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NITAAI-Veda.nyf > All Scriptures By Acharyas > Bhaktivinoda Thakura > Chaitanya Shikshamrita > Chapter-VII

Chapter 7


Part One



What is rasa?  Rasa is bliss.  Rasa is an indestructible substance, an eternal substance.  But the question arises, how can it be eternal, because  if it appears by cultivation of bhava, then it will have no existence before the cultivation, and if  the cultivation is broken, then the rasa will not remain.  How can it be called continuous. The conclusion is that the rasa under consideration is without beginning and without end. The ingredients of rasa - sthayi bhava, vibhava, anubhava and sancari bhava - are all eternal.   Their relationship is also eternal.  All spiritual objects have eternal rasa.  As much as the Lord, the soul and Vaikuntha are eternal, rasa is also eternal.  Thus the Upanisad says that the supreme object is the embodiment of rasa; the soul, on attaining rasa, attains bliss.1 The rasa that the soul attains on achieving prema  is the eternal companion of prema.  But it only appears in certain souls. It appears when the soul discovers its eternal relationship with the Lord.

Ordinary literary scholars also mention a type of rasa.  What is that rasa?  it is material rasa.  The subtle body that the soul accepts in the material condition has separate functions of false ego, intelligence, heart and mind. By false ego a person thinks of himself in a material relationship as man or woman; by intelligence he thinks of advantages and disadvantages.  By heart he experiences happiness and distress. By mind he gains knowledge of material objects and becomes attached to them.  Are these new acquisitions for the soul when he comes into bondage?  Or did the seed of these functions exist already in the soul?  The answer is that these are not new, for the soul in his spiritual form with individual distinction thinks of himself as a certain servant of the Lord.  This identity takes shelter of the pure spiritual form  or ego in the soul.    The intelligence also takes shelter of the spiritual form; and the heart, functioning to experience spiritual bliss, also takes shelter of the spiritual form.  The mind, which brings awareness of other objects, other souls and the Supreme Lord in the spiritual world, and fix his attention on them also exists in his spiritual form. When the soul becomes conditioned, these spiritual functions transform into the subtle and gross counterparts due to material contact, and manifest as impure, material functions.  Thus  whatever rasa exists in the spiritual realm, exists in perverted form in the material world.  This is the subject of the material scholars.   Rasa is one substance, but in the eternal world, it takes an eternal blissful form, and in the material world, it manifests as material happiness and grief.  The names, relationships, actions, process and results that are seen in  the material rasas and classified by the scholars have their pure form in the spiritual rasa.  The difference lies not in the varieties of rasas but in the very natures of the material and spiritual rasas.  Spiritual rasa is eternal, material rasa is temporary.  Spiritual rasa is excellent, material rasa is  despicable.  The spiritual rasa's subject is Krishna and its shelter is the soul; material rasa's subject is beauty or ugliness of a material body, and the shelter is the contaminated material heart. The very nature of spiritual rasa is bliss, and the nature of material rasa is happiness and sorrow.2 


In describing rasa it is not necessary to resort to metaphorical usage of words. The direct meaning of words can accomplish the task.  If that were not so, the Shrimad Bhagavatam would not have been able to describe the supreme rasa in the form of Krishna's pastimes.  Rasa displays its characteristics, necessary ingredients, and rules of operation to the conditioned soul  through the distorted, impure reflection of rasa discussed by the scholars, taking the  form of relationships and  exchanges between hero and heroine, father and son, friend and friend, and master and servant.  If a self-revealing object does not reveal itself, then what can? Though the supreme blissful essence is distorted, the essential qualities and signs are all evident even in the material world. Thus it is not difficult to use the direct import of words to describe rasa.  Those who hear about rasa and  desire to develop their own rasa should just remember that they should not allow the despicable nature of material rasa to enter into their practices. Some groups, under the guise producing spiritual rasa resort to material rasa, and consequently deviate from the correct path. 3   In this way the soul can fall from his position.   Rasa can only be  produced in the spiritual body of  the soul, and can never be produced from the material body of a conditioned soul. 


Those who try to  induce the experience of madhura rasa by association with women are simply creating their own path to hell.  They do that which  is not at all spiritual, and ultimately fall from their position.  Those who are cultivating  rasa must be very careful of such people.  They should not listen to the advice of  pretenders  fond of pleasure.  Those who have attained the level of prema and are completely detached from worldly pleasure are qualified for rasa.  Those who have not attained pure rati and sense control  make futile attempts to become qualified for rasa by practicing rasa.   That taste which arises naturally in a person on the level of prema is called rasa.  The discussion of rasa is only a description of  how the various elements combine in the different rasas; it is not a part of sadhana.  Therefore, if anyone says that he will teach you the sadhana of rasa, he is an impostor or a fool. 


There are five distinct elements in rasa:  sthayi bhava, vibhava, anubhava, sattvika bhava and sancari or vyabhicari bhava.   Sthayi bhava is the root of rasa,  vibhava is the cause of rasa,  anubhava is the effect of rasa,  sattvika bhavas are special effects, and  sancari bhavas are assistants to rasa.   Vibhava, anubhava, sattvika bhava and vyabhicari bhava bring  the sthayi bhava  to the state of  relishabililty and thus give it the status of rasa.4 These subjects will be revealed more elaborately and precisely, but only to the degree that the sadhaka  or practitioner  tastes or experiences the rasas directly  will he be able  to appreciate what is presented.   


Rasa is not a matter of understanding, but a matter of tasting.  The two preliminary  stages of knowledge are inquiry and reception.  If these are not completed, the final stage of knowledge, experiencing or tasting, will not arise.5    What is commonly called knowledge is either inquiry or reception, but not tasting.  There is no manifestation  of rasas without tasting. 


Sthayi bhava  (permanent, or constant emotional state) will be examined first.   That emotional state, which in operation,  hold all  other states  under its control, is called  sthayi  bhava.6   When  a person develops to the stage of bhava,  and rati  becomes exclusively possessive of Krishna,  and becomes to some extent deep,  it becomes sthayi bhava, which is suitable for rasa.   This sthayi bhava is limited to one  dominant emotional mood.  Even when it surpasses this  limitation and enters the realm of prema it will still be called rati,  as prema  is distinguishable from rati by being beyond limits in all cases. Prema's nature is to appropriate  the  excellence of rasa for itself.   Rati, as it elevates itself, becomes sthayi bhava.


Whether a person  who has developed rati is a sadhaka or a siddha,  he is qualified for tasting rasa.   A sadhaka for prema  ( an aspirant for prema, premaruruksu) is a person  who has developed rati but still  has an obstacle to surpass.   By progressing through nistha, ruci and asakti, the anarthas have gradually been dissolved.   The material attachment is also gone, but as long as the subtle body remains, he still has  contact with matter.   That will be very quickly removed by Krishna's mercy.  That contact with matter is called an obstacle.  As long as that obstacle remains,  the soul cannot attain vastu siddhi, his real spiritual form.    However, when a person with rati  advances to prema, he is qualified for obtaining rasa (even possessing a material body), and that attainment is called  svarupa siddhi.  


Rati, in order to bring about a state of taste by mixing with the four elements of vibhava, anubhava, sattvika bhava and vyabhicari bhava, accepts  one of five kinds of svabhavas available in vibhava.    These  are: santa  svabhava, dasya svabhava, sakhya svabhava , vatsalya svabhava and madhurya  svabhava.    These svabhavas reside  initially in  vibhava.   The subject and object,  between which rati  operates,  are the two divisions of alambana or foundation.   These svabhavas link the subject and  object.   Rati accepts one of these svabhavas  in order to bring about  rasa or taste.   By the particular prowess of the Lord called his  inconceivable energy,  the five svabhavas  become linked to the subject and object and create the variegated  flavor of rasa.   In taking on  five svabhavas, rati then becomes  santa rati, dasya or priti rati, sakha or preya rati, vatsalya or anukampa rati and kanta (priyata) or madhura rati. 


According to the different svabhavas available in vibhava, rati takes on five varieties.  In rasa, vibhava is the principal ingredient. and  these  five  type of rati are called principal ratis.7   The sancari bhavas are known as secondary ingredients of rasa,  which assist the rasa.   Sancari bhavas include seven additional svabhavas.   When these seven svabhavas of sancari bhava enter the svabhavas of rati and alter that rati,   seven additional types of rati appear from those secondary   svabhavas.8  Hasya svabhava produces hasa rati (comedy) adbhuta svabhava produces vismaya rati (dismay),  vira svabhava produces utsaha rati (fortitude), karuna svabhava produces soka rati (lamentation),   rudra svabhava produces krodha rati (anger),  bhayanaka svabhava produces bhaya rati (fear),  vibhatsa svabhava produces jugupsa rati (disgust).


Actually, the main svabhavas of rati are only five.  In order to assist in the variegated action of the chief svabhavas, the seven ratis  act  in a subordinate way.  Where a primary bhakti rasa operates, one or more of the secondary rasas also operate.  Though the secondary rasas have no independent existence,  in  analyzing them,  they have the same characteristics  as  the independent rasas.   Thus in all these secondary rasas there is a taste evolved by mixing of sthayi bhava, vibhava, anubhava and sancaribhava.   Though literary scholars describe these as primary rasas,  in the spiritual world these rasas take on secondary importance.  In the material world it is natural that they become prominent.  In Bhakti Rasamrta Sindu 's south and north divisions their  condition and actions are described  fully.   In Krishna's bhakti rasa these  seven types of secondary rasa are spotless and praiseworthy, because they amplify the rasa of Krishna's pastimes.   The seven rasa are included amongst the spiritual rasa of Krishna as part of the sancari bhavas.  Appearing at suitable time, like waves in the ocean of rasa, they  create further beauty and  substance of the rasa.   Those who cannot understand the non-material nature of rasa may  object that  though some of the secondary  rasas such as hasya, vismaya and utsaha may be acceptable , how is it possible for soka, krodha, bhaya  and jugupsa to exist if rasa  should have no lamentation, no fear and no disgust.   By giving them a place , the rasa becomes material. 


