Click here to load whole tree
NITAAI-Veda.nyf > All Scriptures By Acharyas > Bhaktivinoda Thakura > Bhaktivinoda Vani Vaibhava > Bhaktivinoda Vani Vaibhava Part 2 and 3 > Vol 3 Prayojana > Mellows of Devotional Service

104- Mellows of Devotional Service


1. What is the awakening of rasa ?


Rasa is awakened when a living entity establishes his eternal relationship with the Lord. (Caitanya-siksamrrta 7/1)


2. Is the science of rasa mundane?


The science of rasa is fully transcendental. It has no tinge of material relationship, such as the material nature of relationships between men and women. It is entirely spiritual. (Sajjana Tosani 5/3)


3. What is the proper ground to awaken rasa ?


Rasa is cultivated only in the spiritual body of the living entity, never in the material body. (Caitanya-siksamrrta 7/1)


4. How many kinds of rasa are there and what are their origins?


Rasa is of three kinds: Vaikuntha rasa, heavenly rasa, and worldly rasa. Worldly rasa is of six types. It is found in sugarcane, dates, and so on. Heavenly rasa is found in emotional feelings. Because of this rasa, some living entities consider themselves enjoyers and others enjoyed. Vaikuntha rasa is found only in pure spirit souls. (Prema-pradipa, Eighth Ray)


5. What is the difference between Vaikuntha rasa, heavenly rasa, and worldly rasa?


When there is an abundance of rasa in the soul, its waves may touch the mind. Those waves cross over the mind and pervade the sadhaka's body. Then there is reciprocation between rasa and the sddhaka. In spiritual rasa, Sri Krsnacandra is the only hero. The one spiritual rasa is transformed and reflected as heavenly mental rasa. Then it is further reflected as worldly rasa. The rules, process, and nature of the three types of rasa are therefore of one kind. Spiritual rasa is the life of the Vaisnavas. The other two are extremely detestable and irrelevant if they do not bring one to the platform of spiritual rasa. People who are influenced by base, low propensities are enchanted by heavenly and worldly rasa. Vaisnavas carefully renounce them and desire only spiritual rasa. (Prema-pradipa, Eighth Ray)


6. What is the difference between bhdva and rasa?


Bhdva is like a painting and rasa is like a canvas that contains many paintings. Unless the bhavas that conjointly give rise to rasa are described, rasa cannot be explained. Rasa is attained when all the bhavas combine. (Prema-pradipa, Eighth Ray)


7. What is the speciality of Madhavendra Puri's line, who was the root of transcendental conjugal rasa?


Uncontaminated devotees who depend strictly on Vedanta philosophy are divided into four sampraddyas or transcendental parties. Of the four sampraddyas, Madhavendra Purl accepted the Sri Madhvacarya-sampradaya. Thus he took sannydsa according to that parampard. From Madhvacarya down to Laksmlpati, Madhavendra Puri's spiritual master, no one realized devotional service in conjugal love. Madhavendra Purl first introduced the Madhvacarya-sampraddya to the concept of conjugal love, and Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu further revealed this conclusion. He toured South India and  met the Tattvavadis, who supposedly belonged to the Madhvacarya-sampraddya.


When Sri Krsna left Vrndavana and accepted the kingdom of Mathura, SrimatI RadharanI, out of Her ecstasy of separation, expressed how Krsna can be loved in that mood. Worship in separation is considered the topmost level of devotional service by the Gaudlya-Madhva-sampraddya. According to this concept, the devotee thinks himself poor and neglected by the Lord. Thus he addresses the Lord, as Madhavendra Purl did, as dina-daydrdra ndtha, the supremely merciful Personality of Godhead. Such ecstatic feeling is the highest form of devotional service. Because Krsna had gone to Mathura, SrimatI RadharanI was very much affected and expressed Herself thus: "My dear Lord, because of separation from You, My mind has become overly agitated. Now tell Me, what can I do? I am poor and You are merciful, so kindly have compassion upon Me and let Me know when I shall see You." Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu was always expressing the ecstatic emotions SrimatI RadharanI exhibited when She saw Uddhava in Vrndavana. Similar feelings, experienced by Madhavendra Purl, are expressed in this verse:


ayi dina-dayardra natha he mathura-natha kadavalokyase

hrdayam tvad-aloka-kataram dayita bhramyati kim karomy aham


"O My Lord! O most merciful master! O master of Mathura! When shall I see You again? Because of My not  seeing You, My agitated heart has become unsteady. O most beloved one, what shall I do now?"

