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Characteristics of the Inconceivable Oneness and Difference
acintya bhedabheda laksanam
03.04.13 Shri Krishna to Uddhava
pura maya proktam ajaya nabhye
padme nishannaya mamadi-sarge
jnanam param man-mahimavabhasam
yat surayo bhagavatam vadanti
pura—in the days of yore; maya—by Me; proktam—was said; ajaya—unto Brahma; nabhye—out of the navel; padme—on the lotus; nishannaya—unto the one situated on; mama—My; adi-sarge—in the beginning of creation; jnanam—knowledge; param—sublime; mat-mahima—My transcendental glories; avabhasam—that which clarifies; yat—which; surayah—the great learned sages; bhagavatam—Shrimad-Bhagavatam; vadanti—do say.
O Uddhava, in the lotus millennium in the days of yore, at the beginning of the creation, I spoke unto Brahma, who is situated on the lotus that grows out of My navel, about My transcendental glories, which the great sages describe as Shrimad-Bhagavatam.
02.09.31-35 Shri Krishna to Brahma
jnanam parama-guhyam me
sarahasyam tad-angam ca
grihana gaditam maya
shri-bhagavan uvaca—the personality of Godhead said; jnanam—knowledge acquired; parama—extremely; guhyam—confidential; me—of Me; yat—which is; vijnana—realization; samanvitam—coordinated; sa-rahasyam—with devotional service; tat—of that; angam ca—necessary paraphernalia; grihana—just try to take up; gaditam—explained; maya—by Me.
The Personality of Godhead said: Knowledge about Me as described in the scriptures is very confidential, and it has to be realized in conjunction with devotional service. The necessary paraphernalia for that process is being explained by Me. You may take it up carefully. (31)
yavan aham yatha-bhavo
astu te mad-anugrahat
yavan—as I am in eternal form; aham—Myself; yatha—as much as; bhavah—transcendental existence; yat—those; rupa—various forms and colors; guna—qualities; karmakah—activities; thata—so and so; eva—certainly; tattva-vijnanam—factual realization; astu—let it be; te—unto you; mat—My; anugrahat—by causeless mercy.
All of Me, namely My actual eternal form and My transcendental existence, color, qualities and activities—let all be awakened within you by factual realization, out of My causeless mercy.(32)
aham evasam evagre
nanyad yat sad-asat param
pashcad aham yad etac ca
yo 'vashishyeta so 'smy aham
aham—I, the Personality of Godhead; eva—certainly; asam—existed; eva—only; agre—before the creation; na—never; anyat—anything else; yat—all those; sat—the effect; asat—the cause; param—the supreme; pashcat—at the end; aham—I, the Personality of Godhead; yat—all these; etat—creation; ca—also; yah—everything; avashishyeta—remains; sah—that; asmi—I am; aham—I, the Personality of Godhead.
Brahma, it is I, the Personality of Godhead, who was existing before the creation, when there was nothing but Myself. Nor was there the material nature, the cause of this creation. That which you see now is also I, the Personality of Godhead, and after annihilation what remains will also be I, the Personality of Godhead.(33)
rite 'rtham yat pratiyeta
na pratiyeta catmani
tad vidyad atmano mayam
yathabhaso yatha tamah
rite—without; artham—value; yat—that which; pratiyeta—appears to be; na—not; pratiyeta—appears to be; ca—and; atmani—in relation to Me; tat—that; vidyat—you must know; atmanah—My; mayam—illusory energy; yatha—just as; abhasah—the reflection; yatha—as; tamah—the darkness.
O Brahma, whatever appears to be of any value, if it is without relation to Me, has no reality. Know it as My illusory energy, that reflection which appears to be in darkness. (34)
yatha mahanti bhutani
thata teshu na teshv aham
yatha—just as; mahanti—the universal; bhutani—elements; bhuteshu ucca-avaceshu—in the minute and gigantic; anu—after; pravishtani—entered; apravishtani—not entered; thata—so; teshu—in them; na—not; teshu—in them; aham—Myself.
O Brahma, please know that the universal elements enter into the cosmos and at the same time do not enter into the cosmos; similarly, I Myself also exist within everything created, and at the same time I am outside of everything. (35)
2.9.36 (GM Beng includes)
etavad eva jijnasyam
yat syat samatra sarvada
Etavat—up to this; eva—certainly; jijnasyam—is to be inquired; tattva—the Absolute Truth; jijnasuna—by the student; atmanah—of the Self; anvaya—directly; vyatirekabhyam—indirectly; yat—whatever; syat—it may be; sarvatra—in all space and time; sarvada—in all circumstances.
