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Indications of Evidence
yat-kripaya pravritto 'ham etasmin grantha-sangrahe
tam gaura-parshadam vande damodara-svarupakam
om namo bhagavate vasudevaya
janmady asya yato ‘nvayad itaratash cartheshv abhijshah svarat
tene brahma hrida ya adi-kavaye muhyanti yat surayah
tejo-vari-mridam yatha vinimayo yatra tri-sargo ‘mrisha
dhamna svena sada nirasta-kuhakam satyam param dhimahi
om—O my Lord; namah—offering obeisances; bhagavate—unto the Personality of Godhead; vasudevaya—unto Vasudeva (the son of Vasudeva), or Lord Shri Krishna, the primeval Lord; janma-adi—creation, sustenance and destruction; asya—of the manifested universes; yatah—from whom; anvayat—directly; itaratah—indirectly; ca—and; atheshu—purposes; abhijshah—fully cognizant; sva-rat—fully independent; tene—imparted; brahma—the Vedic knowledge; hrida—consciousness of the heart; yah—one who; adi-kavaye—unto the original created being; muhyanti—are illusioned; yat—about whom; surayah—great sages and demigods; tejah—fire; vari—water; mridam—earth; yatha—as much as; vinimayah—action and reaction; yatra—whereupon; tri-sargah—three modes of creation, creative faculties; amrisha—almost factual; dhamna—along with all transcendental paraphernalia; svena—self-sufficiently; sada—always; nirasta—negation by absence; kuhakam—illusion; satyam—truth; param—absolute; dhimahi—I do meditate upon.
O my Lord, Shri Krishna, son of Vasudeva, O all-pervading Personality of Godhead, I offer my respectful obeisances unto You. I meditate upon Lord Shri Krishna because He is the Absolute Truth and the primeval cause of all causes of the creation, sustenance and destruction of the manifested universes. He is directly and indirectly conscious of all manifestations, and He is independent because there is no other cause beyond Him. It is He only who first imparted the Vedic knowledge unto the heart of Brahmaji, the original living being. By Him even the great sages and demigods are placed into illusion, as one is bewildered by the illusory representations of water seen in fire, or land seen on water. Only because of Him do the material universes, temporarily manifested by the reactions of the three modes of nature, appear factual, although they are unreal. I therefore meditate upon Him, Lord Shri Krishna, who is eternally existent in the transcendental abode, which is forever free from the illusory representations of the material world. I meditate upon Him, for He is the Absolute Truth.
11.14.3-10 Shri Krishna to Uddhava
kalena nashta pralaye
mayadau brahmane prokta
dharmo yasyam mad-atmakah
shri-bhagavan uvaca—the Supreme Personality of Godhead said; kalena—by the influence of time; nashta—lost; pralaye—at the time of annihilation; vani—message; iyam—this; veda-samjshita—consisting of the Vedas; maya—by Me; adau—at the time of creation; brahmane—unto Lord Brahma; prokta—spoken; dharmah—religious principles; yasyam—in which; mat-atmakah—identical with Me.
The Supreme Personality of Godhead said: By the influence of time, the transcendental sound of Vedic knowledge was lost at the time of annihilation. Therefore, when the subsequent creation took place, I spoke the Vedic knowledge to Brahma because I Myself am the religious principles enunciated in the Vedas. (3)
tena prokta sva-putraya
manave purva-jaya sa
tato bhrigv-adayo ´grihnan
tena—by Brahma; prokta—spoken; sva-putraya—to his son; manave—to Manu; purva-jaya—the oldest; sa—that Vedic knowledge; tatah—from Manu; bhrigu-adayah—those headed by Bhrigu Muni; agrihnan—accepted; sapta—seven; brahma—in Vedic literature; maha-rishayah—most learned sages.