However,  it can be answered that all the varieties found in spiritual  rasa are productive of bliss.9  Nothing produces sorrow.   Where in fact do the condemned  material states of lamentation, anger, fear and disgust come from?   They are not independent states of the material world  but are rather reflections of elements of the spiritual world.   The objects, emotions and actions of the spiritual world are pure and auspicious, but their reflections in the material world are all inauspicious.   Those qualities which produce  eternal suspiciousness directly in the  devotees in the spiritual world are reflected in the material world as punya, or materially auspicious qualities.   Those qualities in the spiritual world which produce suspiciousness indirectly  are reflected in the material world as producers of inauspiciousness, and are called sin.    Thus fear and lamentation in the spiritual world  immediately produce an indescribable joy in relation to Krishna and nourish the blissful nature of the rasas,  while in the material world the same elements produce suffering for  the souls.10    In the spiritual world Krishna is the only end of all  qualities or states .  In the material world  individual sense gratification is the objective of all the reflected  states.   Such a goal will produce only  disastrous   and temporary consequences.  That which produces happiness in the spiritual world by its contrary mood produces  direct sorrow in this world .  Those whose realization of spiritual identity is still sleeping  cannot easily comprehend  these matters.11   Here the topic of  secondary rasa finishes and  the topic of  primary rasas begins.



When the soul has attained pure rati after enjoying and suffering  in the material world, and  extinguishes the tendency to sin, he attains relief  at having transcended  such a fearful, dangerous place.   When the soul experiences such peace he is said to have santi rati.12    When this rati becomes combined with a sense of exclusive possessiveness of the Lord,  it becomes dasya or priti rati.13    Thinking of the Lord as his master, the devotee thinks of himself as the Lord's eternal servant.  There are two types of dasya rati:  rati derived from sambhrama and  rati derived from gaurava.  In sambhrama  (reverence mixed with submission) derived dasya the devotee thinks of himself as the recipient of the Lord's mercy, whereas in gaurava (respect) derived dasya the devotee thinks of himself as the fondled offspring of the Lord.    Servants are the shelter of sambhrama derived dasya.  Krishna's sons are the shelter of gaurava derived dasya.  In dasya  rasa, the sthayi bhava is prema.  In other words, rati, being nourished by possessiveness, becomes prema.   Therefore in dasya  the characteristics of rati and prema  are prominent.  There are also traces of sneha (tenderness) and raga (passion). 


The sthayi bhava of sakhya rasa or preya bhakti rasa is pranaya (affection).14  Rati and prema also exist there.  The sambhrama or gaurava of dasya rasa matures  into visvrambha (familiarity, with no respect) or immovable faith.   In that state, rati, prema, and pranaya, are strong, and sneha and raga  are trace elements.  In vatsalya rasa, visrambha matures into anukampa (pity or compassion), and rati, prema, pranaya and sneha are very strong.15  Raga is also present.   In madhura rasa  desirability becomes predominant, subsuming all other states such as sambhrama, gaurava, visrambha and anukampa.   The sthayi bhava is called priyata rati.  As well, prema, pranaya, sneha, raga are  all present, and bhava and mahabhava also appear. 


Rati appears according to the desire cultivated during sadhana.16  All the differences in rati which have been analyzed will not be discussed, here, since that is not the goal of this book.   Basic information to give an idea of rasa is here being presented.


Vibhava (causal elements) has two divisions, alambana (foundation) and uddipana (stimulus).17   The foundation has two parts: subject (asraya) and object (visaya).  The person in whom rati resides is called the subject or asraya.  The person to whom  rati directs itself is called the object or visaya.   The soul is the subject or asraya, and Krishna is the object or visaya.   The rati under discussion may thus be called Krishna rati.   When the rati attains the state of rasa it is called Krishna bhakti rasa.   The stimuli (uddipana) for rasa are Krishna's qualities, his age, his attractiveness, his beauty, his form, his actions,  his clothing, his ornaments, his smile, his fragrance, his flute, his conch , his footprints, his trees and his devotees.18


The outward actions by which the presence of rasa is detected  is called anubhava.19  There are thirteen anubhavas: dancing, jumping, singing, anger, stretching the body, calling out loudly, yawning, breathing heavily, disregarding others, drooling, laughing loudly,  moaning, hiccoughing,   All these symptoms do not have to appear together.  One or more of these anubhavas will appear according to the nature of  operation of  the rasa  within.


There are  eight sattvika bhavas: being stunned, sweating, hair standing on end, broken voice, shivering, change of color, tears,  and fainting,   They appear in three forms each,  snigdha (moist), digdha (oily)and ruksa  (dry).20 Some people include these in the  anubhavas.   The difference is however that the thirteen anubhavas  take shelter of  one organ of the body, whereas the sattvika changes possess the whole  existence of the devotee and  then manifest in the body.  Sattvika bhavas may be said to have two states, interior  and exterior.   According  to circumstance the sattvika bhavas   appear  as dim, glowing,  bright and  dazzling.  


Although similar bodily symptoms may be seen in many people, those symptoms  should not be called sattvika bhava.  They should be called rati abhasa, sattva bhasa, nihsatta or pratipa.    The tears of those people  who worship the Lord for liberation arise from rati abhasa, or a dim representation of  rati.     Those who are hard on the exterior but soft within experience  moods of joy and sorrow  in the heart without cause.   These are abhasas  (dim representation) of spiritual emotions (sattva).  The  bodily changes that occur are  due to sattva abhasa .   Those who seem soft on the exterior but are hard hearted may practice symptoms of  ecstasy such as crying, being stunned or having goose bumps.  Since they have no real emotions at all, those symptoms are called nihsattva. 21 Those who hold animosity towards the Lord (his enemies) sometimes display symptoms  like those of sattvika bhava.  These are called pratipa (contrary symptoms).    These are  all insignificant, but have been describe so that  a person can distinguish between the genuine and bogus.  Otherwise they are of no use.


There are thirty-one vyabhicari or sancari bhavas (transitory symptoms).22  Appearing alone or with others, they help the sthayi bhava in the creation of rasa.   Using voice, existence and organs of the body, they nourish both the secondary as well as primary ratis.  The sancari bhavas are as follows: self-criticism, despair, lowliness,  weakness, fatigue, intoxication, pride, doubt, apprehension, intense emotion, madness, forgetfulness, disease, fainting, death, laziness, inertness, bashfulness, concealment, remembrance, argumentiveness, anxiety, thoughtfulness, endurance, happiness, eagerness,  ferocity, intolerance, envy, fickleness, sleep, alertness, dreaming.


Both the soul and the Lord are the tasters of rasa.  When the soul is the taster, the Lord is the tasted.   When the Lord is the taster, the soul is the tasted.  Moreover, rasa itself is tasted.   The action of rasa is to taste, and the conscious entities are the tasters.   Rasa is eternal, unbroken, inconceivable, and the very form of supreme bliss.  The   progression from pure rati to mahabhava is  its upward movement.   The  downward movement sinks from pure rati  to  illusion in the material   world.   People of pure intelligence can realize this subject.    It cannot be realized by material logic.23   What to speak of spiritual rasas, even material rasas cannot be analyzed by logic.  


By the suitable combination  of vibhava, anubhava, sattvika bhavas and vyabhicari bhavas with sthayi bhava, rasa makes its appearance.   Those who are qualified will be able to understand  about rasa;   those  involved in material rasa are not qualified for the supreme rasa. 



Part Two

worship as rasa


Those who worship the Lord should consider the nature of their worship.  Is it material, is it spiritual? What kind  of activity is it?  Though some people take  shelter of material concepts in their worship it is better than gross material pursuit.    But how can that be ?    Their thoughts cannot go beyond  the material realm.   If though is considered worship, then worship must be nothing imaginary concepts bred of materialism.   If worship is neither material nor mental,  then what is it?  In normal human  existence, there is nothing except matter and mind.  If that is so, then a person must become an atheist or  an impersonalist.    The state in direct opposition to matter and material thought is the indistinguishable state, nivisesa.  On taking shelter of that and accepting brahmavad with no rasas at all,   a person will next take shelter of  pure atheism.  Let there be no worship.   That for which all souls are so eager, has become as false  as flower in the sky.   How unfortunate!


Rejecting the  states  of matter,  material mind and  their opposite - nirvisesa,   please search out the real  platform of existence for the soul .   These conceptions must be rejected because  they have captured the soul and covered up his real  identity.   If these are not pierced how can a person become free from them?  If you have three blinkers on your eyes which obstruct your vision, then in order to see you should pierce them.   The pure existence of the soul is like the eye.  It is covered by matter, material thought and  their negation.    Remove these and the eye will be normal.    When the soul's real eye is revealed,  there will be no more worship of matter, worship of mental products or worship of negative  thought processes; there will be only  spiritual worship.   This spiritual worship is called rasa.    Those who worship are actually cultivating rasa.24     Factually however, the  persons qualified for rasa are rare, and therefore it is considered a secret topic.25


There are two types of worshippers: those with knowledge of rasa and those without knowledge of rasa.   Those without knowledge of rasa  also experience a slight degree of  rasa.    Being ignorant of the truth, they call it meditation, concentration, absorption, trance, prayer, or worship.   When the person becomes absorbed in prayer or worship, like lightening, an experience rises from his inner soul, shakes the mind, and affects the outer body.  He realizes that if he could remain in that state constantly there would be no more suffering.    What is that state?  Is it material, mental or something opposite of material?    Searching the whole universe, nothing can be found to compare to this experience.   It cannot be counted among the subtle side effects of material energy such as electricity  or magnetism.     Examining  mind, it cannot be found  there either.    In the negation of material thought as well there is nothing  comparable.   From where has this experience come?   Examining carefully, it may be found that it is coming from the pure existence of the soul, which is presently covered by matter.    When engaged in the act of worship this state is experienced, but it is not analyzed in detail.  Let us examine it more closely.


This indescribable state is a particular  quality or function.  The function must have a subject or asraya.  The pure soul, which is covered by the material body and material mind, is the shelter of that function.   On realizing that the soul is  small and dependent on a higher power,  this function suddenly reveals itself, like the flame the appears on striking a match.    The thing to which the function moves is its only object, visaya.   By proximity to the object through the process of worship, the  function can emerge from the asraya, the soul, and  flow towards the object, visaya.    This function is the sthayi vibhava.   The  practitioner is the asraya and God is the visaya.   The qualities of  God are the stimuli, uddipana.  When the function   is combined with the subject and the object, immediately  anubhavas or external symptoms appear in the subject.    One or more of the thirteen anubhavas will certainly appear in the person.   Some of the thirty-one vyabhicari bhavas will also assist in the external manifestation of the experience.   Some persons will also experience some of the sattvika bhavas.  Now consider, what is worship?  After analyzing all the parts of worship it may be understood that  worship is nothing but rasa.    Worship is  attainment of a state of experience  stemming from a basic state of consciousness assisted by vibhava, anubhavas, sattvika bhavas and vyabhicari bhavas.    So worship is rasa.   Material action, material thought and nirvisesa anti-material thought are not worship.  These are all without rasa.    All groups of worshipers depend on the actions of rasa, but being ignorant of process of rasa,  they cannot be made to understand   rasa in a scientific way.  This is due to  the influence of  previous bad association. 