A person who is searching after the Supreme Absolute Truth, the Personality of Godhead, most certainly search for it up to this, in all circumstances, in all space and time, and both directly and indirectly.
karmano janma mahatah
kalat—from eternal time; guna-vyatikarah—transformation of the modes by reaction; parinamah—transformation; svabhavatah—from the nature; karmanah—of activities; janma—creation; mahatah—of the mahat-tattva; purusha-adhishthitat—because of the purusa incarnation of the Lord; abhut—it took place.
After the incarnation of the first purusha [Karanarnavashayi Vishnu], the mahat-tattva, or the principles of material creation, take place, and then time is manifested, and in course of time the three qualities appear. Nature means the three qualitative appearances. They transform into activities.(22)
mahatas tu vikurvanad
tamah-pradhanas tv abhavad
mahatah—of the mahat-tattva; tu—but; vikurvanat—being transformed; rajah—the material mode of passion; sattva—the mode of goodness; upabrimmhitat—because of being increased; tamah—the mode of darkness; pradhanah—being prominent; tu—but; abhavat—took place; dravya—matter; jnana—material knowledge; kriya-atmakah—predominantly material activities.
Material activities are caused by the mahat-tattva's being agitated. At first there is transformation of the modes of goodness and passion, and later—due to the mode of ignorance—matter, its knowledge, and different activities of material knowledge come into play.(23)
so 'hankara iti prokto
vikurvan samabhut tridha
vaikarikas taijasash ca
tamasash ceti yad-bhida
jnana-shaktir iti prabho
sah—the very same thing; ahankarah—ego; iti—thus; proktah—said; vikurvan—being transformed; samabhut—became manifested; tridha—in three features; vaikarikah—in the mode of goodness; taijasah—in the mode of passion; ca—and; tamasah—in the mode of ignorance: ca—also; iti—thus; yat—what is; bhida—divided; dravya-shaktih—powers that evolve matter; kriya-shaktih—initiation that creates; jnana-shaktih—intelligence that guides; iti—thus; prabho—O master.
The self-centered materialistic ego, thus being transformed into three features, becomes known as the modes of goodness, passion and ignorance in three divisions, namely the powers that evolve matter, knowledge of material creations, and the intelligence that guides such materialistic activities. Narada, you are quite competent to understand this. (24)
tamasad api bhutader
vikurvanad abhun nabhah
tasya matra gunah shabdo
lingam yad drashtri-drishyayoh
tasmat—from the darkness of false ego; api—certainly; bhuta-adeh—of the material elements; vikurvanat—because of transformation; abhut—generated; nabhah—the sky; tasya—its; matra—subtle form; gunah—quality; shabdah—sound; lingam—characteristics; yat—as its; drashtri—the seer; drishyayoh—of what is seen.
From the darkness of false ego, the first of the five elements, namely the sky, is generated. Its subtle form is the quality of sound, exactly as the seer is in relationship with the seen.(25)
nabhaso 'tha vikurvanad
abhut sparsha-guno 'nilah
pranvayac chabdavamsh ca
prana ojah saho balam
vayor api vikurvanat
udapadyata tejo vai
tejasas tu vikurvanad
asid ambho rasatmakam
rupavat sparshavac cambho
ghoshavac ca paranvayat
visheshas tu vikurvanad
ambhaso gandhavan abhut
nabhasah—of the sky; atha—thus; vikurvanat—being transformed; abhut—generated; sparsha—touch; gunah—quality; anilah—air; para—previous; anvayat—by succession; shabdavan—full of sound; ca—also; pranah—life; ojah—sense perception; sahah—fat; balam—strength; vayoh—of the air; api—also; vikurvanat—by transformation; kala—time; karma—reaction of the past; svabhavatah—on the basis of nature; udapadyata—generated; tejah—fire; vai—duly; rupavat—with form; sparsha—touch; shabdavat—with sound also; tejasah—of the fire; tu—but; vikurvanat—on being transformed; asit—it so happened; ambhah—water; rasa-atmakam—composed of juice; rupavat—with form; sparshavat—with touch; ca—and; ambhah—water; ghoshavat—with sound; ca—and; para—previous; anvayat—by succession; visheshah—variegatedness; tu—but; vikurvanat—by transformation; ambhasah—of water; gandhavan—odorous; abhut—became; para—previous; anvayat—by succession; rasa—juice; sparsha—touch; shabda—sound; rupa-guna-anvitah—qualitative.