Therefore Vaisnavas in the Gaudiya-Madhva-sampradaya say that the ecstatic feelings experienced by Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu during His appearance came in line from Sri Madhavendra Purl through Isvara Purl. All the devotees in the GaudIya-Madhva-sampra<iflVfl accept these principles of devotional service. (Commentary on Caitanya-caritamrta Madhya 4:197)


8. Are dry renunciants and sense enjoyers eligible for transcendental madhurya-rasa?


Madhurya-rasa is unsuitable for persons who follow the path of dry renunciation. Persons who are attached to material enjoyment are also disqualified from entering into the mystery of madhurya-rasa. (Caitanya-siksamrrta 1/1)


9. Who are the real authorities on transcendental rasa?


Only those who are detached from material sense gratification and have attained love of God are qualified to relish rasa. The endeavor to relish rasa by persons who have not yet developed pure rati or attained detachment from matter is completely useless. If they try to do so, they will engage in sinful activities by accepting rasa as sadhana.

{Caitanya-siksamrrta 111)


10. Can rasa be taught by just anyone?


Rasa is not a limb of sadhana. If anyone says, "Come, I will teach you rasa," he is certainly a cheater and a fool. (Caitanya-siksamrrta 7/1)


11. Is the science of rasa a subject for jndna or knowledge?


Rasa is not a subject for jndna or knowledge but a subject to be relished. Relishing rasa, the ultimate goal of life, does not take place until we are finished with the two basic functions of knowledge, inquiry and collection. (Caitanya-siksamrrta 7/1)


12. Can we understand the science of rasa through reason and argument?


We cannot realize the science of rasa through argument. What to speak of spiritual rasa, we cannot even understand mundane rasa through reason and argument.

(Caitanya-siksamrrta 7/1)


13. Can a living entity become the hero or object of rasa?


The devotees' duty is to serve Krsna in madhurya-rasa, following in the gopis' footsteps. One who imitates Krsna and tries to become the hero of rasa will certainly go to hell. Hypocrites, cheaters, and duplicitous persons commit such an offense. (Caitanya-siksamrrta 7/1)


14. What is the progressive limit of spiritual rasa and the limit of its reflection?


Rasa is eternal, unbroken, inconceivable, and full of ecstasy. From the platform of pure rati, rasa progressively advances to the platform of mahabhava. When pure rati is diverted, it perverts to mundane illusion. (Caitanya-siksamrrta 7/1)


15. What is an example of rasa? What is aversion to rasa?


Worship is an example of rasa. Material activities or nonmaterial, impersonal thoughts are never considered worship. They are always dry and averse to rasa.(Caitanya-siksamrrta 7/2) 


16. Where is rasa found?


If we regard the Absolute Truth as impersonal, there is no question of experiencing rasa. Then Vedic statements such as raso vai sah, "The Supreme Lord is the reservoir of all pleasure," become meaningless. The impersonal concept is unpalatable because in it there is a total absence of happiness. The more the personal concept manifests, the more rasa increases.

{Caitanya-siksamrrta 111 and Jaiva Dharma, Chapter 31)


17. What is transcendental parakiya-rasa ?


The wonderful rasa that arises when the hero and heroine meet out of spontaneous attachment, although they are yet unknown to one another, is called paraklya-rasa. The more we are inclined toward self-satisfaction, the more rasa dries up. The more we are inclined toward the Lord's pastimes, the more rasa increases. Where Krsna is the only hero, there is no question of paraklya-rasa being improper. {Caitanya-siksamrrta 1/1)


18. Why is transcendental parakiya-rasa most relishable?


The damsels of Gokula, even though they are eternal energies of Krsna, relish pastimes in Goloka. The parakiya-rasa they relish is topmost. To bring that topmost rasa into this world, Lord Krsna brought His Goloka consorts to Gokula. Where is the fault in His action? He is not a mundane hero; He acts for the living entities' benefit. Otherwise, how could the living entities become qualified to achieve the topmost rasa of relishing the supreme madhurya-rasa?*

{Caitanya-siksamrrta 111)


