema. But prema is still not openly manifested in your heart. The prema that is the same as sthayi-bhava you have heard from me in a general way. When you hear how prema is manifested in madhura-rasa, you will attain all perfection." After speaking these words, Gopala-guru Gosvami embraced Vijaya-kumara. Vijaya-kumara offered dandavat obeisances, and then he returned to his own residence.