Because the sky is transformed, the air is generated with the quality of touch, and by previous succession the air is also full of sound and the basic principles of duration of life: sense perception, mental power and bodily strength. When the air is transformed in course of time and nature's course, fire is generated, taking shape with the sense of touch and sound. Since fire is also transformed, there is a manifestation of water, full of juice and taste. As previously, it also has form and touch and is also full of sound. And water, being transformed from all variegatedness on earth, appears odorous and, as previously, becomes qualitatively full of juice, touch, sound and form respectively.
03.10.11-12 (3.10.11 incl in Engl, not in Beng.)
maitreyah uvaca—Maitreya said; guna-vyatikara—of the interactions of the modes of material nature; akarah—source; nirvisheshah—without diversity; apratishthitah—unlimited; purushah—of the Supreme Person; tat—that; upadanam—instrument; atmanam—the material creation; lilaya—by pastimes; ashrijat—created.
Maitreya said: Eternal time is the primeval source of the interactions of the three modes of material nature. It is unchangeable and limitless, and it works as the instrument of the Supreme Personality of Godhead for His pastimes in the material creation. (11)
vishvam vai brahma-tan-matram
vishvam—the material phenomenon; vai—certainly; brahma—the Supreme; tat-matram—the same as; samsthitam—situated; vishnu-mayaya—by the energy of Vishnu; ishvarena—by the Personality of Godhead; paricchinnam—separated; kalena—by the eternal time; avyakta—unmanifested; murtina—by such a feature.
This cosmic manifestation is separated from the Supreme Lord as material energy by means of kala, which is the unmanifested, impersonal feature of the Lord. It is situated as the objective manifestation of the Lord under the influence of the same material energy of Vishnu. (12)
navaikadasha panca trin
bhavan bhuteshu yena vai
ikshetathaikam apy eshu
taj jnanam mama nishcitam
nava—nine; ekadasha—eleven; panca—five; trin—and three; bhavan—elements; bhuteshu—in all living beings (from Lord Brahma down to the immovable living entities); yena—by which knowledge; vai—certainly; iksheta—one may see; atha—thus; ekam—one element; api—indeed; eshu—within these twenty-eight elements; tat—that; jnanam—knowledge; mama—by Me; nishcitam—is authorized.
I personally approve of that knowledge by which one sees the combination of nine, eleven, five and three elements in all living entities, and ultimately one element within those twenty-eight.(14)
etad eva hi vijnanam
na tathaikena yena yat
etat—this; eva—indeed; hi—actually; vijnanam—realized knowledge; na—not; tatha—in that way; ekena—by the one (Personality of Godhead); yena—by whom; yat—which (universe); sthiti—maintenance; utpatti—creation; apyayan—and annihilation; pashyet—one should see; bhavanam—of all material elements; tri-guna—of the three modes of nature; atmanam—composed.
When one no longer sees the twenty-eight separated material elements, which arise from a single cause, but rather sees the cause itself, the Personality of Godhead—at that time one’s direct experience is called vijnana, or self-realization.(15)
adav ante ca madhye ca
shrijyat shrijyam yad anviyat
yac chishyeta tad eva sat
adau—in the causal stage; ante—in the termination of the causal function; ca—also; madhye—in the phase of maintenance; ca—also; shrijyat—from one production; shrijyam—to another production; yat—which; anviyat—accompanies; punah—again; tat—of all material phases; pratisankrame—in the annihilation; yat—which; shishyeta—remains; tat—that; eva—indeed; sat—the one eternal.
Commencement, termination and maintenance are the stages of material causation. That which consistently accompanies all these material phases from one creation to another and remains alone when all material phases are annihilated is the one eternal. (16)
vipashcin nashvaram pashyed
adrishtam api drishta-vat
karmanam—of material activities; parinamitvat—because of being subject to transformation; a—up to; virincyat—the planet of Lord Brahma; amangalam—inauspicious unhappiness; vipashcit—an intelligent person; nashvaram—as temporary; pashyet—should see; adrishtam—that which he has not yet experienced; api—indeed; drishta-vat—just like that already experienced.