Worship as rasa is of three forms: restricted, slightly  revealed, and fully revealed.  Some people, experiencing rasa in a restricted way, cannot  feel it after leaving the activity of worship.    The reason is that  they are  enjoying material rasa .  As no one can live without rasa,   the lives of these people are full of material rasa.   Spiritual rasa is a temporary   thing, like  flash of  lightening in their life.   By association of devotees and guru, this condition becomes elevated  and gradually  begins to open slightly, but by lack of good association and teachings from atheists or impersonalists, this worship becomes gradually more restricted,  extremely restricted,  and then almost lost.    This is very unfortunate for the soul. 


In the slightly opened state, worship  penetrates into the life of the person.    The person gravitates towards places where he can hear topics of rasa.    He is indifferent to atheists and impersonalists.    In the fully opened state,  rasa  is fully realized.      Being realized,  it  acts  continuously.    In the opened state, rasa is revealed in the forms of  santa, dasya, sakhya, vatsalya and madhura., but those qualified for sakhya, vatsalya and madhura rasa are very few.    Only by great fortune can the soul develop a taste for them.  


1 raso vai sah rasam hy evayam labdhanandi bhavati 

Taittiriya Upanisad

2 As the moon reflected on water appears to the seer to tremble due to being associated with the quality of the water, so the self associated with matter appears to be qualified as matter. S.B.3.7.11

An unintelligent person situated within the body created by his previous fruitive activities thinks, "I am the performer of action. Bewildered by false ego, such a foolish person is therefore bound up by fruitive activities, which are in fact carried out by the modes of nature. S.B.11.11.10

The living entity, in whatever species of life he appears, finds a particular type of satisfaction in that species, and he is never averse to begin situated in such a condition. S.B.3.30.4

Thus the man, who engaged with uncontrolled senses in  maintaining a family, dies in great grief, seeing his relatives crying.  He dies most pathetically, in great pain and without consciousness. S.B.3.30.18

(Such conditions are the subject of material rasa.)

3 Being conscious of the eternal self, one should give up association with women and those intimately associated with women.  Sitting fearlessly in a solitary place, one should concentrate the mind on me with great attention. S.B.11.14.29

On who aspires to reach the culmination of yoga and has realized his self by rendering service unto Me, should never associate with an attractive woman, for such a woman is declared in the scripture to be the gateway to hell for the advancing devotee. S.B.3.31.39

One should not associate wit a coarse fool who is bereft of the knowledge of self-realization and who is no more than a dancing dog in the hands of a woman. S.B.3.31.34

4 B.R.S.2.1.5

5 jijnasasvadanavadhih 

  Tattva Sutra

6 B.R.S.2.2.5

7 B.R.S.2.5.115

8 B.R.S.2.5.22

9 B.R.S.2.5.92

10 B.R.S.2.5.110

11 acintyah khalu ye bhava na tams tarkena yojayet

prakrtibhyah param yac ca tad acintyasya laksanam 


12 B.R.S. 2.5.17-18

13 B.R.S. 2.5.27-28

14 B.R.S.2.5.16

15 B.R.S. 2.5.19-20

16 B.R.S.2.5.21

17 B.R.S.2.1.5

18 B.R.S. 2.1.154

19 B.R.S. 2.2.1

20 B.R.S. 2.3.1-4, 2.3.15-16, 2.3.56, 2.3.63, 2.3.82-83

21 B.R.S.2.3.52, 2.3.55

22 B.R.S.2.4.106

23 B.R.S.2.5.108-109

24 B.R.S.2.5.112,123

25 B.R.S.2.5.119-133




Part Three

Santa Rasa


The object of worship is not indistinguishable (nirvisesa), but rather personal (savisesa).  Conviction in this  fact is called sama.   When person who has sama develops rati, that rati is called santa rati.  The asraya of santa rati is the soul who has attained  such peace.   The visaya for that rati is  a personal God.  Such a person is free from any material  conception of  God.    His worship takes the form  of yoga  practice aiming at the joy of  pure consciousness.  Giving up desire for enjoyment of the material world, he is situated in personal bliss.   The object of  his rati  (visaya) is  Krishna in the form of paramatma or  a slightly  personalized realization of brahman.   He has no attraction for  meditation on absolute  nirvisesa  brahman.   For him Brahman is somewhat personalized, but at that same time he does not have complete conviction  in the eternal personalized nature of  God.  Thus sometimes   he realized a four-armed form, sometimes a  majestic form of Krishna,  and  sometimes paramatma.   The sages such as Sanaka, Sanatana, Sananda,  and Sanatkumar are examples of santa rati bhaktas.1  


As these devotees do not have conviction in the Lord's eternal forms, they do not have possessiveness towards Krishna.  Possessiveness is a  mood necessarily attached  to the personal form.    Therefore the rati of the santa bhaktas, due to its absence of relation,  remains in a pure state.    The  visaya is  the Lord endowed with a form of eternity, knowledge and bliss,  the goal of the atma ramas, paramatma, parabrahma,  bestower of goals,  the merciful, the  great.  The asraya is the atma rama  (seeker of spiritual bliss) or performer of austerities.   The sthayi bhava is rati  towards  the giver of liberation, Mukunda, who is beyond the material modes, beyond the senses,  self revealing ,  and full of  knowledge.  The stimuli (uddipana )  are  hearing the principal Upanisads,  living in special places,  inner revelations,  meditation on philosophical truth,  influence of  knowledge,  seeing the universal form, association with knowledgeable devotees,  and discussion of the meaning of the Brahma Sutras  and Upanisads with  like-minded persons.   


The anubhavas or general symptoms of this realization are looking at the tip of the nose, acting like an avadhuta,  keeping the eyes  focused eight feet in front while walking,   showing the jnana mudra  (holding the thumb and forefinger together),   lack of   hatred towards those inimical to God,  general respect to devotees,  great respect for  destruction of material attachment  and  attainment of liberation,  indifference, purity,  egolessness,  and practicing vows of silence.  


All the sattivika  bhavas such as hair standing on end are present except  fainting.  However these sattvika bhavas  manifest in a  dim condition  since the person is devoid of bodily  identity.   Occasionally the symptoms become glowing, but never reach the condition of bright or dazzling.   Sometimes the sancari bhavas such as  patience, fortitude, joy, thoughtfulness, and remembrance,   manifest in santa rasa.    Because it has such  particulars, santa rasa is counted among the rasas.  However in the description of the spiritual rasa of Vraja lila, santa rasa does not appear because it does not have a particular  form  of the Lord as its object.   Therefor it lacks the intensity of possessiveness.   By great fortune, the soul can attain possessiveness of the form of the Lord.   When this occurs, suddha rati grows into prema, and prita bhakti rasa (dasya)  appears.     

1 B.R.S.3.1




Part Four

Prita  Bhakti Rasa


Prita bhakti rasa is called dasya rasa by many.   This rasa is however  of two types:  with a  mood of sambhrama  and with a mood of gaurava.1   Sambhrama  prita rasa is  called dasya rasa.  Gaurava prita rasa is called gaurava prita bhakti rasa., not dasya rasa.   Worship devoid of  sambhrama (reverence)  is not commonly discussed.  Thus it is by good fortune of the soul that  he attains rati for Krishna  without reverence--that is with familiarity (sakhya rasa),  pity (vatsalya rasa) or intense desire (madhura rasa).   These are all mentioned in the scriptures  but their devotees  do not  concern themselves with scripture, as their nature is their scripture.    Though it is not the case that all persons who have attained rati ignore scripture,   the subjects of rasa that are being explained for the general  devotees to guide them on the correct path  are supplied only up to sambhrama rati.   To go much beyond that is not in accordance with the aim of this book. 


In prita bhakti rasa, the personality of God is accepted.   He has two forms: majestic and sweet.   Speaking  analytically,  the sweet form can only be Krishna.    In the form of Krishna  all  majesty is included, but by the prevalence of sweetness, madhurya,  the majestic aspect is almost lost.  As the case arises, it may sometimes manifest in a non-contradictory way.   To consider this in more detail the reader should consult Shri Jiva Gosvami's Sat Sandarbhas and Shri Krishna Samhita.    There can be nothing as sweet as the  relation with  Krishna.  Therefore the subject here will be dasya in relation to Krishna of Vraja.  


When dasya to Krishna arises, the person thinks himself to be favored by Krishna.  There is a love of Krishna dominated by respect, and understanding oneself as the servant.   The object of  dasya  rasa is  the supreme form of Krishna , who is holding within  his pores the universes, who is the ocean of mercy, the Lord endowed with inconceivable energies,  who is worshipped by all perfections,  who is the seed of all avataras,  who attracts  the hearts of the atma ramas, who is the lord of lords, the most worshipable,  the most determined, the most forgiving, the protector of those surrendered to him, the most graceful, the embodiment of truth, the controller of karma,  the most powerful, the pure, the just, the friend of the devotee, the generous, the most influential,  possessing all strength,  the most glorified,  most grateful and controlled by love.


The asrayas or subjects are   adhikrtas, ashrita, parisad , and anugas.2   These four types of servants are the asraya of rasa; they are qualified souls.  Brahma, Siva, and Indra, who by the Lord's mercy have been given certain powers, are the adhikrta dasas.   Ashrita dasas are of three types: saranya, jnanicara and sevanistha.    Kaliya, Jarasandha and the imprisoned kings are of the first category.  Saunaka and the other rsis when they gave up the desire for liberation are of the second type.   Those who are naturally attached to worship of the Lord, such as Harihara, Bahulasva, Iksvaku, Srutadeva, and Pundarika are of the third category.   The parisads (retinue) , who sometimes personally serve the Lord, are devotees such as Uddhava, Daruka, Nanda, Upananda and Bhadraka.     Anuga dasas, who always serve the Lord personally  are of two types: pura-stha (situated the city) and Vraja-stha (situated in Vraja).    Sacandra, Mandana, Stambha, Sutamba are pura-stha  anuga dasas.  Raktaka, Patraka, Patri, Madhukantha, Madhuvrata, Rasala, Suvilasa, Premakanda, Maranda, Asanda, Candrahasa, Payoda,Vakula, Rasada and Sarada are Vraja-stha anuga dasas.


