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NITAAI-Veda.nyf > All Scriptures By Acharyas > Bhaktivinoda Thakura > Jaiva Dharma > Chapter-22

Chapter Twenty-two

Nitya-dharma O Sambandhabhidheya-prayojana (Prameyantar-gata Prayojana-vicararambha)

Eternal Religion and Sambandha, Abhidheya, and Prayojana (The Discussion of Prayojana Begins)



     Today is ekadashi. Under the bakula-tree in Shrivasa's courtyard the Vaishnavas are chanting the holy names of the Lord. Some call out, "O Gauranga! O Nityananda!" and sigh. Our saintly elderly babaji was motionless, plunged in ecstatic love. Who knows what he was thinking? After a few moments he said, "Alas!" and began to weep. "Ah! Where is Rupa? Where is Sanatana! Where is Raghunatha dasa Gosvami! Where is my life's brother, Krishnadasa Kaviraja? I cannot be with them. Today I am all alone. I cannot be happy. The memory of Radha-kunda brings me pain. O my life, now you are leaving me. I pray that Rupa and Raghunatha show themselves to me and save my life. Even though I am separated from you, still I remain alive. How pathetic is my life." Again and again speaking in this way, he began to roll about in the dust under the bakula tree in Shrivasa's courtyard. The assembled Vaishnavas said to him, “Babaji, be peaceful. Rupa and Raghunatha are in your heart. Lord Chaitanya and Lord Nityananda are dancing before you. Saying, "Where? Where?" the babaji jumped up. As he gazed at the Panca-tattva Deities before him, his grief went far away. He said, "O glorious Mayapura! Only Mayapura makes the sadness of Vraja go far away." Saying these words, he danced for some moments and then sat down in his cottage. At that moment Vijaya-kumara and Vrajanatha came and offered dandavat obeisances. When he saw them, the babaji's heart blossomed with happiness. He said, "How is your devotional service progressing?" Folding their hands, the two disciples humbly said, "O master, your mercy is the be-all-and-end-all of our lives. In the past we must have performed many, many pious deeds that we so easily have attained your fearless lotus feet. Today is ekadashi. By your order we are fasting even from water. We have come to see your sacred feet." The babaji replied, "You are fortunate. Very soon you will attain bhava." Vijaya-kumara asked, "O master, what is bhava?" Is there something called `bhava' that you have not yet taught us?"


     Babaji: Up till now I have taught you about sadhana-bhakti. By practicing sadhana-bhakti again and again, one eventually comes to the stage of spiritual perfection. The stage that immediately precedes the perfect stage is called “bhava" (ecstatic love). The perfect stage is described in these words of the Dasha-mula:



svarupavasthane madhura-rasa-bhavodaya iha

     vraje radha-krishna-svajana-jana-bhavam hridi vahan

paranande pritim jagad-atula-sampat-sukham aho

     vilasakhye tattve parama-paricaryam sa labhate



     "When his sadhana-bhakti reaches maturity, the living entity becomes aware of his original spiritual form. Then, by the power of the Lord's hladini-shakti, the ecstatic love (bhava) of madhura-rasa becomes manifested. Then the living entity bears in his heart ecstatic love (bhava) for Shri Shri Radha-Krishna in Vraja. Then he attains ecstatic love (priti) and bliss. Gradually he attains a happiness and good fortune that have no equal anywhere in this world. He enters the Lord's pastimes. There he attains direct service to the Lord. There is nothing higher than that."


     In this verse the final goal of life (prayojana), which is pure love for the Lord, is described. The beginning stage of that pure love is described in the final verse of the Dasha-mula:



prabhuh kah ko jivah katham idam acid vishvam iti va

     vicaryaitan arthan hari-bhajana-kric chrastra-chaturah

abhedasham dharman sakalam aparadham pariharan

     harer namanandam pibati hari-daso hari-janaih



     " `Who is the Supreme Lord? Who is the individual spirit soul? What is the material world?' Considering these questions, a devotee becomes learned in the scriptures. He shuns all offenses, sins, material pious deeds, and aspirations to become one with the Lord, and, thinking himself a servant of Lord Hari, in the company of other devotees he drinks the blissful nectar of Lord Hari's holy name."