19. Why is Vraja's parakiya-rasa transcendental and not improper?


Worldly marriage does not exist in the Vraja pastimes. When the Lord of Goloka brings His supreme parakiya-rasa into Gokula in this material world, the damsels of Gokula Lord cannot see Goloka. They attain service to the majestic form of the Lord in Vaikuntha, after getting liberation. Amongst those who worship Krsna in the rasa of Vraja, only those to whom Krsna bestows mercy are able to see Goloka. By the mercy of Krsna the vastu siddha bhakta is brought to Goloka. Those who are svarupa siddhas remain in this world with the identity of a gopi. Those who are covered by the mode of ignorance, see only the material world, even when performing their worship. Those covered by the mode of passion can see a little better. Those devotees in sattva mode realize a reflection of Goloka when they see the earthy Gokula. The devotees beyond the modes of nature very quickly obtain a body of a. gopl in Goloka, the spiritual world, by the mercy of Krsna. Goloka becomes realized to the extent of the removal of Maya. Yasoda's giving birth, Krsna's birth in the prison, the marriage of eternal gopis with Abhimanyu and others which gives rise to the mood of parakiya appear to be very material in the earthly Vraja. But these events all occur by the influence of Yogamaya with specific spiritual intentions behind them. They are not false, but are the perfect replica of Goloka. But they appear material in Vraja due to the material vision of the seer. In Goloka those same events are eternally present in the form of beliefs, which nourish the rasas. Those who are aspirants for service of the eightfold pastimes by taking the form of gopis must take support of earthly Vraja. According to the amount of mercy from Krsna, they obtain purity in their service.


"Will Vraja pastimes continue during the final devastation? At that time all the pastimes remain in Goloka. Through practice during eight times of the day, a person realizes the eternal nature of the daily pastimes of Krsna. During the duration of universes, the Vraja pastimes rotate from one universe to another. At the time of final devastation, the pastimes remain in Goloka. Though Krsna may disappear from the earth, Vraja and Mathura do not disappear, but remain for the benefit of the devotees performing sadhana."   cannot be accused of the improper conduct of mundane paramour love. (Caitanya-siksamrta 111)


20. Why is transcendental parakiya-rasa pure?


According to the opinions of Sri Rupa and Sri Sanatana, the pastimes that took place in Gokula in this world are fully present in Goloka. Therefore, the parakiya-rasa in Goloka must be present in an inconceivably pure state. The pastimes arranged by yogamaya are pure. The mood of parakiya is created by yogamaya and it is certainly pure.

(Brahma-samhita 5.37)


21. Which rasa is extremely rare?


The rasa in sakhya-rati is not fully blossomed. Therefore, from time immemorial, the gopls have shown a natural inclination for parakiya-rasa. Lord Krsna accepts the mood of a paramour in accordance with the gopls' feelings and performs the rdsa-llla with the support of His dearmost flute. (Brahma-samhita 5.37)


22. Is it possible while meditating on the Lord's transcendental pastimes to see Goloka in Gokula?


The pastimes beginning from the killing of Putana to the killing of Karhsa are in the category of the Lord's demon-killing pastimes. These pastimes are manifest in Gokula and are present only as feelings in the transcendental abode of Goloka. They do not exist there. While relishing the Lord's pastimes, a pure rasika devotee in Gokula can see the Goloka pastimes.

(Caitanya-siksamrrta 7/7)


23. Is it possible to enter the great rasa ocean while following rules and regulations?


If we merely follow rules and regulations while cultivating Krsna consciousness, we cannot enter the great ocean of rasa. (Caitanya-siksamrrta 7/1)


24. What is the difference in rasika feelings between the inhabitants of Goloka and the inhabitants of Gokula?


Vaikuntha-rasa is based on the principle of majesty. Therefore, in Vaikuntha, there is no rasa of parental affection toward the source of all avataras. In Goloka, however, the seat of all superexcellent deliciousness, there is only the original sentimental assumption of parental rasa. There, Nanda and Yasoda are visibly present, but there is no real birth. Thus the assumed sentiment of Nanda and Yasoda's parental affection has no foundation in the actual sense of giving birth to Krsna. Still, they maintain a parental ego toward Krsna (jayati jana-nivdso devaki-janma-vada, etc.). For the perfection of rasa, that sentiment is eternal.


Similarly in the rasa of amorous love, if the corresponding sentiments of concubinage and paramourship are merely eternal assumptions, there is no blame in them; they do not go against the scripture. When those transcendental entities of Goloka become manifest in Gokula Vrndavana, then those two sentiments become somewhat more palpable to the mundane view in the phenomenal world and there comes to be this much difference: In the parental rasa, Nanda and Yasoda's sentiments appear much more "earthy" because they appear to give birth to Krsna, and in the amorous rasa, the corresponding sentiments of concubinage in the gopls appear more "earthy" because they appear to be married to Abhimanyu, Govardhana, and other cowherd men. In reality, there is no such thing as the gopls being married to husbands or associating with husbands either in Goloka or Gokula.  (Brahma-samhita 5.37) 


25. How adulterous is rasa among followers of unauthorized sects?


Unauthorized sampraddyas take shelter of mundane rasa on the pretext of manifesting spiritual rasa. They are completely misguided.