All these  servants are  humble minded,  thinking themselves as objects of the Lord's mercy; they are ready to carry out his orders, are faithful and  recognize the Lord as master.  Some are dhurya dasa, some are dhira das and some are vira dasa.  Among the four types, the ashrita, parisads and anugas may be either nitya siddha (eternal associates), siddha (perfected souls situated in the spiritual world) or sadhaka (perfected but in this world). 


The usual stimuli3 for this rasa are the sound of Krishna's flute,  the sound of his horn,  glancing at the devotee while smiling, hearing Krishna's qualities, his lotus, his footprints, new clouds, and the fragrance of his body.   Special stimuli are the mercy of Krishna, the tulasi on His feet,  and the food remnants and foot water of Krishna.   These are the vibhavas.


Besides the thirteen  anubhavas  previously mentioned,  there are  a few more symptoms visible in  the dasa bhaktas:4 always obeying the Lord's orders thoroughly,  friendship with other servants of Krishna,  absence of even a drop of envy in serving the Lord,  and being fixed in  servitude to the Lord.    In dasya rasa, the eight sattvika bhavas, such as being stunned, also appear.    The sancari bhavas of joy, pride, remembrance, dismay, meekness, worry, anxiety, thoughtfulness, enthusiasm, fickleness, argumentativeness, disturbance, bashfulness, inertness, illusion, madness, concealment, attentiveness, dreaming,  fatigue, sickness and death  are visible.


In this rasa, because of the awareness of the Lord as master,  there is reverence coupled with an anxiety of how to perform the service properly.  This is called sambhrama.  This mood, combining with prema, becomes the sthayi bhava for this rasa. 5       This sthayi bhava arises gradually through the previously discusssed methods of practice for the  ashrita dasas.  For the parisads and anuga dasas, this rati is stimulated  by previous impressions.  These remembrances are awakened by hearing about or seeing the Lord.   In dasya rasa, prema, sneha, and raga are also seen.6 


The rasas are progressively superior, attractive and amazing.  If the sadhaka has greed, then he develops qualification for these rasas.   Whatever rasa the devotee develops an attraction for during practice  becomes his eternal  rasa.   Bhakti which possesses rasa is called ragatmika bhakti.    Raganuga bhakti which was dealt while describing sadhana bhakti  follows after this ragatmika bhakti.    The raganuga bhakta imitates the behavior and qualities of the perfected devotees in these rasas.   The devotee imitates  whichever rasa he accepts as his life and considers supreme.   He will attain that  form of life when he reaches perfection.    This is the limit of sambhrama priti.   


Thinking  of the Lord as superior due to  family relationship is called gaurava.  Gaurava priti is love  based on  understanding of the Lord as ones father.   As this has been discussed in Bhakti Rasamrta Sindhu,   nothing more need be said here.


Part Five

Sakhya rasa  Preya bhakti rasa


When sakhya sthayi bhava becomes nourished by  vibhavas, anubhavas, sattvika bhavas and sancari bhavas, it becomes sakhya rasa.   Krishna and his friends are the foundation of this  rasa.  Two-armed Krishna is the visaya.  He is well dressed, endowed with all good qualities,  skillful in various amazing languages,  strongly built, eloquent,  learned,  genius, skillful,  compassionate,  skillful at fighting, playful,  intelligent,  tolerant,  attractive to others, prosperous,  devoid of sorrow,  the best of the best.  Krishna's friends are all  similar to him  (in qualities, dress etc.),  unrestricted, and endowed with familiarity.    Some of the friends reside in the city and others in Vraja.  City friends are Arjuna, Bhimasena, Draupadi, Shridama brahmana.  Of these, Arjuna is the best.    The friends in Vraja become grief-stricken on not seeing Krishna even for a moment;  they always play with Krishna; and they take Krishna as their very life.   Thus they are considered the chief friends of Krishna.  


There are four types of friends who eternally serve Krishna in Vraja: suhrd, sakha, priya sakha and priya narma sakha.    Surhds have a  mixture of parental affection; they are slightly older than Krishna; they try to protect Krishna with their weapons from attacks  of the demons.   Subhadra, Mandalibhadra, Bhadravardhana, Gobhata, Yaksa, Indrabhata, Bhadranga, Mahaguna, Virabhadra, Vijaya and Balabhadra are some of the suhrds.  Those  who are younger than Krishna, whose mood is slightly mixed with dasya are called sakhas. Visala, Vrsabha, Ojasvi, Devaprastha, Varuthapa, Maranda, Kusumapida, Manibandha and Karandama are some of the sakhas.   Of these  Devaprastha is the best.   Shridama, Sudama, Dama, Vasudama, Kinkini, Stokakrnsa, Amsu, Bhadrasena,Vilasi, Pundarika, Vitanka and Kalavinka are amongst the priya sakhas  (equal in age with pure sakhya).  They please Krishna by playing and fighting (using hands and sticks).   The priya narma sakhas are the best of all, because of their strong confidential friendship with Krishna.  Subala, Arjuna, Gandharva, Vasanta and Ujjvala are their names.    Among them Subala and Ujjvala are  prominent.   Ujjvala is very skillful at joking. 


The friends  are divided  into three types; those who are nitya siddhas, those who are devatas and those who are sadhana siddhas.   Some of them are naturally sober and serve Krishna as ministers.  Others are frivolous and  comical. Others by their upright conduct bring pleasure to Krishna.   Others astonish Krishna by their crooked ways.   Some impudently argue with Krishna and others with sweet words please Krishna.  All the friends create  variegated  moods in the pastimes through their pure but sweet friendship with Krishna. 


The stimuli for sakhya rasa are Krishna's age, his form, his horn, his flute, his conch, his joking, his qualities such as prowess,  his dear followers,  and imitating the actions of  the king, the devatas and avataras.   The kaumara, pauganda and kaisora ages are all  present in sakhya rasa.  In Vraja,  kaumara, pauganda  and kaisora ages are seen;  in Mathura and Dvaraka only kaisora is seen.   The kaumara age is most suitable for  vatsalya (parental) rasa.  Pauganda is divided into  three parts, of which the middle is most suitable for sakhya. The beginning of kaisora age is most suitable for madhurya rasa.


The common anubhavas of this rasa are fist fighting,  ball games,  playing dice, carrying Krishna on their shoulders  pleasing Krishna by stick fighting, sleeping together on the same bed,  sitting with Krishna on a seat or swing ,  joking and playing in the water,  sing and dancing with Krishna.   The anubhavas of the suhrds are giving counsel on what to do and what not to do, to start beneficial activities, to proceed first in any activity.  The anubhavas of the sakhas are putting betel in Krishna's mouth, putting tilaka on Him, smearing his body with sandal wood, and drawing pictures on his face.   The priya sakhas'  anubhavas are being  defeated by Krishna,  stealing his clothing while dressing,  snatching flowers from him,  being decorated by Krishna,  and scuffling with him.   The anubhavas of the priya narma sakhas are to act as messengers for the gopis,  to introduce the gopis love to Krishna, to side with Krishna in the gopis presence,  and to side with the gopis in Krishna's presence, whispering privately.     All the different types of friends also help the servants (dasas) in decorating Krishna with forest flowers and jeweled ornaments, dancing and singing before him,  herding the cows, massaging His body, stringing garlands and fanning Krishna.  


All the sancari bhavas except  ferocity, apprehension, and laziness appear in sakhya rasa.   In separation,  all the rest of the  sancari bhavas except intoxication, joy, pride, sleep, fortitude appear. And in meeting all the rest of the sancari bhavas except death, fatigue, sickness, forgetfulness and humility appear.  Rati without reverence and with strong faith in Krishna is the sthayi bhava: strong faith without the obstacle of reverence is called visrambha (familiarity).   In sakhya rati there is an increase from pranaya, to prema, to sneha, and to raga.  When there is qualification  for sambhrama but it is not at all present the love is called pranaya.  In the pastimes on earth, in sakhya rasa there is also separation,  but actually Krishna is never separated from the inhabitants Vraja.


In this rasa there is an indescribable  emotion in the heart created by the fact that the  sweet love between Krishna and his devotee are of the same type, whereas  in dasya  rasa  and vatsalya rasa, Krishna and the devotee have different  emotions.   Thus the devotees  in sakhya rasa  (preya bhakti rasa) realize that this rasa is the  best  (preyan).


Part  Six

Vatsala bhakti rasa.


When  vatsalya rati is nourished by the vibhavas, anubhavas, sattvika bhavas and sancari bhavas it is called vatsala bhakti rasa.   Krishna and the elders are the foundation (alambana).     Krishna  (as visaya ) is dark in color, beautiful, having all good qualities, soft,  speaking cute words, kind, bashful, gentle,  respectful , and generous.   

As a son, Krishna does not manifest power and becomes the object of  care by his parents.   The asrayas are the  superiors to Krishna, those who rear and  teach Him.  Nanda, Yasoda, Rohini,  the mothers of the cowherd boys,  Devaki,  her co-wives,  Kunti, Vasudeva, and Sandipani Muni are Krishna's superiors.   Their order of superiority  starts from Nanda and Yasoda, who are the best.   The stimuli  are Krishna's age, form, cloth,  his naughtiness, his sweet words,  His smile and His playing.   The kaumara age is divided into three parts.   Krishna has a pearl in his nose, in his hand He is holding butter and around His waist He has small bells during the middle period. At the end of kaumara age His waist is somewhat thin, His chest is broad and  His head has black hair.  He herds the calves in the nearby woods, He plays with his friends,  He plays on His small flute and blows His horn at the end of the kaumara age. 


The general anubhavas are smelling Krishna's head in affection, rubbing His body, giving Him blessings, giving Him orders,  caring for Him (bathing him etc.), protecting Him,  and giving good instruction.  kissing, embracing, calling His name, arguing with friends are the general activities.   The eight sattvika bhavas and additionally, milk flowing from the breast, make nine  sattvika bhavas in vatsala bhakti rasa. .  The sancari bhavas are the same as for dasya rasa with the addition of forgetfulness. 


Showing loving compassion to a person  in need without reverence is called vatsala.   Vatsalya is the sthayi bhava.   The vatsalya rati of Yasoda and Nanda is by nature very deep.   Sometimes it is on the level of prema, sometimes on the level of sneha, and sometimes on the level of raga.  


Though there is the possibility of many symptoms of sancari bhava in separation from Krishna,  anxiety, lamentation, indifference, inertness, meagerness, fickleness, madness and illusion are seen.    Because it gives such  indescribable bliss,  learned men have designated  this rasa , in which the sthayi bhava is parental affection  and the object of affection is  their son, as the chief rasa.   Where  affectionate response from Krishna is  not apparent, prita (dasya) rasa is weakened,  and sakhya rasa disappears. However vatsalya rasa is not disturbed  in this condition.     This is the superiority of vatsalya rasa. 