     What a wonderful poem is the Dasha-mula! In it the individual souls find the essence of the teachings that have come from Lord Mahaprabhu's sacred mouth.


     Vijaya-kumara: I would like to hear a summary of the Dasha-mula's glories?

     Babaji: Then listen:



samsevya dasha-mulam vai

     hitvavidyam ayam janah

bhava-pushtim tatha tushtim

     labhate sadhu-sangatah



     "A person who carefully studies this Dasha-mula becomes free ignorance. By associating with devotees, he attains spiritual love and bliss."


     Vijaya-kumara: O master, this wonderful Dasha-mula will become the necklace we all wear. Every day we will recite this Dasha-mula and offer dandavat obeisances to Lord Mahaprabhu. Now please be merciful and explain the clear meaning of these truths.

     Babaji: Pure love of God (prema) is like a sun. The pure rays of that prema-sun are the spiritual state of “shuddha-sattva". The internal nature of shuddha-sattva" is called "bhava". The shuddha-sattva manifestation called “bhava" is also called by the names "rati" and “premankura" (the sprouting of love). When the all-enlightening svarupa-shakti (internal potency) is manifested in the activities called "samvid" (knowledge), those activities are called "shuddha-sattva" (spiritual existence). These are not activities of maya (material illusion). When the activities of the samvit-shakti join with the activities of the hladini-shakti, the result is the manifestation of bhava. The activities of samvit-sakti bring knowledge. The activities of hladini-shakti bring pleasure. In this way the activities of the Lord's svarupa-shakti bring knowledge of the Absolute Truth, Shri Krishna. The small knowledge potency (samvit-shakti) of the individual souls (jiva-shakti) cannot bring understanding of the Absolute Truth. By the mercy of the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself, or by the mercy of the Lord's devotee, the Lord's svarupa-shakti (internal potency) will appear in a living entity's heart. Then the svarupa-shakti's activities of knowledge (samvit) can act in the living entity's heart. Then knowledge of the spiritual world becomes manifested there. The real form (svarupa) of the spiritual world is the state of spiritual existence (shuddha-sattva). The real form of the material world of maya is gross matter, which is a mixture of the three modes of material goodness, passion, and ignorance. When knowledge of the spiritual world combines with the essence (sara) of the hladini-shakti, the result is that one is able to relish (asvada) the pleasures of the spiritual world. When the relishing of the pleasures of the spiritual world reaches its perfection and fullness (purna-svarupa), the result is called "prema" (pure love of God). Prema is like a sun, and bhava is the rays of that sun. That is the nature of bhava. The specific nature of bhava is this: Ruci (attraction to Krishna) makes the living entity's heart melt and become soft (mashrina). Here the word "ruci" means "the desire to attain Krishna, the desire to please Krishna, and the desire to have a friendly  relation with Krishna". Bhava is said to be the4 first manifestation of the splendor of prema. The word “mashrina" means "the melting of the heart". In the Tantras it is said that bhava is the first manifestation of prema. When bhava appears, the sattvika-bhava ecstatic symptoms, such as the standing erect of the body's hairs, become slightly manifested. In eternally liberated souls these ecstatic symptoms appear spontaneously. In souls imprisoned in the material world these ecstatic symptoms appears as activities of the mind, and only gradually to they manifest their original, spiritual nature. Although these ecstatic symptoms come of their own accord, they seem to be induced by something external. The activities of sattvika-bhava ecstasy reveal the true nature of Lord Krishna and His transcendental pastimes. Manifested among the imprisoned souls as what seems to be an activity of the mind, it seems to bring knowledge of other, non-spiritual truths. The truth is that it enables one to relish spiritual pleasures. In this way it enables the souls imprisoned in the material world to relish the spiritual pleasures of Lord Krishna and Lord Krishna's transcendental pastimes.

