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1.What is the principal cause of heat?
By mixing metals like iron and sulphur, mountains are broken, the earth shakes, and ammunition is released from guns to create havoc in the world. Where is the inspiration of the consciousness in these activities? Although heat is seen as the principal cause of all movement, yet without the inspiration of the spirit nothing can happen. If we scrutinizingly study what is this heat, we come to know that heat is a quality. When a particular propensity becomes active within one's body, heat manifests in the body. It is well known that if one is excessively lusty, his bodily temperature increases. It is to be known that heat, which is experienced in all kinds of material objects, is the result of the interaction of spirit.
2.Are reason and argument the cause of scientific discoveries? Is human nature satisfied by remaining entangled in sensual knowledge?
All mental and material science is discovered through reasoning. Material science is of many kinds: science of matter and motion, magnetism, electricity, medicine, physiology, optics, music, logic, and mental philosophy. Art and manufacture are part of the science of the quality and the energy of objects. Science and art together create huge enterprises in the world. Ships, railways, buildings, and electrical items are the products of sensual knowledge. Geography, chronology, and astronomy are products of sensual knowledge. Zoology, mineralogy, and surgery are also products of sensual knowledge. Those who wish to remain entangled in this knowledge call it positive knowledge. Since human nature does not want to remain confined only to sensual positive knowledge, people try to attain higher and higher knowledge.(Caitanya-siksamrta 5/3)
3.What is science according to swanlike personalities?
According to the Vaisnavas, proper use of material knowledge is science. Those who are engaged in advancing in material knowledge, being induced by mundane desires, indirectly help the spiritual advancement of the Vaisnavas to some extent.
(Jaiva Dharma Chapter 9)
4.In which religion is the full cultivation of spiritualscience available?
The science of bhakti is not found in modern religions. Sanatana-dharma is evolved from Aryan culture, and Vaisnavism is the best part of sanatana-dharma. Therefore, the science of bhakti is only possible in Vaisnavism. In Jiva Gosvami's Sat-sandarbha and Rupa Gosvami's Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu, the science of bhakti is particularly expounded.
(Prema-pradipa Chapter 6)
5.In whose service should science be used to benefit the world?
The duty of the artist and the scientist is to serve the knower of the Absolute Truth with their advanced art and science. The science of the self is extremely confidential. Those people who are engaged in discussing such topics have no time to entangle themselves in ordinary art and science. Others should therefore try to help maintain those people. O brothers! O believers of gradual advancement! O believers of gradual discovery! Please mind your own business and, as a result, you and the whole world will be benefited. Do not cause unauthorized interference and try to find faults and qualities in the science of the self. If you act like gentlemen, we will constantly bless you.(Sajjana Tosarii 111)
6.When do science, society, and art reach their highest stage?
When karma works under the subordination of bhakti, it is no longer identified as karma but as bhakti. As long as karma is identified by its own name, it tries to become equal to bhakti. The advancement of science, society, and art are the acts of karma. But, when karma is transformed into bhakti, then science, society, and art become bright and advanced.
7.In which scientific knowledge is the swanlike Vaisnavas expert?
Books on physical and mental science, books on industry, books on languages, books on grammar, and books on poetry are known as artha-sastra. Some physical, mental, familial, and social benefits are obtained from these writings. The name of these benefits is artha. The advantage of these books is that by studying medicine, one can get the benefit of a cure; by studying music, one can get the benefit of happiness to the mind and ears; by material scientific knowledge, various wonderful machines are created; by astrology, one can get the benefit of understanding subjects like proper and improper times. Those who study such artha-sastras are known as artha-vit scholars. The smrti-sdstra establishes varndsrama-dharma and are also known as artha-sastra. The smdrta scholars are also known as artha-vit scholars' because the main purpose of their occupational duties is to protect society. Spiritual scholars practice spiritual life with these arthas. Swanlike Vaisnavas are never opposed to discussing these scriptures. They extract the supreme goal of spiritual life from these artha-sastras and become worshipable among artha-vit scholars. The artha-vit scholars are happy to assist them in ascertaining the Absolute Truth. The swanlike Vaisnavas are present in the battlefield as negotiators. They do not hate or reject various sinful persons. Swanlike Vaisnavas are always engaged in purifying the hearts of sinful people by giving public lectures, friendly advide, and confidential instructions, and by rebuking, setting an example, and sometimes punishing sinners. (Sri Krsna-sarhhitd 10/14)