{Caitanya-siksamrrta 111)


26. How do we determine which living entities belong to which rasa?


A living entity's rasa is determined according to his confidential taste. When a practitioner's faith awakens and he gradually attains taste, then he begins to love his own rasa. After determining his taste, his spiritual master teaches him his particular process of bhajana.

{Caitanya-siksamrrta 6/5)


27. Who is the object and who are the followers of sdnta- rasa?


Santa-rasa is first among all rasas. Santa-rati is the sthdyi-bhdva of this rasa. The happiness found in merging into the impersonal Brahman and the yogi's self-satisfaction are extremely insignificant in relation to this type of happiness. Spiritual happiness is so much more confidential. Realization of the Lord's personal form is the cause of this happiness. The object of sdnta-rasa is the four-handed Narayana. This form of the Lord possesses transcendental qualities like opulence and greatness. Persons who are peaceful and are situated in neutrality are the shelter of santa-rati. The atmdrdmas, the self-satisfied, and the ascetics who have firm faith in the Absolute Truth, follow sdnta-rasa. The four great personalities, Sanaka, Sanandana, Sanat-kumara, and Sanatana. are the principal atmdrdmas. They wander about as celibates. In the beginning they were attached to the impersonal Brahman, but becoming attracted by the Lord's sweet, transcendental form, they began to worship that spiritual form.


Although the ascetics have been able to renounce material enjoyment by practicing yukta-vairdgya, they have not yet vanquished their desire for liberation. Such people enter sdnta-rasa.

(Jaiva Dharma, Chapter 29)


28. What are the characteristics of a sdnta-bhakta? What are the vibhdva and anubhdva of santa-rati?


The devotees in the sdnta mood have not developed intense affection for Krsna. Affection is a natural mood based on our constitutional position.Therefore the rati of a sdnta-bhakta is always pure. Lord Hari is eternal, blissful, unchangeable, compassionate, and full of knowledge, full of all opulence, the Supersoul, the Supreme Brahman, the giver of liberation, and the crest jewel among the atmdrdmas. He is the object of santa-rati. The living entities under this rati's shelter are either atmdrdmas or ascetics.


This rasa's sthayi-bhdva is to meet a personality named Mukunda, who is self-illuminated, fully spiritual, completely devoid of material qualities, and beyond the reach of sense perception. The activities that stimulate sdnta-rasa are hearing the principal Upanisads, associating with renunciants, introspection, contemplating truth, cultivating spiritual knowledge, seeing the Lord's universal form, associating with the learned, and discussing the Brahma-sutras and Upanisads with like-minded persons. The anubhavas of sdnta-rasa are remaining silent, staring at the tip of the nose, behaving like a mendicant, looking only to a distance of five feet while walking, displaying the mudrd of  knowledge by touching the tip of the thumb with the tip of the index finger, not being envious of those who are envious of the Supreme Lord, not exhibiting sufficient respect to the devotees; longing for perfection in the form of relief from material existence, glorifying liberation while living free of attachment within the gross and subtle bodies, and remaining impartial, devoid of false ego, and without a sense of proprietorship. The devotees in santa-rasa exhibit all the transformations of ecstatic love exceptpralaya, but because they do not identify with their bodies, such ecstatic transformations are exhibited only in the form of smoke (dhumayita). Sometimes they are illuminated (jvalita), but never brightly illuminated (dlpta). Sometimes vyabhicari- and sancdri-bhdvas such as desire, emotion, patience, happiness, argumentativeness, remembrance, enthusiasm, and indifference are found in santa-rasa. Being decorated with such characteristics, santa-rasa is considered one of the rasas.