Lord Brahma spoke this knowledge to his eldest son Manu, and the seven great sages headed by Bhrigu Muni then accepted the same knowledge from Manu. (4)
tebhyah pitribhyas tat-putra
kindevah kinnara naga
bahvyas tesham prakritayo
yabhir bhutani bhidyante
bhutanam patayas tatha
citra vacah sravanti hi
tebhyah—from them (Bhrigu Muni, etc.); pitribhyah—from the forefathers; tat—their; putrah—sons, descendants; deva—the demigods; danava—demons; guhyakah—the Guhyakas; manushyah—human beings; siddha-gandharvah—Siddhas and Gandharvas; sa-vidyadhara-caranah—along with Vidyadhras and Caranas; kindevah—a different human species; kinnarah—half-humans; nagah—snakes; rakshah—demons; kimpurusha—an advanced race of monkeys; adayah—and so on; bahvyah—many different; tesham—of such living entities; prakritayah—desires or natures; rajah-sattva-tamah-bhuvah—being generated from the three mods of material nature; yabhih—by such material desires or tendencies; bhutani—all such living entities; bhidyante—appear divided in many material forms; bhutanam—and their; patayah—leaders; tatha—divided in the same way; yatha-prakriti—according to propensity or desire; sarvesham—of all of them; citrah—variegated; vacah—Vedic rituals and mantras; sravanti—flow down; hi—certainly.
From the forefathers headed by Bhrigu Muni and other sons of Brahma appeared many children and descendants, who assumed different forms as demigods, demons, human beings, Guhyakas, Siddhas, Gandharvas, Vidyadharas, Caranas, Kindevas, Kinnaras, Nagas, Kimpurushas, and so on. All of the many universal species, along with their respective leaders, appeared with different natures and desires generated from the three modes of material nature. Therefore, because of the different characteristics of the living entities within the universe, there are a great many Vedic rituals, mantras and rewards. (5-7)
bhidyante matayo nrinam
—thus; prakriti—of nature or desires; vaicitryat—due to the great variety; bhidyante—are divided; matayah—philosophies of life; nrinam—among human beings; paramparyena—by tradition or disciplic succession; keshashcit—among some people; pashanda—atheistic; matayah—philosophies; apare—others.
Thus, due to the great variety of desires and natures among human beings, there are many different theistic philosophies of life, which are handed down through tradition, custom and disciplic succession. There are other teachers who directly support atheistic viewpoints. (8)
shreyo vadanty anekantam
mat-maya—by My illusory potency; mohita—bewildered; dhiyah—those whose intelligence; purushah—people; purusha-rishabha—O best among men; shreyah—what is good for people; vadanti—they speak; aneka-antam—in innumerable ways; yatha-karma—according to their own activities; yatha-ruci—according to what pleases them.
O best among men, the intelligence of human beings is bewildered by My illusory potency, and thus, according to their own activities and whims, they speak in innumerable ways about what is actually good for people. (9)
dharmam eke yashash canye
kamam satyam damam shamam
anye vadanti svartham va
kecid yajsham tapo danam
vratani niyaman yaman
dharmam—pious activities; eke—some people; yashah—fame; ca—also; anye—others; kamam—sense gratification; satyam—truthfulness; damam—self-control; shamam—peacefulness; anye—others; vadanti—propound; sva-artham—pursuing one´s self-interest; vai—certainly; aishvaryam—opulence or political influence; tyaga—renunciation; bhojanam—consumption; kecit—some people; yajsham—sacrifice; tapah—austerity; danam—charity; vratani—taking vows; niyaman—regular religious duties; yaman—strict regulative discipline.
Some say that people will be happy by performing pious religious activities. Others say that happiness is attained through fame, sense gratification, truthfulness, self- control, peace, self-interest, political influence, opulence, renunciation, consumption, sacrifice, penance, charity, vows, regulated duties or strict disciplinary regulation. Each process has its proponents. (10)
11.14.11-14 Shri Krishna to Uddhava
kshudra mandah shucarpitah
adi-anta-vantah—possessing a beginning and end; eva—undoubtedly; esham—of them (the materialistic); lokah—achieved destinations; karma—by one’s material work; vinirmitah—produced; duhkha—misery; udarkah—bringing as the future result; tamah—ignorance; nishthah—situated in; kshudrah—meager; mandah—wretched; shuca—with lamentation; arpitah—filled.
All the persons I have just mentioned obtain temporary fruits from their material work. Indeed, the meager and miserable situations they achieve bring future unhappiness and are based on ignorance. Even while enjoying the fruits of their work, such persons are filled with lamentation. (11)
mayy arpitatmanah sabhya
mayatmana sukham yat tat
kutah syad vishayatmanam
mayi—in Me; arpita—fixed; atmanah—of one whose consciousness; sabhya—O learned Uddhava; nirapekshasya—of one bereft of material desires; sarvatah—in all respects; maya—with Me; atmana—with the Supreme Personality of Godhead or with one’s own spiritual body; sukham—happiness; yat tat—such; kutah—how; syat—could it be; vishaya—in material sense gratification; atmanam—of those who are attached.