The three wondrous rasas-dasya, sakhya and vatsala  - sometimes  mix together in one personality.  Baladeva has sakhya mixed with vatsalya.  Yudhisthira has vestal mixed with sakhya. Ahuka has dasya mixed with vatsalya.  The old abhiras have vatsalya mixed with sakhya.  Nakula, Sahadeva and Narada have sakhya mixed with dasya.  Siva, Garuda and Uddhava have dasya mixed with sakhya.   Aniruddha and other grandsons of Krishna also have mixed rasa.    Thus many devotees are seen to have mixed  states.    Those who are fixed in the three respective rasas understand their own rasa as supreme.  However madhura rasa  is the main rasa and by its help these three rasas operate. 

1 B.R.S. 3.2.3-7, 11-15

2 B..R.S.3.2

3 B.R.S.3.2.59

4 B.R.S.3.2.61

5 B.R.S.3.2.63, 59-71

6 B.R.S.3.2.76-78, 81, 87



Part Seven

Madhura bhakti rasa


Here a glorification of the madhura rasa will be given for the benefit of those qualified for this subject.   The next  paragraphs are taken from Jaiva Dharma's Thirty- first Chapter in which Vijaya and Guru Gopala Gosvami discuss these topics.  The qualified  readers,  considering these topics with  deep attention, may enter this rasa. 

Among the main rasas, madhura rasa is said to be the most difficult to understand.  There can be no doubt about the superiority of this rasa when  it is understood that all the qualities of santa, dasya,  sakhya and vatsalya rasas  are eternally present  within it, and whatever is excellence is lacking in them is perfectly existing in madhura rasa.   However, this rasa is not attractive to those persons cultivating liberation, because of the dryness in their hearts resulting from their sadhana.  It is difficult for the person attracted to material enjoyment as well  to appreciate  a process completely different from anything in the  material  world.   Since the madhura rasa of Vraja is completely different in quality from the  loving relationships in the material world it is not  quickly understood.  How is it that this  wondrous rasa is so similar to the material relation between man and woman?

One should understand  that all  material variety is but a reflection of the variety in the spiritual world1.  The material world is a  reflection of the spiritual world.   It is a  mysterious principle that the  reflected image takes on qualities opposite of the original.   What is supreme in the original becomes the lowest in the reflection.  What is lowest in the original becomes highest in the reflection.   This can be understood by looking at the reflection  of a body in the mirror:  the limbs of the body reverse their position in the mirror .    The supreme object, by the power of the inconceivable energy, becomes reflected in the shadow of this energy,  material existence.    This transformation is perfect, and thus the attributes of the supreme object are perceived in the opposite way in the material  world.    Thus the  most wonderful rasa of the supreme object takes on opposite qualities , becoming  the most abominable rasa in the material world.     The wonderful variety of joy in the supreme object constitute its rasa.  As this rasa  has its counterpart in the material world, the conditioned soul begins to speculate that the supreme must be without quality, without existence, since quality and variety belong to matter.  Taking shelter of material logic it is easy to reach this conclusion.  In reality however, the supreme object is endowed with the quality of rasa;  there are amazing varieties in the supreme object.   This variety is reflected in the material rasas.    Thus,  by observing the variety in the material rasas, one can infer the presence of spiritual rasa.  Whatever variety exists the spiritual rasas also exists in the material rasas.  


At the very bottom of the spiritual realm is the abode of Siva, the  brahman devoid of quality, endowed with santa rasa, the quality of peace.   Above that is  dasya rasa, in Vaikuntha.  Above that is  sakhya rasa in Goloka.   Above that is vatsalya rasa , which manifests  in the house of Nanda and Yasoda in Goloka.   On the top is the madhura rasa  which manifests in the places of pastimes of the gopis.  Madhura rasa by inversion becomes the lowest in the material realm.  Above that is parental affection, then friendship, and above that service.   On top is  peace, santa rasa.   Basing  their standards on the material  condition,  people conclude that  madhura rasa is low, shameful and sinful.   However, in the spiritual world this rasa is pure, spotless and filled with astounding, perfect, sweet bliss.    In the spiritual world, Krishna and  the exchanges between Krishna and the gopis, which are arranged  through  his various energies, are extremely pure, being the principle  of  existence.    The behavior reflected in the material world  is shameful for society. 


Actually it is not contrary to dharma that Krishna is the only enjoyer, the male, and  the inhabitants of the spiritual realm are the enjoyed  (female) elements in madhura rasa.   In the material world, of course, if one individual acts as the enjoyer and another  individual acts as the enjoyed, it is contrary to natural principles and is considered shameful or detestable, for one soul should not enjoy or exploit another soul.  All the souls are to be enjoyed and Krishna is the only enjoyer.   In other words, anything contrary to the eternal nature of the souls is necessarily  shameful and despicable.    Keeping in mind the example of the object and its reflection, there must be a very good resemblance between the relations of man and woman in the material world and the spotless pastimes of Krishna and the gopis.  However, one is very low and the other is  most  excellent.


Such an explanation has made my faith very strong.  All my doubts are finished.  I have been able to understand the condition of the madhura rasa of the spiritual world.   The wonderful experience of bliss is as sweet as the very sound of the word madhura.   Those who derive bliss from santa rasa while there is madhura rasa  must be very unfortunate.  I am very eager to understand the foundation of this rasa.

Readers, please understand the spiritual beauty of madhura rasa as Vijaya Kumara did, and have deep faith.   By listening to the Vraja pastimes with such faith, this madhura rasa will manifest in you as well.

Krishna is the visaya and the gopis, beloved of Krishna, are the asraya.2   This Krishna is the color of a new monsoon cloud, pleasant, sweet, endowed with all good qualities, strongly built, adolescent, a good speaker, powerful,  pleasing to hear, intelligent,  genius,  mild, witty, crafty,  happy, grateful, skillful, controlled by love, grave, excellent, glorious,  attractive to women, eternally fresh,  performer of wonderful activities,  most dear, and player of the flute.  All the qualities of  cupid are defeated by a glimmer from His foot.  His side-long glance bewitches  the hearts of all.  He is the ocean of wonderful pastimes for young women.   Krishna, with  transcendental qualities and form, is the only hero, the only object of love.   This Krishna will become visible in the  heart purified by devotion.   

What is the difference between pure sattva and mixed sattva?  Whatever exits  has existence, satta.  An object that has location, form, quality and action is called sattva.  Such an object, when it  has no beginning (anadi), no end (ananta), existing ever the same,  independent of the past and present divisions of time, and full of  excellent qualities  is called  suddha sattva.   It is manifested from the pure cit sakti of the Lord.   The shadow energy of the cit sakti,  the material energy, is subject to the  transformations of past and future time.  Anything existing (sattva) which is dependent on this material energy  has a beginning and, under the influence of passion and ignorance,  has an end.  This type of existence is called mixed sattva.   The pure soul  is suddha sattva.3  His form, qualities and activities  are also suddha sattva.  The conditioned soul is mixed with passion and ignorance. 

How does the soul heart become transformed  by suddha sattva?  As long as the soul remains in the material world,  the pure, suddha sattva condition does not arise.   The soul attains his own identity when the transformation takes place.    This cannot result from performance of pious activities or cultivation of knowledge.   Dirt cannot be removed from the body by scrubbing it with more dirt.   Material action is the dirt, so how can it clean the soul?   Negative knowledge, like fire, when applied to the dirt, annihilates even the object it  is supposed to clean.   How can that give happiness?   Only bhakti, created by the mercy of guru, Krishna, and the devotees, can  produce this state of suddha sattva.  This suddha sattva state makes the heart bright.  

Now, how many types of hero are there?   Krishna reveals himself as four types of hero: dhirodatta, dhira lalita, dhira santa and dhiroddhata.  Sometimes he acts as pati and sometimes as upapati.4   What  are pati  (married lover) and upapati  (unmarried lover)?    It is a very great secret; it is a secret jewel in the spiritual world.  Parakiya rasa is the kaustubha jewel  amongst all the jewels.  By taking up a conception of the Lord as formless and  devoid of quality, no rasa results.  The Vedic statement  'raso'vai sah' becomes meaningless.  By extreme negation of bliss, such nirvisesa conception becomes  devoid of  excellence.  When  a personal conception arises, then rasa also arises.   Rasa should be regarded as the essence. A slightly personal conception endowed with majesty is superior to  the impersonal  conception.   But the clear conception of the Lord as master in dasya rasa is superior to santa rasa.   Sakhya rasa is superior to that.    Vatsalya is even better.  And madhura rasa is the best.    In the same manner of succeeding excellence, parakiya madhura rasa is superior to svakiya madhura rasa.  


Self and other are two principles.  From establishing the sense of self arises self-enjoyment. This is an eternal quality in Krishna;  the quality of  giving enjoyment  to the other in pastimes is also eternal in Krishna. It is natural for the Supreme Lord  to be capable of  harmonize all conflicting qualities.5   On one side is Krishna's  self-enjoyment expressed in svakiya rasa, and on the other side is the giving enjoyment  to others in  the supreme form of parakiya rasa.  When the lover and beloved meet through attraction, being extremely bent on giving pleasure to the other party, this parakiya rasa arises.    If the rasa moves towards self-enjoyment, then rasa dries up.   If it moves towards giving enjoyment to the other, then the rasa increases.  


Where Krishna is the only master, parakiya cannot become the object of  criticism.   When an ordinary person takes the role of the enjoyer, then immediately there is consideration of right and wrong, and parakiya becomes despicable.   Relations between a man and a woman married to someone else is considered  very low class.   Rupa Gosvami says that the low position given to the unmarried lover as hero in literary criticism, is reserved for the material hero,  not in relation to Krishna, who is beyond material  consideration, and acts as He does  to taste the essence of rasa.    The person who marries a woman is called pati, or husband.6  The person who transgresses the rules of dharma  and marriage etiquette due to strong attraction  in order  to obtain a married woman ,  and in whom that love becomes the principle of his life, is called upapati.7    The women who ignores   conventional dharma and marriage rules and offers herself to some man is called parakiya.   She may be either married or unmarried.8   The woman who  accepts a husband by marriage rites, who is eager to follow her husbands orders and  is faithful to fulfilling her duties as a wife  is called svakiya.  Krishna's lovers in Dvaraka  are all svakiya.   His lovers in Vraja are  all parakiya.