     Vijaya-kumara: Does bhava manifest any variety?

     Babaji: Yes. Bhava is of two kinds, according to its place of origin. Bhava may come from the practice of sadhana-bhakti, or it may come from the mercy of Lord Krishna or the mercy of Lord Krishna's devotee. Generally it comes from the practice of sadhana-bhakti. It only rarely comes from mercy.

     Vijaya-kumara: What is the nature of bhava produced by the practice of sadhana-bhakti?

     Babaji: There are two kinds of bhava created by the practice of sadhana-bhakti. One is created by the practice of vaidhi-bhakti and the other by the practice of raganuga-bhakti. In the first of these two kinds of bhava created by sadhana-bhakti, at the beginning there is ruci (attraction to Krishna). From that comes asakti (attachment to Krishna). At the end comes rati (love for Krishna). In the Puranas and the Natya-shastras it is said that "rati" and "bhava" are synonyms. I also say that they are synonyms. Vaidhi-bhakti first creates faith, and from faith attraction to Krishna (ruci) follows. However, when one practices raganuga-bhakti, ruci appears at once (without any intervening stages).

     Vijaya-kumara: What is the nature of bhava created by the mercy of Lord Krishna or Lord Krishna's devotee?

     Babaji: When bhava suddenly appears without its recipient having practiced either vaidhi-bhakti or raganuga-bhakti, then bhava it is created by the mercy of Lord Krishna or Lord Krishna's devotee.

     Vijaya-kumara: What is the nature of bhava created by the mercy of Lord Krishna?

     Babaji: Lord Krishna's mercy is manifested in three ways: 1. vacika (by His words), 2. aloka-dana (by a glance), and 3. harda (by the mercy in His heart). Lord Krishna may give His mercy to someone by saying, "O king of the brahmanas, may devotion to Me, devotion that brings all transcendental bliss and is the crest jewel of all auspicious things, appear within you." Simply by the Lord's speaking these words, bhava suddenly appears in that brahmana. The aborigines residing in the jungle had never seen Krishna before. However, simply by seeing them they at once attained bhava because of the compassion in Lord Krishna's heart. This is called "aloka-danaja-bhava (bhava created from a glance). When feelings of compassion arise in Lord Krishna's heart, they produce the bhava called "harda". This bhava is seen in Shukadeva Gosvami and other devotees. When He descended to this world, Lord Mahaprabhu granted these three kinds of bhava from mercy on many occasions. Simply by seeing the Lord, many people attained bhava. Jagai, Madhai, and many others attained bhava because of the Lord's words. Shrila Jiva Gosvami attained bhava because of the mercy in Lord Krishna's heart..

     Vijaya-kumara: What is the nature of bhava created by the mercy of a devotee of Lord Krishna?     Babaji: Because of the mercy of Shri Narada Gosvami, auspicious desires appeared in the hearts of Dhruva and Prahlada. By the mercy of Shrila Rupa Gosvami, Shrila Sanatana Gosvami, and their associates, the desire to perform devotional service appeared in the hearts of numberless persons.

     Vijaya-kumara: What are the symptoms of bhava's appearance?

     Babaji: When the seed of ecstatic emotion (bhava) for Krishna fructifies, the following nine symptoms are manifest in one's behavior: forgiveness, concern that time should not be wasted, detachment, absence of false prestige, hope, eagerness, a taste for chanting the holy name of the Lord, attachment to descriptions of the transcendental qualities of the Lord, and affection for those places where the Lord resides that is a temple or holy place like Vrindavana. These are all called “anubhava", subordinate signs of ecstatic emotion. They are visible in a person in whose heart the seed of love of God has begun to fructify.*

     Vijaya-kumara: What is "forgiveness"?