An intelligent person should see that any material activity is subject to constant transformation and that even on the planet of Lord Brahma there is thus simply unhappiness. Indeed, a wise man can understand that just as all that he has seen is temporary, similarly, all things within the universe have a beginning and an end.
dehad atmekshita sva-drik
yathagnir daruno dahyad
dahako ’nyah prakashakah
vilakshanah—having different characteristics; sthula—from the gross; sukshmat—and the subtle; dehat—from the body; atma—the spirit soul; ikshita—the seer; sva-drik—self-enlightened; yatha—just as; agnih—fire; darunah—from firewood; dahyat—from that which is to be burned; dahakah—that which burns; anyah—other; prakashakah—that which illuminates.
Just as fire, which burns and illuminates, is different from firewood, which is to be burned to give illumination, similarly the seer within the body, the self-enlightened spirit soul, is different from the material body, which is to be illuminated by consciousness. Thus the spirit soul and the body possess different characteristics and are separate entities. (8)
nanatvam tat-kritan gunan
antah pravishta adhatta
evam deha-gunan parah
nirodha—dormancy; utpatti—manifestation; anu—tiny; brihat—large; nanatvam—the variety of characteristics; tat-kritan—produced by that; gunan—qualities; antah—within; pravishtah—having entered; adhatte—accepts; evam—thus; deha—of the material body; gunan—qualities; parah—the transcendental entity.
Just as fire may appear differently as dormant, manifest, weak, brilliant and so on, according to the condition of the fuel, similarly, the spirit soul enters a material body and accepts particular bodily characteristics.(9)
sattva-sangad rishin devan
bhramito yati karmabhih
sattva-sangat—by association with the mode of goodness; rishin—to the sages; devan—to the demigods; rajasa—by the mode of passion; asura—to the demons; manushan—and to human beings; tamasa—by the mode of ignorance; bhuta—to the ghostly spirits; tiryaktvam—or the animal kingdom; bhramitah—made to wander; yati—he goes; karmabhih—because of his fruitive activities.
Made to wander because of his fruitive work, the conditioned soul, by contact with the mode of goodness, takes birth among the sages or demigods. By contact with the mode of passion he becomes a demon or human being, and by association with the mode of ignorance he takes birth as a ghost or in the animal kingdom.
11.22.53 Shri Krishna to Uddhava
nrityato gayatah pashyan
evam buddhi-gunan pashyann
aniho ‘py anukaryate
nrityatah—persons who are dancing; gayatah—and singing; pashyan—observing; yatha—just as; eva—indeed; anukaroti—imitates; tan—them; evam—thus; buddhi—of the material intelligence; gunan—the acquired qualities; pashyan—seeing; anihah—although not himself engaged in activity; api—nevertheless; anukaryate—is made to imitate.
Just as one may imitate persons whom one sees dancing and singing, similarly the soul, although never the doer of material activities, becomes captivated by material intelligence and is thus forced to imitate its qualities.
taravo ’pi cala iva
drishyate bhramativa bhuh
svapna-drishtash ca dasharha
thata samsara atmanah
yatha—as; ambhasa—by water; pracalata—moving, agitated; taravah—trees; api—indeed; calah—moving; iva—as if; cakshusha—by the eyes; bhramyamanena—which are being turned about; drishyate—appears; bhramati—moving; iva—as if; bhuh—the earth; yatha—as; manah-ratha—of a mental fantasy; dhiyah—the ideas; vishaya—of sense gratification; anubhavah—the experience; mrisha—false; svapna-drishtah—things seen in a dream; ca—and; dasharha—O descendant of Dasharha; tatha—thus; samsarah—the material life; atmanah—of the soul.
The soul’s material life, his experience of sense gratification, is actually false, O descendant of Dasharha, just like trees’ appearance of quivering when the trees are reflected in agitated water, or like the earth’s appearance of spinning due to one’s spinning his eyes around, or like the world of a fantasy or dream. (54/55)
11.22.56 Shri Krishna to Uddhava
arthe hy avidyamane ’pi
samshritir na nivartate
dhyayato vishayan asya
svapne ’narthagamo yatha
arthe—in truth; hi—certainly; avidyamane—not existing; api—even though; samshritih—material existence; na nivartate—does not stop; dhyayatah—who is meditating; vishayan—on the objects of sense gratification; asya—for him; svapne—in a dream; anartha—of unwanted things; agamah—the coming; yatha—just as.