O learned Uddhava, those who fix their consciousness in Me, giving up all material desires, share with Me a happiness that cannot possibly be experienced by those engaged in sense gratification. (12)
sarvah sukha-maya dishah
akincanasya—of one who does not desire anything; dantasya—whose senses are controlled; shantasya—peaceful; sama-cetasah—whose consciousness is equal everywhere; maya—with Me; santushta—completely satisfied; manasah—whose mind; sarvah—all; sukha-mayah—full of happiness; dishah—directions.
One who does not desire anything within this world, who has achieved peace by controlling his senses, whose consciousness is equal in all conditions and whose mind is completely satisfied in Me finds only happiness wherever he goes. (13)
na parameshthyam na mahendra-dhishnyam
na sarvabhaumam na rasadhipatyam
na yoga-siddhir apunar-bhavam va
mayy arpitatmecchati mad vinanyat
na—not; parameshthyam—the position or abode of Lord Brahma; na—never; maha-indra-dhishnyam—the position of Lord Indra; na—neither; sarvabhaumam—empire on the earth; na—nor; rasa-adhipatyam—sovereignty in the lower planetary systems; na—never; yoga-siddhih—the eightfold yoga perfections; apunah-bhavam—liberation; va—nor; mayi—in Me; arpita—fixed; atma—consciousness; icchati—he desires; mat—Me; vina—without; anyat—anything else.
One who has fixed his consciousness on Me desires neither the position or abode of Lord Brahma or Lord Indra, nor an empire on the earth, nor sovereignty in the lower planetary systems, nor the eightfold perfection of yoga, nor liberation from birth and death. Such a person desires Me alone.
11.19.17 Shri Krishna to Uddhava
shrutih pratyaksham aitihyam
vikalpat sa virajyate
shrutih—Vedic knowledge; pratyaksham—direct experience; aitihyam—traditional wisdom; anumanam—logical induction; catushtayam—fourfold; pramaneshu—among all types of evidence; anavasthanat—due to the flickering nature; vikalpat—from material diversity; sah—a person; virajyate—becomes detached.
From the four types of evidence—Vedic knowledge, direct experience, traditional wisdom and logical induction—one can understand the temporary, insubstantial situation of the material world, by which one becomes detached from the duality of this world.
6.9.36 Demigods to Shri Vishnu
na hi virodha ubhayam bhagavaty aparimita-guna-gana ishvare ’navagahya-mahatmye ’rvacina-vikalpa-vitarka-vicara-pramanabhasa-kutarka-shastra-kalilantahkaranashraya-duravagraha-vadinam vivadanavasara uparata-samasta-mayamaye kevala evatma-mayam antardhaya ko nv artho durghata iva bhavati svarupa-dvayabhavat.
na—not; hi—certainly; virodhah—contradiction; ubhayam—both; bhagavati—in the Supreme personality of Godhead; aparimita—unlimited; guna-gane—whose transcendental attributes; ishvare—in the supreme controller; anavagahya—possessing; mahatmye—unfathomable ability and glories; arvacina—recent; vikalpa—full of equivocal calculations; vitarka—opposing arguments; vicara—judgments; pramana-abhasa—imperfect evidence; kutarka—useless arguments; shastra—by unauthorized scriptures; kalila—agitated; antahkarana—minds; ashraya—whose shelter; duravagraha—with wicked obstinacies; vadinam—of theorists; vivada—of the controversies; anavasare—not within the range; uparata—withdrawn; samasta—from whom all; maya-maye—illusory energy; kevale—without a second; eva—indeed; atma-mayam—the illusory energy, which can do and undo the inconceivable; antardhaya—placing between; kah—what; nu—indeed; arthah—meaning; durghatah—impossible; iva—as it were; bhavati—is; sva-rupa—natures; dvaya—of two; abhavat—due to the absence.