     Babaji: Forgiveness is when, even though there is ample reason to become agitated and angry, one is not agitated and angry. This is called "forgiveness". "Tolerance" is a synonym for forgiveness.

     Vijaya-kumara: What is "concern that time should not be wasted"?

     Babaji: It means not to spent time in useless activities. To always be engaged in devotional service to Lord Hari is called "concern that time should not be wasted".

     Vijaya-kumara: What is "detachment"?

     Babaji: To find that one sees no pleasure in so-called material sense pleasures is called "detachment".

     Vijaya-kumara: When a person accepts sannyasa can he claim to have attained "detachment"?

     Babaji: Sannyasa is a material convention in  the material world. When the heart finds its pleasure in the spiritual world, and when the heart finds its pleasure in the material grow less and less until finally it disappears almost completely, that is called "detachment".A person who is detached from the material world and then accepts sannyasa to remove the obstacles that prevent him from attaining bhava can claim to be a “detached Vaishnava". However, a person who accepts sannyasa prematurely, before he has any understanding of the happiness of spiritual life (bhava) is not properly initiated as a sannyasi. He is not a true sannyasi. The Lord's punishment of Chota Haridasa taught this to the entire world.

     Vijaya-kumara: What is "absence of false prestige"?

     Babaji: Birth, varna, ashrama, wealth, power, beauty, a high status in society, and many other things make a person proud. To renounce the pride that comes from all these things is called "absence of false prestige". In the Padma Purana is written the story of a great king who attained devotion to Lord Krishna. Renouncing the pride that comes from royal opulence, this king passed his life as a beggar performing madhukari in the capitol city of the king that had been his rival and enemy. He always offered respectful obeisances to everyone, not caring whether they were brahmanas or candalas.

     Vijaya-kumara: What is "hope"?

     Babaji: To engage in devotional service with firm conviction, thinking, "Lord Krishna will certainly be merciful to me", is called "hope".

     Vijaya-kumara: What is "eagerness"?

     Babaji: Intense greed to attain what one desires is called "eagerness".

     Vijaya-kumara: What is "a taste for chanting the holy name of the Lord"?

     Babaji: Of all the different activates of devotional service, chanting the holy name of the Lord is the best. To always chant the holy name of the Lord with faith is called “a taste for chanting the holy name of the Lord". A taste for chanting the holy name of the Lord fulfills all spiritual desires. You will learn more about the holy name separately, at another time.

     Vijaya-kumara: What is "attachment to descriptions of the transcendental qualities of the Lord"?

     Babaji: In Shri Krishna-karnamrita (verse 65) it is written:



madhuryad api madhuram

     manmathata tasya kim api kaishoram

capalyad api capalam

     ceto bata harati hanta kim kurmah



     "He is sweeter than sweetness personified. His youthfulness is Kamadeva himself. He is more restless and playful than restlessness and playfulness personified. Alas, He has stolen my heart. What will I do now?"


     One may hear again and again of Lord Krishna's transcendental qualities, but one's desire to hear them will never be satiated. Rather, one's attachment to hear of them will grow stronger and stronger.


     Vijaya-kumara: What is "affection for those places where the Lord resides"?

     Babaji: When he circumambulates the holy Navadvipa, a devotee will ask, "O residents of the Lord's sacred place, where did the Lord take birth? Walking down what pathway did the Lord perform sankirtana? Please tell me: where did the Lord enjoy pastimes with the gopas in the morning?" The residents of the holy abode may reply, "In Mayapura, in a raised tulasi-forest, the Lord took birth. In Ganganagara, Simuliya, Gadigacha, Majida, and many other villages He performed sankirtana. By drinking with the cup of his ears these nectar words from the mouth of a resident of the land of Gauda, a devotee will manifest ecstatic symptoms, such as shedding tears and the hairs of his body standing erect, as he circumambulates the holy place. This is called "affection for those places where the Lord resides".

     Vijaya-kumara: When this kind of emotion is present can we say without doubt that "Krishna-rati" (pure love for Krishna) is definitely present?