For one who is meditating on sense gratification, material life, although lacking factual existence, does not go away, just as the unpleasant experiences of a dream do not.
08.01.09,10,12 Svayambhuva Manu by Himself
yena cetayate vishvam
vishvam cetayate na yam
yo jagarti shayane 'smin
nayam tam veda veda sah
shri-manuh uvaca—Svayambhuva Manu chanted; yena—by whom (the personality of Godhead); cetayate—is brought into animation; vishvam—the whole universe; vishvam—the whole universe (the material world); cetayate—animates; na—not; yam—He whom; yah—He who; jagarti—is always awake (watching all activities); shayane—while sleeping; asmin—in this body; na—not; ayam—this living entity; tam—Him; veda—knows; veda—knows; sah—He.
Lord Manu said: The supreme living being has created this material world of animation; it is not that He was created by this material world. When everything is silent, the Supreme Being stays awake as a witness. The living entity does not know Him, but He knows everything.(9)
atmavasyam idam vishvam
yat kincij jagatyam jagat
tena tyaktena bhunjitha
ma gridhah kasya svid dhanam
atma—the Supersoul; avasyam—living everywhere; idam—this universe; vishvam—all universes, all places; yat—whatever; kincit—everything that exists; jagatyam—in this world, everywhere; jagat—everything, animate and inanimate; tena—by Him; tyaktena—allotted; bhunjithah—you may enjoy; ma—do not; gridhah—accept; kasya svit—of anyone else; dhanam—the property.
Within this universe, the Supreme Personality of Godhead in His Supersoul feature is present everywhere, wherever there are animate or inanimate beings. Therefore, one should accept only that which is allotted to him; one should not desire to infringe upon the property of others. (10)
na yasyady-antau madhyam ca
svah paro nantaram bahih
vishvasyamuni yad yasmad
vishvam ca tad ritam mahat
na—neither; yasya—of whom (the Supreme Personality of Godhead); adi—a beginning; antau—end; madhyam—middle; ca—also; svah—own; parah—others; na—nor; antaram—inside; bahih—outside; vishvasya—of the whole cosmic manifestation; amuni—all such considerations; yat—whose form; yasmat—from He who is the cause of everything; vishvam—the whole universe; ca—and; tat—all of them; ritam—truth; mahat—very, very great.
The Supreme Personality of Godhead has no beginning, no end and no middle. Nor does He belong to a particular person or nation. He has no inside or outside. The dualities found within this material world, such as beginning and end, mine and theirs, are all absent from the personality of the Supreme Lord. The universe, which emanates from Him, is another feature of the Lord. Therefore the Supreme Lord is the ultimate truth, and He is complete in greatness. (12)
08.03.03 Gajendra to Shri Vishnu
yasminn idam yatash cedam
yenedam ya idam svayam
yo 'smat parasmac ca paras
tam prapadye svayambhuvam
yasmin—the basic platform on which; idam—the universe rests; yatah—the ingredients from which; ca—and; idam—the cosmic manifestation is produced; yena—by whom; idam—this cosmic manifestation is created and maintained; yah—He who; idam—this material world; svayam—is Himself; yah—He who; asmat—from the effect (this material world); parasmat—from the cause; ca—and; parah—transcendental or different; tam—unto Him; prapadye—I surrender; svayambhuvam—unto the supreme self-sufficient.
The Supreme Godhead is the supreme platform on which everything rests, the ingredient by which everything has been produced, and the person who has created and is the only cause of this cosmic manifestation. Nonetheless, He is different from the cause and the result. I surrender unto Him, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is self-sufficient in everything.
08.03.09 Gajendra to Shri Vishnu
tas mai namah pareshaya
tasmai—unto Him; namah—I offer my obeisances; para—transcendental; ishaya—who is the supreme controller; brahmane—who is the Supreme Brahman (Parabrahman); ananta-shaktaye—with unlimited potency; arupaya—possessing no material form; uru-rupaya—possessing various forms as incarnations; namah—I offer my obeisances; ashcarya-karmane—whose activities are wonderful.
He has immense potency, and in various forms, all free from material contamination, He acts wonderfully. He is therefore the Supreme Brahman. I offer my respects to Him.