(Caitanya-siksamrrta 7/3)


29. When do the mellows of loving devotional service manifest?


Santa-rasa is not found in the description of the Vraja pastimes because it is not aimed at a particular form of the Lord. Rather, it is devoid of affection. By immense good fortune, a living entity develops affection for the Lord's transcendental form. As soon as this affection is born, pure rati is nourished and becomes prema. Then the mellows of loving devotional service manifest. {Caitanya-siksamrrta 7/1)


30. What is santa-rasa according to Vaisnava literature?


"You must love God with all thy heart. Your heart now runs to things other than God, but you must make your feelings run to loving God as you would train a horse to run in a particular way." This is one of the four principles of worship, or what is called santa-rasa, in Vaisnava literature. (To Love God, Journal of Tajpur, August 25, 1871)


31. What is the difference between the mellows of loving devotional service and dasya-rasa ?


Many people call the mellows of loving devotional service dasya-rasa, but the mellows of loving devotional service are twofold: loving devotional service with awe and reverence, and loving devotional service with affection. The mellows of loving devotional service with awe and reverence are known as dasya-rasa. Loving devotional service with affection is called priti-bhakti-rasa, not dasya-rasa. (Caitanya-siksamrrta 7/4)


32. What is dasya-rasa?


You must love God with all your mind. When you perceive, conceive, remember, imagine, and reason, you must not allow yourself to be a dry thinker; you must love. Love alone can soften the intellect's dryness. You must develop the intellect on all good and holy things by means of harmony, love of truth, and spiritual beauty. This is the second phase of Vaisnava development and is called dasya-rasa. (To Love God, Journal of Tajpur, August 25, 1871)


33. How far does dasya-rasa advance?


Dasya-rasa advances up to rdga, surpassing prema and sneha. (Caitanya-siksamrrta 7/4)


34.What is visrambha?


Firm faith, devoid of pain, is called visrambha. It has been explained as faith without awe and reverence.* (Caitanya-siksamrrta 7/5)


35. What is pranaya?


Despite possessing the quality of awe and reverence, when rati remains aloof from the touch of awe and reverence, it is called pranaya.

(Caitanya-siksamrrta 7/5)


36. What are the progressive stages of pranaya?


Pranaya gradually surpasses the stages of prema and sneha and reaches rdga in sakhya-rasa. (Caitanya-siksamrrta 7/5)


37.Is there separation between Sri Krsna and the residents of Vraja?


According to the Lord's manifest pastimes, separation is described in relation to sakhya-rasa, but actually there is never any separation between Sri Krsna and the residents of Vraja.

(Caitanya-siksamrrta 7/5)


38. What are the characteristics of vatsalya-rasa?


When there is a lack of confidence in Krsna, priti-rasa is not nourished. In such an instance, sakhya-rasa disappears. But there is no harm if this lack of confidence occurs in vatsalya-rasa. It is a special quality of vatsalya-rasa. (Caitanya-siksamrrta 7/6)


39. What are the characteristics of Baladeva, Yudhisthira, and Ahuka's respective rasas' ?


Baladeva's sakhya mood is mixed with vdtsalya. Yudhisthira's vdtsalya mood is mixed with ddsya and sakhya. Ahuka's ddsya mood is mixed with vdtsalya. The elderly cowherd men's vdtsalya mood is mixed with sakhya. Nakula, Sahadeva, and Narada's sakhya mood is mixed with ddsya. Siva, Garuda, and Uddhava's ddsya mood is mixed with sakhya. A similar mixture of moods is found in Krsna's grandsons, such as Aniruddha and others. Other devotees also possess mixed moods. (Caitanya-siksamrrta7/6)


40. What is the sakhya-rasa of the Vaisnavas?


You must love God with all thy soul. You must perceive yourself in spiritual communication with the Deity and receive holy revelations in your most sublime hours of worship. This is called the sakhya-rasa of the Vaisnavas: the soul approaching the Deity in holy and fearless service. (To Love God, Journal of Tajpur, August 25, 1871)


41. Why is mddhurya-rasa topmost and worship of the Lord under Sri Rupa's guidance most relishable?


Among the five principal rasas, mddhurya-rasa is topmost. I glorify this rasa with all my heart. All the characteristics of the other rasas are present in mddhurya-rasa. All the secondary rasas, which are categorized into vyabhicdri-bhdvas, nourish mddhurya-rasa. Anyone who worships the Lord under Sri Rupa's guidance attains mddhurya-rasa. (Gitamala)


42. How are the secondary rasas relishable in the mellows of devotional service to Krsna?


There are seven secondary rasas in Krsna's devotional service. They are relishable because they nourish Sri Krsna's pastimes. The seven secondary rasas, which include laughter, are within the vyabhicdri- and sahcdri-bhdvas. Appearing at appropriate times as the waves of the transcendental mellows, they nourish and increase the beauty of the prema ocean. Being unable to realize the transcendental position of the science of rasa, one may have the following doubt: laughter, astonishment, and enthusiasm are accepted as part of auspicious rasa, but how can fear, anger, hatred, and lamentation be part of rasa, which is fearless, calm, and free from grief? I am afraid that by accepting them, we are making rasa mundane, a product of matter. The answer is this: ecstatic rasa is variegated, yet it is full of bliss and not at all distasteful.