     Babaji: No. When the heart is pure, then "rati" arises within it. The symptoms I have described may appear when other kinds of devotional emotions are manifested. They are not manifested only when there is rati.

     Vijaya-kumara: Please be kind and give one or two examples so I may understand.

     Babaji: A person thirsty for impersonal liberation may again and again chant a dim reflection of Lord Hari's holy name (namabhasa). Hearing that the holy name has the power to give liberation, he may weep again and again and may fall down almost unconscious. Still, one should not say that he has attained krishna-rati (love for Krishna) in the state of bhava (ecstasy). Such a person does not have sincere love for Lord Krishna. Rather, he makes a show of ecstatic symptoms (bhavabhasa) only because he is greedy to attain his own petty desire. A person desiring material sense pleasures may worship Goddess Durga, and after the worship may pray for many things, saying, "Please grant me boons. Please give me wealth." Thinking of how the goddess has the power to fulfill his desires, he may weep and roll on the ground. Still, one cannot say that he has attained bhava. Perhaps one can say he has attained a glimpse of bhava (bhavabhasa) or a mocking imitation of bhava (bhava-dauratmya). Bhava does not appear in a person who is not a pure devotee of Lord Krishna. When a person who desires material sense gratification or impersonal liberation manifests a glimpse of bhava (bhavabhasa), that is not true bhava. Rather it is only a mocking imitation (bhava-dauratmya) of true bhava. As he stands before the Deity of Lord Krishna, such a person may faint and remain unconscious for twenty-one hours. Even then, he does not display true bhava. Ah, the eternally liberated souls and the souls free from all material desires diligently search for bhava. Still, bhava remains hidden from them. Even after a person performs many devotional activities, Lord Krishna does not very quickly or easily give him the gift of bhava. How can pure love (rati) for Lord Krishna rise in a heart that does not have pure devotion to the Lord, or in a heart crushed by desires for material sense gratification or impersonal liberation?

     Vijaya-kumara: O master, many times it is seen that, when they participate in the chanting of Lord Hari's holy names (hari-nama-sankirtana), persons who thirst for material sense gratification or impersonal liberation may manifest the previously described symptoms of bhava. What shall we call that display?

     Babaji: Only fools think that display is wonderful. Persons who know the truth of bhava avoid these persons and say that outward display is only a glimpse of bhava (bhavabhasa).

     Vijaya-kumara: What are the different kinds of this glimpse of bhava (bhavabhasa)?

     Babaji: It is of two kinds: 1. pratibimba-raty-abhasa (the reflection of ecstatic love), and 2. chaya-raty-abhasa (the dim shadow of ecstatic love).

     Vijaya-kumara: What is pratibimba-raty-abhasa?

     Babaji: A person who desires impersonal liberation may think he can easily attain that liberation by attaining bhava for Lord Krishna. Thus desiring the happiness of impersonal liberation, he puts on a false show of the symptoms of bhava. This is called pratibimba-raty-abhasa. An impersonalist may think, “Attaining knowledge of impersonal Brahman is the only way to attain impersonal liberation. There is no other way. However, the process by which one attains that impersonal knowledge is very difficult and troublesome. If by chanting the holy names of Lord Hari one can easily attain liberation, that must mean that by chanting the holy names one may easily attain knowledge of impersonal Brahman." Hoping to easily get impersonal liberation, such a person may then make an outward display of ecstatic symptoms, such a shedding tears and standing erect of the bodily hairs. All this is only a glimpse (abhasa) of true bhava.

     Vijaya-kumara: Why is it called pratibimba (a reflection)?