10.85.04 Vasudeva to Krishna and Balarama
yatra yena yato yasya
yasmai yad yad yatha yada
syad idam bhagavan sakshat
yatra—in which; yena—by which; yatah—from which; yasya—of which; yasmai—unto which; yat yat—whatever; yatha—however; yada—whenever; syat—comes into existence; idam—this (creation); bhagavan—the Supreme Lord; sakshat—in His personal presence; pradhana-purusha—of nature and its creator (Maha-Vishnu); ishvarah—the predominator.
You are the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who manifest as the Lord of both nature and the creator of nature [Maha-Vishnu]. Everything that comes into existence, however and whenever it does so, is created within You, by You, from You, for You and in relation to You.
10.87.30 The Personified Vedas to Maha-Vishnu
aparimita dhruvas tanu-bhrito yadi sarva-gatas
tarhi na shasyateti niyamo dhrava netaratha
ajani ca yan-mayam tad avimucya niyantri bhavet
samam anujanatam yad amatam mata-dushtataya
aparimitah—countless; dhruvah—permanent; tanu-bhritah—the embodied living entities; yadi—if; sarva-gatah—omnipresent; tarhi—then; na—not; shasyata—sovereignty; iti—such; niyamah—rule; dhruva—O unchanging one; na—not; itaratha—otherwise; ajani—was generated; ca—and; yat-mayam—from whose substance; tat—from that; avimucya—not separating itself; niyantri—regulator; bhavet—must be; samam—equally present; anujanatam—of those who supposedly know; yat—which; amatam—misunderstood; mata—of what is known; dushtataya—because of the imperfection.
If the countless living entities were all-pervading and possessed forms that never changed, You could not possibly be their absolute ruler, O immutable one. But since they are Your localized expansions and their forms are subject to change, You do control them. Indeed, that which supplies the ingredients for the generation of something is necessarily its controller because a product never exists apart from its ingredient cause. It is simply illusion for someone to think that he knows the Supreme Lord, who is equally present in each of His expansions, since whatever knowledge one gains by material means must be imperfect.
10.87.31 The Personified Vedas to Maha-Vishnu
na ghatata udbhavah prakriti-purushayor ajayor
ubhaya-yuja bhavanty asu-bhrito jala-budbuda-vat
tvayi ta ime tato vividha-nama-gunaih parame
sarita ivarnave madhuni lilyur ashesha-rasah
na ghatate—does not happen; udbhavah—the generation; prakriti—of material nature; purushayoh—and of the soul who is her enjoyer; ajayoh—who are unborn; ubhaya—of both; yuja—by the combination; bhavanti—come into being; asu-bhritah—living bodies; jala—on water; budbuda—bubbles; vat—like; tvayi—in You; te ime—these (living beings); tatah—therefore; vividha—various; nama—with names; gunaih—and qualities; parame—in the Supreme; saritah—rivers; iva—as; arnave—within the ocean; madhuni—in honey; lilyuh—become merged; ashesha—all; rasah—flavors.
Neither material nature nor the soul who tries to enjoy her are ever born, yet living bodies come into being when these two combine, just as bubbles form where water meets the air. And just as rivers merge into the ocean or the nectar from many different flowers blends into honey, so all these conditioned beings eventually merge back into You, the Supreme, along with their various names and qualities.
10.40.10 Akrura to Shri Krishna
vishanti sarvatah sindhum
tadvat tvam gatayo ’ntatah
yatha—as; adri—from the mountains; prabhavah—born; nadyah—rivers; parjanya—by the rain; apuritah—filled; prabho—O master; vishanti—enter; sarvatah—from all sides; sindhum—the ocean; tadvat—similarly; tvam—You; gatayah—these paths; antatah—finally.
As rivers born from the mountains and filled by the rain flow from all sides into the sea, so do all these paths in the end reach You, O master.
11.24.18 (in Engl., not in Beng)
yad upadaya purvas tu
bhavo vikurute ’param
adir anto yada yasya
tat satyam abhidhiyate
yat—which (form); upadaya—accepting as the ingredient cause; purvah—the previous cause (such as the mahat-tattva); tu—and; bhavah—thing; vikurute—produces as transformation; aparam—the second thing (such as the element ahankara); adih—the beginning; antah—the end; yada—when; yasya—of which (product); tat—that (cause); satyam—real; abhidhiyate—is called.
A material object, itself composed of an essential ingredient, creates another material object through transformation. Thus one created object becomes the cause and basis of another created object. A particular thing may thus be called real in that it possesses the basic nature of another object that constitutes its origin and final state.