(Caitanya-siksamrrta 7/1) 


43. What are the root, cause, function, and support of rasa?


Sthayi-bhava is the root of rasa, vibhava is its cause, and both anubhava and sattvika-bhava are its function. Sahcdri-and vyabhicdri-bhdvas support rasa. Vibhava, anubhava, and sattvika- and vyabhicdri-bhdvas make sthayi-bhava most relishable. (Caitanya -siksamrrta 7/1)


44. What is rasdbhdsa and what are its characteristics?


When rasa is incomplete and devoid of a limb, it is called rasdbhdsa. Rasdbhdsa is divided into three categories according to uttama, madhyama, and kanistha: uparasa, anurasa, and aparasa. (Jaiva Dharma, Chapter 30)


45. What is the symptom of rasabhasa?


Rasdbhdsa makes rasa unpalatable; just as a salt and sour preparation mixed with a sweet drink is unpalatable. A contradiction of rasa is called rasdbhdsa. (Jaiva Dharma, Chapter 30)


46. What causes uparasa?


Uparasa can occur to any of the twelve rasas with the help of sthayi-bhava, vibhava, and anubhava. Uparasa is caused by aversion to sthayi-bhava, vibhava, and anubhava.

(Jaiva Dharma, Chapter 30)


47. What is anurasa and what are some examples of it?


Rasa without a direct relationship with Krsna is called anurasa. The cowherd boys laughing upon seeing the dance of the kakkhati birds and Narada's wonder upon seeing the parrots discussing Veddnta in the trees of Bhandlravana are examples of anurasa. In anurasa, Krsna is seen in the distance, not directly. (Jaiva Dharma, Chapter 30)


48. What is aparasa and what is an example of it?


If Krsna or His opponents become the object of laughter, then this laughter is called aparasa. An example of aparasa is Jarasandha laughing repeatedly upon seeing Krsna running away.

(Jaiva Dharma, Chapter 30)


49. Who are the friends and enemies of the rasas beginning with santa?


The friends of sdnta-rasa are ddsya, bibhatsa. dharmavira, and adbhuta-rasa. Adbhuta-rasa is also a friend of ddsya, sakhya, vdtsalya, and madhurya-rasa. The enemies of sdnta-rasa are mddhurya, yuddhavira, raudra, and bhaydnaka-rasa.

The friends of ddsya-rasa are bibhatsa, sdnta, dharmavira, and ddnavira-rasa. The enemies of ddsya-rasa are mddhurya, yuddhavira, and raudra-rasa.

The friends of sakhya-rasa are mddhurya, hdsya, and yuddhavira-rasa. The enemies of sakhya-rasa are vdtsalya, bibhatsa, raudra, and bhaydnaka-rasa.

The friends of vdtsalya-rasa are hdsya, karuna, and bhayabhedaka-rasa. The enemies of vdtsalya-rasa are mddhurya, yuddhavira, ddsya, and raudra-rasa.

The friends of madhurya-rasa are hdsya and sakhya-rasa. The enemies of madhurya-rasa are vdtsalya, bibhatsa, sdnta-, raudra, and bhaydnaka-rasa.

The friends of hdsya-rasa are bibhatsa, mddhurya, and vdtsaya-rasa. The enemies of hdsya-rasa are karuna and bhaydnaka-rasa.

The friends of adbhuta-rasa are vira, sdnta, ddsya, sakhya, vdtsalya, and mddhurya. The enemies of adbhuta-rasa are hdsya, sakhya, ddsya, raudra, and bibhatsa-rasa.

The friend of vira-rasa is adbhuta-rasa. The enemy of vira-rasa is bhaydnaka-rasa. According to some opinions, sdnta-rasa is also an enemy of vira-rasa. 


The friends of karuna-rasa are raudra and vdtsalya-rasa. The enemies of karuna-rasa are vfra, hasya, mddhurya, and adWmta-rasa.