(Excerpts have been taken from the conversation between Vijaya and Gopala Guru.  Here the excerpts end. )

The condition of the transcendental pastimes of  the svakiya and parakiya  women with Krishna will now be described.  These pastimes are eternal in Goloka.  Just as there are daily pastimes in the earthly Vraja, so there are also daily pastimes in Goloka.  Whoever is in the spiritual world can see the pastimes there since they have spiritual eyes to see.   Those same pastimes occur on the earth, but  those who observe with eyes covered with material  qualities  can  see only things influenced by maya.    They  see the eternal parakiya of the spiritual world as material dealings.   Krishna's pastimes have no material low qualities, but  material senses must see only material low qualities.   Krishna showed this truth to the gopas who appeared with him in the material world.9  There is no fault or shame in the parakiya pastimes of the gopis because material condemnation  of  such women  cannot apply in this case.   The parakiya rasa which the gopis, eternal energies of the Lord,  taste in Goloka  is most praiseworthy.   Is there any fault in the fact that Krishna, in order to bring the taste of rasa to the material world, also brings the gopis from Goloka?   Krishna is not a material hero, and the pastimes are only for the benefit of the souls in this world. If they cannot see these pastimes, how can they  taste that excellent madhura rasa and become fit to attain the highest rasa?   It is necessary that the devotee becomes a gopi  to experience  this madhura rasa.  To attempt to become Krishna and enjoy the rasa will end in disaster.    Cheating  pretenders commit this offense.10


Amongst millions  of liberated souls,  to find a devotee of the Lord is very rare.    Even the devotee  interested in the majestic aspect of the Lord cannot see Goloka.    They attain service to the majestic form of the Lord in Vaikuntha, after getting liberation.  Amongst those who  worship Krishna  in the rasa of Vraja, only  those to whom Krsan bestows mercy    are able to see Goloka.    By the mercy of Krishna the vastu siddha bhakta  is brought to Goloka.   Those who  are svarupa siddhas remain in this world with the identity of a gopi.   Those who are covered by the mode of ignorance, see only the material world, even when performing their worship.   Those covered by the mode of passion can see a little better.   Those devotees in sattva mode  realize a reflection of  Goloka when they see the earthy Gokula.  The devotees beyond the modes of  nature very quickly  obtain a body of a gopi in Goloka, the spiritual world, by the mercy of Krishna.   Goloka becomes realized to the extent of the removal of maya.    Yasoda's giving birth, Krishna's birth in the prison, the marriage of  eternal gopis with  Abhimanyu and others which gives rise to the mood of parakiya appear to be very material in the earthly  Vraja.  But these events all occur by the influence of yoga maya with specific spiritual intentions behind them.  They are not false, but are the perfect replica of Goloka.  But they appear material in Vraja due to the material vision of  the seer.   In Goloka those same events are eternally present in the form of  beliefs, which nourish the rasas.  Those who are aspirants for service of the eightfold pastimes by taking the form of  gopis must take support of earthly Vraja.   According to the amount of mercy from Krishna, they obtain purity in their service.  


Will Vraja pastimes continue during the final devastation?   At that time all the pastimes remain in Goloka.   Through practice  during eight times of the day, a person realizes the eternal nature of  the daily pastimes of Krishna.  During the duration of universes, the Vraja pastimes rotate from one universe to another. At the time of final devastation, the pastimes remain in Goloka.   Though Krishna may disappear from the earth,  Vraja and Mathura do not disappear, but remain for the benefit of the devotees performing sadhana.    


Krishna is the only lover.  He is perfect in  Dvaraka, more perfect in Mathura and most perfect in Vraja.  As he takes the forms of pati and upapati in the three places, he takes on six forms.   Considering the four types starting with dhirodatta,  he then appears in twenty-four forms.   Considering his  nature as anukula (favorable), daksina (expert), satha (deceitful) and dhrstha (impertinent),  his forms become multiplied by four, so the total is ninety six.  There are twenty four forms in svakiya rasa and twenty four forms in parakiya rasa.  The twenty four forms of parakiya in Vraja  are eternal.11

There are five types of assistants to the lover; attendants (ceta), companions (vita), buffoons (vidhusaka), masseurs (pitha mardakas) and dearest friends (priya narma sakhas).12  They are all skillful at speaking pleasant words, they have deep attachment, they are good judges of time and circumstance,  they are skillful at pleasing the gopis and  giving  good advice.     The attendants  such as Bhangura and  Bhrngara are skillful at searching,  carrying out secret work,  and very smart.   Krishna's  companions  such as Kadara and Bharatibandha are sly, skillful at dressing, at conversation,  and at bringing others under their control.  The buffoons, such as Madhumangala and Vasanta among the gopas, are  fond of  eating,  fond of arguing, fond of  gesturing,  skillful with words,   and  they dress in a comical way. The pita mardakas such as Shridama, though having qualities similar to Krishna, serve Him obediently.  The most confidential of friends, Arjuna and Subala, priya narma sakhis, understand the mood of the gopis and know their most intimate secrets. The assistants are in dasya rasa.  The masseurs are in vira rasa  and the others are in sakhya rasa.  The assistants are servants, and the other four types are friends. 

The female messengers are  also assistants to the hero; they are of two types: svayam duti (natural) and apta duti (appointed).   Glances and the sound of the flute are the natural messengers; Vira, who is skillful at speaking and Vrnda, expert at flattery, are the apta dutis. Regular messengers are Lingini, Daivajna and Silpakarini.

The gopis are the asraya.   They are either svakiya or parakiya.  Svakiya is not very evident in  Vraja, but parakiya is very evident there.   Most of  the gopis are in parakiya rasa because madhura rasa does not display its splendor otherwise.   The rasa of  Krishna's wives in Dvaraka is restricted.   Rasa established through desire alone is unrestricted, and gives more pleasure to Krishna.   Siva, knowledgeable of this rasa , has said that the beauty of a woman and difficulty of attaining her due to the obstacles which must be removed, are the strongest weapons of cupid.  Vishnugupta has said the same.   When the married women of Vraja desire to give enjoyment to Krishna,  their love become decorated with all good qualities and  a splendor which defeats all else.  The sweetness of rasa does not increase to this extent with Laksmi and other energies. 


There are three types of gopis: sadhanapara, devi and nityapriya.   Sadhana priya gopis (those who attained their position by sadhana) are of two types: yautika and ayautika.    The munis and the Upanisads, who are attached to a group or yuta are called yautiki.   Those munis who were worshippers of Krishna but could not attain their desire d on seeing Rama's beauty became inspired to attain the status of gopis, finally attained birth as gopis in Vraja through their sadhana.  The Upanisads also by sadhana attained birth as gopis.  

The female inhabitants of  svarga who took birth in Vraja to serve Krishna  by the order of Brahma, and the female he demigods who served Krishna when he appeared  in the heavenly planets  as  partial incarnation,  are called devi.   They are counted among Radha's prana sakhis.   Gayatri, mother of the Vedas,  took birth as a gopi in the form of Kama  gayatri to take Krishna's association.  

Everything created in Vraja on earth by the Lord's energy is without fault, as it is not made of material energy, but is the creation of the Lord's yogamaya spiritual energy.  Thus the nitya siddhas, coming from the spiritual world,  are not contaminated.  Along with the nitya siddhas, the Upanisads, Gayatri and the female inhabitants of svarga in gopi forms all served Krishna in parakiya  mood.   Among the nitya siddhas, Radha and Candravali are the chief gopis.   All the gopis, like Krishna, are endowed with qualities like beauty and pleasing speech.  These gopis appear as individualized portions of the hladini sakti when the bliss portion of the Lord  agitates the cit  portion.13 , ,  Krishna performs his eternal pastimes in Goloka with those gopis endowed with the sixty four arts produced from his own form.  Some of the gopis mentioned in the Skanda Purana and Prahlada Samhita as well as other scriptures are Radha, Candravali, Visakha, Lalita, Syama, Padma, Saivya, Bhadrika, Tara, Vicitra, Gopali, Dhanishta, and Pali.14  Candravali is also called Somabha.  Radha is also called Gandharva.  Khanjanaksi, Manorama, Mangala, Vimala, Lila, Krishna, Sari, Visarada, Taravali, Cakoraksi, Sankari and Kumkuma  are also well known.    These are leaders of groups (yuthesvari).   There are hundreds of groups.   The total  number of gopis in all the groups is  hundreds of thousands.  Visakha, Lalita, Padma and Saibya are famous as being especially  excellent.    Among the leaders of the groups, Radha and the   eight principal gopis are chief, being equipped with all suspiciousness.   Though Visakha, Lalita, Padma and Saibya are qualified as group  leaders, being absorbed in the mood of bliss of Radha.    Visakha and Lalita become the  obedient companions of Radha and Padma and Saibya  become obedient to Candravali.  Among all the leaders, Radha is supreme.    Many of the gopis in her group are followers of Lalita.   Some are followers of Visakha.  by great fortune a soul can gain entrance to Lalita's group.  


Between Radha and Candravali, Radha is the very form of mahabhava,  being most excellent in all qualities.   The glory of Radha Madhava is celebrated in the Gopala Tapani Upanisad and the Rk Parisistha.  Radha is the essence of the hladini sakti, the epitome of love, splendid with sixteen types of  decoration and twelve types of ornaments.  But she is so beautiful that she does not need decoration or ornament. She has well curled hair, shining face, long eyes, splendid breasts, thin waist, well formed shoulders, and jewel like fingernails.   There is no such combination of wonderful qualities in the three worlds.   The sixteen beauties of her body are  her bath, the sparkle of the jewel in her nose, her blue dress, her sash, her earrings,  her braid,  the sandalwood on her body, the flowers in her hair,  garland around her throat,  a lotus in her hand, betel in her mouth,  kasturi on her chin, kajal on her eyes,  colored cheeks,  lac on her feet, and tilaka on her forehead.   The twelve ornaments that beautify her are the jewel in her hair, the silver earrings,  the belt on her hips,  the gold locket around her neck,  the gold pin in her ear, the bracelets on her wrists, throat ornaments, rings on her  fingers,  necklace around her neck, armbands, jeweled anklets and rings on her toes.    Like Krishna she is endowed with unlimited good qualities.   Fifteen qualities are prominent.