     Babaji: When they engage in chanting the Lord's holy names or in other devotional activities, persons who thirst after material sense gratification or impersonal liberation may by destiny attain the association of true devotees. When the moon of true bhava arises in the hearts of these true devotees, that moon becomes reflected in the hearts of the hedonist or impersonalist pretenders. That is why their bhava is called pratibimba (a reflection). Pure bhava does not appear as long as one thirsts after material sense gratification or impersonal liberation. However, when a person sees pure devotees (shuddha-bhakta) of the Lord, the devotees' bhava becomes reflected on him. That is called pratibimba-bhavabhasa (a reflection of true bhava). Pratibimba-bhavabhasa does not bring eternal auspiciousness to the soul. As soon as the pretender attains his goal of sense gratification or liberation, his devotional activities stop. Therefore this pratibimba-bhavabhasa is said to be one of the offenses against the holy name. It is not praiseworthy.

     Vijaya-kumara: What is chaya-bhavabhasa (the dim shadow of ecstatic love).

     Babaji: An honest neophyte devotee not very learned in the science of spiritual life may come into contact with activities, times, places, or persons that are dear to Lord Hari, and by this contact they may attain a small, pleasant, suffering-removing, flickering shadow of true love (rati) for the Lord. That is called "chaya-raty-abhasa". When a person has a small quantity of pure devotion to the Lord, but that devotion is not very strong, then this kind of shadow devotion (raty-abhasa) is manifested. This shadow of devotion may appear in a person because in the past he performed many pious deeds. This shadow of devotion may gradually bring more and more auspiciousness to the person who obtains it. By the mercy of a pure devotee of Lord Hari, this shadow love can be transformed into genuine pure love for the Lord (shuddha-bhava). However, if one commits offenses to pure Vaishnavas, this shadow love may gradually diminish, like the waning of the moon in the dark fortnight. This is not said only of the shadow of love. Even pure love (shuddha-bhava) for Lord Krishna can be destroyed (abhava) if one commits offenses to Lord Krishna's devotees. Or that pure love may gradually become changed into shadow love, or it may be reduced to a lower level of love. If one closely associates with impersonalists, then his love for Krishna may also become changed into shadow love, or else one may become an impersonalist himself, and become convinced that he himself is the worshipable Supreme Personality of Godhead. It is because of this bad association that new devotees (navya-bhakta) sometimes have impersonalist ideas and think they have become God as they dance in krishna-kirtana or perform other devotional activities. This is sometimes seen. Unaware of the consequences, new devotees may sometimes associate with impersonalists. That bad association brings many troubles. Therefore new devotees should carefully avoid the association of impersonalists. Sometimes bhava may suddenly appear in a person who has not performed any devotional activities (sadhana). This means that the person involved performed many very good devotional activities in his pervious births. Because of certain obstacles, the results of those activities were not immediately manifested. Now that the obstacles are removed, the results are suddenly manifested. If the highest kind of love (bhava), which is all-powerful and wonderful to everyone, suddenly becomes manifested, it should be said that it was produced by the mercy of Lord Krishna. Even if you see some faults in his activities, you should not become the enemy of a person who has natural love (bhava) for the Lord. Why not? A person who has attained love for the Lord has made his life a complete success. A devotee will never commit a sin. However, if it is seen that somehow or a other a devotee has committed a sin, then one should think of this in two ways: 1. By accident a great soul has somehow committed a sin, but that sin will not stay. 2. This sin is only the reflection of a previous misdeed (purva-papabhasa). This devotee's spiritual love (bhava) will quickly destroy that sin. Very quickly it will be destroyed. In this way in one's heart one should no see the faults of the devotees. To see that devotees have faults is one of the offenses against the holy name. In the Nrisimha Purana it is written:



bhagavati ca harav ananya-ceta

     bhrisha-malino 'pi virajate manushyah

na hi shashaka-lusha-cchavih kadacit

     timira-para bhavatam upaiti candrah



     "If a person has completely engaged his mind, body, and activities in the service of the Supreme Godhead, but externally he is found to be engaged in some abominable activities, those abominable activities will surely be very quickly vanquished by the influence of his staunch devotional service. On the full moon there are some spots, which may appear to be pockmarks. Still, the illumination spread by the full moon cannot be checked."*