The friends of raudra-rasa are karuna and vlra-rasa. The enemies of raudra-rasa are hasya, srngara, and bhaydnaka-rasa.

The friends of bhaydnaka-rasa are bibhatsa and karuna-rasa. The enemies of bhaydnaka-rasa are vira, srngara, hasya, and raudra-rasa.

The friends of blbhatsa-rasa are ranto, hasya, and ddsya-rasa. The enemies of blbhatsa-rasa are srngara and sakhya-rasa.

All other rams are neutral. (Jaiva Dharma, Chapter 30)


50. Please explain the mystery of the gopis becoming the wives of other men?


The Vraja gopw never have sexual relationships with their so-called husbands. Their husbands are only illusory incarnations of the conjugal mood. The marriages are also illusory. The gopis do not have husbands, but their mood of being the wives of others is eternally present. If this mood were not present, how would they be able to manifest the wonderful play of being afraid or prohibited by their husbands, of obstacles and aversion? Unless we develop such a mood, we cannot become damsels of Vraja, as proven by the example of Laksml.

(Jaiva Dharma, Chapter 32)


51. Why don't we consider the rasa of Sri Krsna's transcendental pastimes vulgar?


Moral persons naturally hate mundane rasa. If we hate the thought of transcendental rasa, we are certainly prejudiced. Controlled by such prejudice, unfortunate people hate the transcendental rasa in Krsna's rdsa-lild wherein the Lord associates with spirit souls who possess spiritual bodies. Thus such unfortunate people cheat themselves and gain nothing. (Sri Manah-siksd, Verse 5)


52. How do devotees under the shelter of parakiyd-rasa respect rules and regulations?


When a married woman becomes overwhelmed by the beauty of another man and secretly becomes attached to him, she outwardly respects her husband even more to avoid arousing his suspicion. Similarly, Krsna's lovers take shelter of parakiya-rasa by internally cultivating attachment while externally following the regulative principles. (Sri Krsna-samhitd 8/10)


53. What is the history of the development of transcendental rasa in the Eastern and Western countries?


If we were to study the history of the five rasas, clearly we would find that sdnta-rasa was visible in India's beginning days. Transcendentalists like Sanaka, Sanatana, Sananda, Sanat-kumara, Narada, and Mahadeva, who were not satisfied by performing sacrifices with material ingredients, became detached from this world and situated in transcendence. They realized sdnta-rasa.


Much later, Hanuman, the leader of the monkeys, manifested ddsya-rasa. Dasya-rasa gradually expanded to the northwest and appeared in the great personality, Moses. Long after Hanuman's time, Uddhava and Arjuna became qualified authorities of sakhya-rasa. They preached this rasa throughout the world. Gradually this rasa expanded to the Arabian countries and touched the heart of Mohammed, the knower of religious principles. Vdtsalya-rasa manifested throughout India in different forms at different times. Among the different forms, vdtsalya mixed with opulence crossed India and appeared in the great  personality, Jesus Christ, who was a preacher of Jewish religious principles.


Madhurya-rasa first shone brightly in Vraja. This rasa rarely enters the hearts of conditioned souls because it tends to remain with qualified, pure living entities. Navadvlpa-candra, Sri Saclkumara, preached this secret rasa along with His followers. This rasa has not yet gone beyond India. A short while ago, a scholar from England named Newman realized something about this rasa and wrote a book about it. The people of Europe and America are not satisfied with vdtsalya-rasa mixed with opulence, as preached by Jesus Christ. I hope that by the Lord's grace they will soon become attached to the intoxicating nectar of madhurya-rasa. We can see that any rasa that appears in India eventually spreads to the Western countries. Madhurya-rasa will therefore soon be preached throughout the world. Just as the sun first rises in India and gradually spreads its light to the Western countries, similarly the matchless shining of spiritual truth first appears in India and gradually spreads to the Western countries. (Introduction to Sri Krsna-samhita)


54. What is the difference between the dcaryas' preaching of madhurya-rasa before and after Sri Caitanyadeva's advent?


Acaryas such as Visnusvami, Nimbaditya, and Ramanuja preached madhurya-rasa long before Mahaprabhu's advent. Sri Madhavendra Purl, the parama-gurudeva of Mahaprabhu, first established preaching madhurya-rasa's scientific basis and Sri Isvara Purl improved upon his work. Sri Mahaprabhu then displayed the ultimate perfection of this rasa. Although poets like Jayadeva and Vidyapati scientifically relished this rasa, it was not popular during their time. What to speak of Jayadeva, Srimad-Bhdgavatam itself is the complete storehouse of madhurya-rasa. Still, no one before Mahaprabhu opened the gate of that storehouse and allowed the ordinary people to drink of the nectarean love of God.