She is sweet in appearance, adolescent,  fickle in glance, bliss-giving smile,  with auspicious marks on the hands and feet,  a fragrance that  drives Krishna mad,  knowledgeable of music, sweet speech,  skillful at joking, obedient, compassionate, witty,  efficient,  bashful,  respectful, patient, grave, playful, shows symptoms of mahabhava,  the residence of love in Gokula,  whose fame is spread through unlimited universes,  object of affection for elders, dependent on the love of her friends, most dear to Krishna,  makes Krishna  obedient to her orders.  

The Varaha samhita, Jyotisa sastram,  Kasi Khanda  and Matysa  and Garuda Puranas described the auspicious marks. 

Left  foot

barley corn at the base of the big toe

cakra on the mount,

lotus on the mount of the middle toe,

flagstaff on the mount of the third  toe,  flag ,

an upward line on the middle foot,  

goad on the mount of the little toe. 


On the right foot

conch at the base of the big toe,

fish on the heel

altar on the mount of the little toe,  

a ratha above the fish, 

hill, circle, club and trident 



Left hand

line staring below the index finger and extending to the little finger

line below this running parallel  to the space  between the index and thumb

a line from the wrist to the space between the index finger and thumb

cakras on the five fingers in a special form called nandyavarta

elephant  below the ring finger

horse below the heart line

bull below the  head line

ankusa below the little finger

fan, tree, post, arrow, club,  garland


right hand:

same three lines

five conches on the tips of the fingers

camara below the index finger

ankusa below the little finger

palace, drum, thunder bolt  cart, bow,  sword, vase


Seven marks on the left foot, eight marks on the right foot, eighteen marks on the left hand and seventeen marks on the right hand make fifty auspicious marks. 

The individual souls have all these qualities in a very small degree.  The devatas have  these qualities to slightly greater degree.   Radha has all the qualities in full,  all being spiritual as well.   Gauri and others do not have these qualities  with the same purity or fullness.    Radha is the zenith of all wonderful qualities.


 Radha's group is supreme.   All the members of her group are full of all good qualities,  and  all their gestures  attract  Madhava.  Radha has five types of companions  (sakhis): sakhi, nitya sakhi, prana sakhi, priya sakhi and parama prestha sakhi.15     The famous sakhis are Kusumika, Vrnda, Dhanistha..  Kasturi and Manimanjuli are nitya sakhis.    Prana sakhis like Sasimukhi, Vasanti, and  Lasika,  almost have the same appearance as  Radha.   Kurangaksi, Sumadhya, Madanalasa, Kamala, Madhuri, Manjukesi, Kandarpasundari, Madhavi, Malati, Kamalata, Sasikala are priya sakhis.   The eight major sakhis, the parama prestha sakhis are Lalita, Visakha, Citra, Campakalata, Tungavidya, Indurekha, Rangadevi, and Sudevi.     At certain times, for the perfection of love or Radha and Krishna , they show more love for Krishna and at  other times they show more love for Radha.    There are also internal divisions  (gana) in each group (yutha) of sakhis.  


In Vraja pastimes there is no place for the insignificant laws of marriage  which are characteristic of the material world.   There is not place for criticism of the parakiya  of the gopis as material parakiya since  Krishna   brings his spiritual parakiya rasa to  Gokula in the material world.      The gopis  have the most intense love for Krishna, and for Krishna alone.    The ocean of  intense emotions that appear due to their attachment for Krishna  is such that not only the non-devotees, but even the vaidha bhaktas,  cannot understand.  Even Krishna could not maintain his four-armed form in the presence of the gopis' intense love.


The heroine  is of three types: svakiya, parakiya and samanya.    The svakiya and parakiya  lovers of Krishna have already been discussed.   Samanya or common  lover is defined by the material scholars as a prostitute, who has only selfish interest at heart.   She does not show dislike of a  hero lacking  good qualities, nor does she show any attraction for a lover endowed with good qualities..  The love of such a  woman is actually   defective  conjugal love.    Though Kubja 's  relation was of this type (samanaya),   her love  may be classed as a low form of parakiya  because of  small amount of attraction for Krishna.   On seeing Krishna's form she desired to put sandalwood on his body.  But her attraction or rati was inferior to that of the queens of Dvaraka.    The svakiya and parakiya types are divided into three types each:  mugdha, madhya  and pragalbha.   Taking all the varieties of  Krishna's lovers together, there are fifteen types.

There are eight conditions of the fifteen types of gopis: abhisarika, vasakasajja, utkanthita, khandita, vipraladbha,  kalahantarita, prositabhartrka and svadhinabhartrka.    When a gopi under the spell of love for Krishna cannot give him up for a moment, svadhinabhartrka  is called madhavi.  When the gopis fall under the condition of svadhinabhatrka, vasakasajja and abhisarika,  they decorate themselves with ornaments.    Under the conditions of khandita, vipralabdha, utkanthita, prositabhatrka and kalahantakarita the gopis  leave their ornaments aside and placing their left hand on their cheek, they lament and grieve.  In love of Krishna, such grief is part of the wonderful variety found in the highest spiritual bliss.     According to the degree of intensity of love, the gopis are also classed as superior, medium and  ordinary.  According to the intensity of the love of the gopis, Krishna responds with similar intensity.   The superior gopi will give up all activity in order to create a moment's happiness for Krishna.    At  hearing about the suffering of Krishna, such a gopi's heart will break. The medium gopi, on hearing of Krishna's suffering will become somewhat moved.   The ordinary gopi  fears  some obstacle in meeting Krishna.


The total variety of lovers is three hundred and sixty.   The fifteen types multiplied by the eight conditions becomes one hundred and twenty.  When this is multiplied by the three grades of gopis it becomes three hundred and sixty. These are the various emotional moods of the gopis serving Krishna.

The behavior of the leaders of the groups  may be classified as svapaksa  (congenial), vipaksa (antagonistic) and tatastha (neutral).   To help out the gopis who are thirsting for sight of Krishna, there are two types of match makers.   The svayam duti   expresses the love directly  to Krishna..  Accusations against Krishna may be through bodily gesture, voice or glances.   Mockery is the vocal effort, using direct words and indirect meanings.   The mockery is made directly or indirectly to Krishna.   The request  is either representing  one self or representing another gopi.  


Those who are faithful, eloquent and affectionate are called apta duti. The apta dutis are of three types: amitartha, nisrstartha and patrahari. Artists, fortune tellers,  renunciates, servants, nurses,  the presiding deity of the forest and sakhis are  counted among the dutis.   The artists by pictures and the fortune tellers by interpreting astrological charts  bring about meetings of Krishna and a certain gopi.  Paurnamasi, wearing the dress of a mendicant, is an example of a lingini duti.  Lavanga Manjari and Bhanumati,  paricarika dutis, also become dhatreyi dutis of Radha.    Vanadevi is the presiding deity of Vrndavana.  The sakhis use direct and indirect mockery  and all types of suggestions, praise and indifference .  If Krishna makes a proposal to them when they are alone, they refuse.    


The sakhis have sixteen types of service, which they perform with utmost attention.

1.       They  praise the  Krishna and the beloved in front of each other.

2.       They increase the  mutual attachment of the Krishna and beloved.

3.       They decorate Krishna and beloved.

4.       They offer the beloved to Krishna.

5.       They joke.

6.       They give consolation.

7.       They prepare their costumes for meeting.

8        They express the love of one for the other.

9.       They hide the faults of Krishna and the beloved.

10.     They help to deceive the husband of the gopi.

11.     They give instruction so that Krishna can meet the gopi at the right time.  .

12.     They fan and wave camara.

13.     They criticize Krishna at certain times.

14.     They criticize the gopi at certain times.

15.     They  send messages.

16.     They  protect the life of the beloved gopi.


Those sakhis who bear equal love for Radha and Krishna but are loyal adherents of Radha are considered the best.   They are called the priya sakhis and parama prestha sakhis.  The sakhis are classified as   belonging to the same party,  to a friendly party, to a neutral party  or to an antagonistic party.  This nourishes the rasa.   The pride and hatred that is manifest in relation to the antagonistic party is for the intensification of rasa.   They  are all parts of the indivisible love of Krishna and the gopis.   These topics are more elaborately described in Ujjvala Nilamani and Jaiva Dharma.  By consulting those books the qualified person can realize  their nature.  For fear of  offense by unqualified persons  nothing more will be said here. 


The stimuli or uddipanas for madhura rasa are the qualities, names, character, decorations, related objects and neutral objects  of Krishna and the gopis.    The qualities may be mental, vocal or bodily.   The anubhavas of this rasa are  called alankara  (ornaments), udbhasvara, and vacika (vocal).   Alankaras are of twenty types, such as  bhava and hava.   When the emotion of the heart appears in the body, it is called udbhasvara.  There are twenty types of vacika anubhava, such as alapa and vilapa.  The eight sattvika bhavas  are also present in this rasa.  All the sancari bhavas except for ferocity and laziness  are present.


Madhura rati is the sthayi bhava of this rasa.   This rati arises through things related to  accusation,  pride,  analogy, special  items of Krishna, and nature.    That madhura rati which arises from nature is the best.  That quality which reveals itself without waiting  for any other cause is called  the nature of an individual.   That nature may be either  nisarga or svarupa.   A nature which results due to determined practice over many births , due to hearing  about the qualities and form of the Lord is called nisarga.  That nature which is without origin or cause,  being innate is called svarupa.   It may  be directed towards Krishna,  towards certain gopis, or towards both.     The rati for Krishna displayed by the eternal gopis svarupa, whereas the rati of those who have attained perfection in their  present bodies due to practice is  nisarga.   The rati of the  practitioner  is aroused due to accusation, pride, analogy etc.  After the devotee attains nisarga rati, he can then attain  svarupa  rati of the gopis. 


There are three varieties of rati: sadharani (ordinary), samanjasa (consistent) and samartha (powerful).  The rati of the gopis of Gokula is samartha.     The rati of the queens in Dvaraka is samanjasa.  Kubja's rati is sadharani.   Rati becomes samartha when it has the  power to overcomes everything else.   It is endowed with  the power to forget everything else.   When it becomes firm enough to withstand  all contrary moods, it becomes prema.   When prema gradually reveals its sweetness is takes the forms of sneha, mana, pranaya, raga, anuraga and  bhava.  Just as sugar cane becomes juice, unrefined sugar, coarse sugar,  granulated  sugar and  refined sugar, the one element of love for Krishna passes through many stages: rati, prema sneha mana, pranaya, raga, anuraga and bhava.  Bhava here denotes mahabhava.  Krishna responds with the same type of love that the devotee possesses.  In madhura rasa, prema denotes such strong attraction between Krishna and the gopi that  it endures even if  there appears  to be cause for breaking the relationship.   Prema itself has three levels: praudha (deep), madhya (medium) and manda (inferior).