     One should not think that this instruction means that the devotees of the Lord are always committing sins. The truth is that when a person has faith in devotional service, he no longer desires to commit sins. However, as long as the material body is present, there may be some accidental slip into a sinful action. Devotional service, however, which is like a blazing fire, at once burns all these sins into ashes, and after that the devotee is cautious not to sin again. When unalloyed devotional service appears in someone, the ignorance that is the root of sin is flung far away. Therefore sinful actions remain far away from such a devotee. If it is seen that a person commits sins again and again, one should not be under the misunderstanding that he possesses unalloyed devotion to Lord Krishna. Why not? To commit sins with the hope that his devotional activities will nullify his sins is an offense. Devotees do not commit that offense.

     Love (rati) for Krishna makes one desire to please Krishna more and more. It is filled with warmth and power. It is sweet like millions of moons.


     Hearing these explanations of ecstatic love (bhava), Vrajanatha and Vijaya-kumara became stunned. Their hearts were filled with love. Even after the babaji had finished speaking, they both remained for a while stunned and silent. Finally they said, "O master, the nectar of your teachings have brought a flood of love to our burnt-out hearts. Ah, what will we do? Where will we go? We are not able to be steady and calm. We are filled with pride because we were born in brahmana families. In our hearts is not the slightest bit of humbleness. The hope of one day attaining ecstatic love (bhava) for the Lord is very far from us. Our only hope is that you, a personal associate of the Lord, a devotee filled with pure spiritual love (prema), may place a single drop of spiritual love (prema) in our hearts. Then our lives will become a great success. Because of our relationship with you, the bird of hope now lives in our hearts. We are very poor and lowly and worthless. You are a great king among the true devotees of the Lord. You are very merciful. Please be merciful to us and explain to us what our duties should be. In my heart I yearn to renounce the material world and household life and become a servant of your feet." Then Vijaya-kumara took this opportunity to say, "O master, Vrajanatha is still a boy. His mother wishes that he become a householder. However, in his heart he does not see the same way she does. Please be merciful and say what is to be done."


     Babaji: Lord Krishna has given His mercy to you. Your household life will be Lord Krishna's household life, for you will render service to Lord Krishna there. Our Lord Mahaprabhu taught the entire world, and the world should follow His teaching. In this material world there are two kinds of situations: 1. household life, and 2. sannyasa. As long as one is not qualified to become a sannyasi, he should remain as a householder and serve Lord Krishna in that ashrama. In the first twenty-four years of His pastimes, the Lord set the example of ideal Vaishnava household life, and in the second twenty-four years of His pastimes, the Lord set the example of ideal Vaishnava sannyasa life. Householders should follow the Lord's example. It is my opinion that for the present you should act as He did. In your heart do not think that in the householder ashrama you cannot attain the highest stage of pure love for Lord Krishna (krishna-prema). The devotees who received the greatest mercy from Lord Mahaprabhu were all householders. The Vaishnava sannyasis offer prayers to these householders and respectfully touch the dust from their feet.


     It was late at night. In the company of the Vaishnavas, Vijaya-kumara and Vrajanatha sang songs glorifying Hari again and again. In that way they passed the night in Shrivasa's courtyard. The next morning they washed, bathed, performed various duties, sang the holy names with the Vaishnavas, and accepted a maha-prasadam breakfast. In the afternoon they slowly walked to Bilva-puskarini. As they thought about it, both uncle and nephew decided that they should serve Lord Krishna within the householder ashrama. That would be best. Vijaya-kumara said to his sister, "Vrajanatha has decided to marry. You make all the arrangements. I will go to Modadruma for a few days. When I hear news that Vrajanatha's wedding day is coming, I will come with all the relatives to celebrate the happy day. Tomorrow I will sent Kanishtha Harinatha to help with the arrangements." Vrajanatha's mother and grandmother were flooded with bliss. They gave garments and other gifts to Vijaya-kumara and bade him farewell.