(Sajjana-tosani 2/9)


55. Are the mellows of ecstatic love subject matter for argument?


The mellows of love of God are just like an ocean of milk. If one pours cow dung and cow urine in the form of arguments into milk, the whole pot becomes tasteless. (Jaiva Dharma, Chapter 34)


56. What is the characteristic of vipralambha-rasa ?


Vipralambha means separation. When dyeing an already colored cloth, the color of the cloth intensifies. Similarly, through separation, the desire for conjugal enjoyment intensifies. Without vipralambha, the conjugal pastimes cannot be nourished. (Jaiva Dharma, Chapter 37)


57. In what rasa does the mood of female arise in the living entity's spiritual body?


The eternally pure body of the living entity is fully spiritual. There is no difference between male or female in that body. The living entity's spiritual body is full of pure, independent desires. According to each soul's mood, the pure body manifests either as a male or a female. In santa-rasa, however, the mood is neither male nor female. In dasya- and sakhya-rasa, the mood is male. In mdtri-vdtsalya, the mood is female, and in pitri-vatsalya, male. In the brightly shining madhurya-rasa, the mood of all pure living entities is female. All these devotees serve Krsna, the only supreme enjoyer. (Caitanya-siksamrrta 6/5)


58. Is mundane rasa eternal and factual?


Mundane rasa, which is preached by mundane literature, is the perverted reflection of supreme, transcendental rasa. It is not eternal. It is a shadow of the original rasa, a mirage in the desert. (Gitamala, Song 6)


59. What causes transcendental mellows to develop or decrease?


Life cannot be sustained without rasa. Material life is full of material rasa. In a devotee's life, spiritual rasa appears momentarily like a flash of electricity. By the mercy of a bona fide spiritual master and on the strength of sddhu-sahga, this mood gradually increases and fully blossoms. Due to a lack of sddhu-sahga and hearing atheistic and impersonal instruction, undeveloped rasa gradually decreases and is finally lost. This is a most unfortunate state. {Caitanya-siksamrrta 7/2)


60. What is the preliminary stage of vdtsalya-rasa as Jesus Christ preached it?


Jesus said, "You must love man as thy brother." This understanding is the fourth phase of love, which is a feeling that all men are brothers with God as their common father. It is vdtsalya-rasa in its first stage of development. (To Love God, Journal of Tajpur, August 25, 1871)


61. What is the difference in rasa between the Nimbarka and Gaudiya sampraddyasl Why is the bhajana the Gaudiya Vaisnavas perform the best?


The Nimbarka line has not accepted the mood of parakiya-rasa. Rather, they perform bhajana in the mood of svakiya-rasa. In the Gaudiya line, parakiya-rasa is topmost. The sweetness of parakiya-rasa is greater than the sweetness of svakiya-rasa. {Sajjana Tosani Vol.7)


62. Why did Sri Jiva Gosvami sometimes give instructions on svakiya-bhajanal Was he himself a follower of that rasa ?


Sri Jiva Gosvami did not perform bhajana in the mood of svakiya-rasa, but he saw that a few devotees in Vraja were inclined to it Therefore he gave instructions according to the different tastes of his various disciples. His commentary, Locana Rocani, states this clearly. (Jaiva Dharma, Chapter 69)


63. How does Bhaktivinoda Thakura describe parakiya- rasa as topmost?


Transcendental pastimes are like mysterious jewels. Parakiya-madhura-rasa is the Kaustubha gem among such jewels.

(Caitanya-siksamrrta 111)


64. Do the devotees experience separation in the Lord's unmanifest pastimes due to His going to a distant place?


The Lord's pastimes are of two types, unmanifest and manifest. The separation experienced in vipralambha-rasa pertains only to the Lord's manifest pastimes. Actually, there is no separation between Sri Krsna and the Vraja gopis. Mathurd-mdhdtmya states that Lord Krsna enjoys His pastimes in Vraja in the company of the cowherd boys and girls. The word kridati, "plays," is in the present tense, so we can understand that Krsna's Vrndavana pastimes are eternal. Even if Krsna goes to a distant place, there is no separation in the Krsna's unmanifest pastimes in Goloka Vrndavana. There, enjoyment is eternal. {Jaiva Dharma, Chapter 38)