When prema achieves the quality of illuminating the  consciousness  and melts the heart, it is called sneha.  It has two varieties: ghrta sneha and madhu sneha.   That sneha which is extremely dignified is called ghrta sneha.   That sneha which is extremely possessive it is called madhu sneha.  Rati has two types :  I am his and he is mine.  Madhu sneha has the form of "He is mine".  Radha has such rati.   When  sneha begins to show duplicity it becomes mana.    Mana  has two forms: udatta and lalita.   When mana  becomes confidential with constant regard for Krishna it is called pranaya.    Sometimes   pranaya arises directly from sneha and then proceeds to mana.  In other cases,  sneha leads to  mana and then pranaya.   When extreme sorrow and joy become experienced in pranaya, it becomes raga.   It has two types: nilima and raktima. 


In sthayi bhava there are thirty-three sancari bhavas and  seven secondary svabhavas (humor etc.)  totaling  forty one.   Raga which gives newer and newer  attraction to the object of love  through newer mixtures of the forty-one bhavas is called anuraga.  In this state,  when  the lover becomes subjugated by the partner,  prema takes on immense varieties, and gives rise to the desire to take birth as a nonsentient object.   When pangs of separation from  Krishna give rise to Krishna's appearance,  anuraga becomes advanced.  Separation is part of the variety in spiritual love.   When anuraga reaches the stages of yavadasraya,  and samvedya, it is called mahabhava.  The ultimate amount of anuraga is   reached in Radha as asraya and as Krishna as visaya.    The sthayi bhava as anuraga,  when it reaches its maximum, is called yavad asraya vritti.   In the state of vedya (union),   when the asraya and visaya become combined in such a way that they think they are one rather than two, the sattvika bhavas become even more intense.   This is called mahabhava.


In svakiya rasas  mahabhava is very  rare, but it is intrinsic to the gopis of Vraja.  Mahabhava has two states; rudha and adhirudha.   Inability to tolerant the passing of a second,  agitation of the heart at the approach of anyone,  time passing quickly,  forgetting even the self  in the absence of  Krishna,  feeling one moment as a kalpa_these are some of the symptoms or anubhavas in meeting and separation .

There are two types of adhirudha: mohana and madana.   From mohana comes  spiritual insanity, in which state the person has symptoms of udghurna and citrajalpa.   These states arise in separation from Krishna. There are ten types of citrajalpa: prajalpa, parijalpa, vijalpa, ujjalpa, samjalpa,  avajalpa, abhijalpa ,ajalpa, pratijalpa and sujalpa.   When prema, the essence of  the hladini sakti, becomes bright with the appearance of all  ecstatic symptoms,   it reaches its highest state, madana.   This madana is residing in Radha eternally. 

Krsan is rasa.  He has unlimited knowledge and unlimited powers.  For him nothing is impossible to accomplish.  By his inconceivable  power which reconciles contrary elements,  he is eternally one rasa and many rasas.   As one rasa he enjoys  by encompassing everything as his own.  In that state, nothing has separate existence as rasa other than himself.   But he is simultaneously many  rasas.   Thus other than his personal rasa, there is rasa  of others  and  the combination of his rasa and others' rasas.  Experience of these last  two produces the bliss of the pastimes.  Rasa for the pleasure  others reaches its climax in parakiya rasa.   In Vrndavana this reaches its fully blossomed state.  Parakiya,  combined with enjoyment of his own rasa,  reaches  the final stage of madana, which yields the highest form of bliss.  This exists  in its pure form in Goloka, and  descends to Vraja in the material world, where it may be perceived as material by the material eye.


Devotees aspiring for prema,  you have by practicing vaidha bhakti attained love of God and surpassed the fourteen levels of material existence.  Above the fourteen worlds  exists the subtle realm of Hara dhama, the abode of Lord Siva.  Leave the four levels of  this existence and proceed higher.    Pierce through the two levels of visuddha sattva (Brahman and Vaikuntha)   in the form of the Viraja and approach the border of Goloka Vrndavana.  In Goloka there are five levels of personal experience. :santa, dasya, sakhya, vatsalya and madhura.  coming to the level of madhura,  take up a spiritual body of a gopi and enter the group of Radha as a follower of Lalita.  by the mercy of Rupa Manjari.  Raise  the sthayi bhava  to rasa  by mixing it with  vibhava anubhava, sattvika bhavas and sancari bhavas.   Being  experienced in rasa and attached to the Name, and having earned the treasure of prema  to the level of mahabhava, you will have  reached perfection.   Attain the highest stage by  deciding your present qualification, practicing yukta vairagya and constantly chanting the name.  I have not  supplied many scriptural references in the discussion of madhura rasa, because  those who are qualified will find all of this in Ujjvala Nilamani and Jaiva Dharma.  After understanding the topic of rasa and taking support of  the activity, service and mood suitable to the self,  the devotee should enter the meditation on the eightfold pastimes.   Then very easily he will attain vastu siddhi. By practicing yukta vairagya the devotee can easily  remain a paramahamsa till the end of his material life.


People who have strong attraction for gross material pleasure and cannot understand these topics should not read, think of or discuss these topics of rasa, because they will  think that these are all material activities and criticize them.  If they do appreciate them at all, they will become degraded as sahajiyas..    

Jayadeva Goswami has written in Gita Govinda:

                   If the mind  absorbed in rasa is fixed in remembrance of the Lord,  and if the person is desirous of hearing about the highest pastimes of the Lord,  please listen to the sweet love songs of Jayadeva.


The Bhagavatam says:

                   One who is not a great controller should never imitate the behavior of ruling personalities, even mentally.  If out of foolishness an ordinary person does imitate such behavior, he will simply destroy himself, just as a person who is not Rudra would destroy himself if he tried to drink an ocean of poison.   

                                                                   S.B.  10.33.30

Mahaprabhu has instructed  that  the devotee should listen carefully to the pastimes of the Lord described in the Bhagavatam.  By this, the supreme rasa will manifest.  The last verse of the four essential verses of Bhagavatam says:

                   A person who is searching after the Supreme Absolute Truth, the Personality of Godhead, must certainly search for it up to this, in all circumstances, in all space and time, and both directly and indirectly.



The highest knowledge is prema.  This is revealed in two ways in the activities  of Krishna.  Directly it is obtained  through the daily pastimes,  eight fold pastimes.  Indirectly it is obtained  through the pastimes of killing the demons, from the killing of Putana to the killing of Kamsa.   These pastimes exist symbolically in Vraja and only as  impressions in Goloka.   Actually they are not found there, and cannot exist there.  Reading  the indirect pastimes, the devotee can purify himself; being purified, he can taste the direct pastimes and  perceive Goloka.  If the aspirant for prema very carefully cultivates in this way he will understand all these matters. 

                   Expert and thoughtful men relish Shrimad Bhagavatam, the mature fruit of the desire tree of Vedic literatures.  It emanated from the lips of Shri Sukadeva Gosvami.  Therefore this fruit has become even more tasteful, although its nectarean juice was already relishable for all, including liberated souls.  


\As long as it is necessary to cultivate indirectly  for purification, the devotee cannot absorb himself in rasa.  When the indirect cultivation bears fruit, the pure rasa of Goloka will manifest.  At that time he should cultivate both direct and indirect pastimes.  Hearing the daily pastimes  the devotee will taste rasa and hearing the indirect pastimes he will be able to destroy the obstacles to tasting the rasa.  As a result,   the material gunas will disappear and the devotee will easily be able to see  and attain Goloka.     .


1  syamacchabalam prapadye sabalaccyamam prapadye

asva iva romani vidhuyam papa candra iva rahor mukhat pramuchya dhutva sariram akrtam  krtatma brahma lokam abhisambhavamity abhisambahvamiti

I attain the variegated world  leaving the world of the Lord..  I attain the world of the Lord leaving the world of variety. Having fulfilled  all duties, I attain the eternal spiritual world , shaking off the body, just as the moon frees itself from the mouth of Rahu and shaking off sin as the horse shakes his hair.  

Chandogya Upanisad 8

Just as there is a sky in this external world, there is a similar sky in the midst of the heart.  In that sky, there is heaven and earth, fire and air, sun and moon, lightening and stars.  Whatever is in this external world and even what is lacking here is existent in that spiritual place.  ...This Brahmapura is indestructible and is the abode of complete satisfastion.   Chandogya upanisad 8.1.3

2 Ujjvala Nilamani  1.4

3 I am always engaged in offering obeisances to Lord Vasudeva in pure Krishna consciousness,. Krishnas consciousness is always pure consciousness, in which the Supreme Personality of Godhead, known as Vasudeva is revealed without any covering.   S.B.4.3.23

4 U.N.1.10,    B.R.S.2.1.226, 233,236.

5  Expanding himself as many times as there were cowherd women to associate with, the Supreme Lord, though self-satisfied, playfully enjoyed their company.   S..B.120.33.19

6 U.N. 1.11

7 U.N. 1.19, 19, 21

8 U.N. 3.19

9 Thus deeply considering the situation, the all-merciful Supreme Personality of Godhead Hari revealed to the cowherd men His abode, which is beyond material darkness. Lord Krishna, revealed the indestructible spiritual effulgence, which is unlimited, conscious and eternal.  Sages see that spiritual existence in trance, when their consciousness is free of the modes of material nature.  S.B.10.28.14-15

10  When the Lord assumes a humanlike body to show mercy to His devotees, He engages in such pastimes as will attract those who hear about them to become dedicated to Him.     S..B.10.33.38

The gopis of Vrndavana have given up the association oif their husbands, sons and other family members, who are very difficult to gei up, and they have forsaken the path of chastity to take shelter of the lotus feet of Mukunda, Krishna, which one should search for by Vedic knowledge.  Oh, let me be fortunate enough to be one of the bushes, creepers or herbs in Vrndavana, because the gopis trample them and bless them with the dust of their lotus feet.   S.B.10.47.61


11 U.N.1.23

12 U.N.1.42-43,  2.1-2, 2.16

13 I worship Govinda, the Primeval Lord, residing in His own realm, Goloka, with Radha, resembling His own spiritual frgure, the embodiment of the ecstatic potency possessed of the sixty-four artistic activities, in the company of her confidantes, embodiments of the extensions of her bodily form, permeated and vitalized by His ever blissful spiritual rasa.   Brahma Samhita 63

14 U.N.3.56,57,61      4.1., 3-7

15 U.N.4.50