O Supreme Personality of Godhead, all contradictions can be reconciled in You. O Lord, since You are the Supreme Person, the reservoir of unlimited spiritual qualities, the supreme controller, Your unlimited glories are inconceivable for the conditioned souls. Many modern theologians argue about right and wrong without knowing what is actually right. Their arguments are always false and their judgements inconclusive because they have no authorized evidence with which to gain knowledge of You. Because their minds are agitated by scriptures containing false conclusions, they are unable to understand the truth concerning You. Furthermore, because of polluted eagerness to arrive at the right conclusion, their theories are incapable of revealing You, who are transcendental to their material conceptions. You are one without a second, and therefore in You contradictions like doing and not doing, happiness and distress, are not contradictory. Your potency is so great that it can do and undo anything as You like. With the help of that potency, what is impossible for You? Since there is no duality in Your constitutional position, You can do everything by the influence of Your energy.
10.87.36 The Personified Vedas to Maha-Vishnu
sata idam utthitam sad iti cen nanu tarka-hatam
vyabhicarati kva ca kva ca mrisha na tathobhaya-yuk
vyavahritaye vikalpa ishito ’ndha-paramparaya
bhramayati bharati ta uru-vrittibhir uktha-jadan
satah—from that which is permanent; idam—this (universe); utthitam—arisen; sat—permanent; iti—thus; cet—if (someone proposes); nanu—certainly; tarka—by logical contradiction; hatam—refuted; vyabhicarati—it is inconsistent; kva ca—in some cases; kva ca—in other cases; mrisha—illusion; na—not; tatha—so; ubhaya—of both (the real and illusion); yuk—the conjunction; vyavahritaye—for the sake of ordinary affairs; vikalpah—an imaginary situation; ishitah—desired; andha—of blind men; paramparaya—by a succession; bhramayati—bewilder; bharati—the words of wisdom; te—Your; uru—numerous; vrittibhih—with their semantic functions; uktha—by ritual utterances; jadan—dulled.
It may be proposed that this world is permanently real because it is generated from the permanent reality, but such an argument is subject to logical refutation. Sometimes, indeed, the apparent nondifference of a cause and its effect fails to prove true, and at other times the product of something real is illusory. Furthermore, this world cannot be permanently real, for it partakes of the natures of not only the absolute reality but also the illusion disguising that reality. Actually, the visible forms of this world are just an imaginary arrangement resorted to by a succession of ignorant persons in order to facilitate their material affairs. With their various meanings and implications, the learned words of Your Vedas bewilder all persons whose minds have been dulled by hearing the incantations of sacrificial rituals.
6.4.31 Prajapati Daksha to Shri Vishnu*
yac-chaktayo vadatam vadinam vai
kurvanti caisham muhur atma-moham
tasmai namo ’nanta-gunaya bhumne
yat-shaktayah—whose multifarious potencies; vadatam—speaking different philosophies; vadinam—of the speakers; vai—indeed; vivada—of argument; samvada—and agreement; bhuvah—the causes; bhavanti—are; kurvanti—create; ca—and; esham—of them (the theorists); muhuh—continuously; atma-moham—bewilderment regarding the existence of the soul; tasmai—unto Him; namah—my respectful obeisances; ananta—unlimited; gunaya—possessing transcendental attributes; bhumne—the all-pervading Godhead.
Let me offer my respectful obeisances unto the all-pervading Supreme Personality of Godhead, who possesses unlimited transcendental qualities. Acting within the cores of the hearts of all philosophers, who propagate various views, He causes them to forget their own souls while sometimes agreeing and sometimes disagreeing among themselves. Thus He creates within this material world a situation in which they are unable to come to a conclusion. I offer my obeisances unto Him.
4.11.22 Svayambhuva Manu to Dhruva Maharaja
kecit karma vadanty enam
svabhavam apare nripa
eke kalam pare daivam
pumsah kamam utapare
kecit—some; karma—fruitive activities; vadanti—explain; enam—that; svabhavam—nature; apare—others; nripa—my dear King Dhruva; eke—some; kalam—time; pare—others; daivam—fate; pumsah—of the living entity; kamam—desire; uta—also; apare—others.
The differentiation among varieties of life and their suffering and enjoyment is explained by some to be the result of karma. Others say it is due to nature, others due to time, others due to fate, and still others say it is due to desire.
4.29.48 Narada Muni to King Pracinabarhi
svam lokam na vidus te vai
yatra devo janardanah
ahur dhumra-dhiyo vedam
svam—own; lokam—abode; na—never; viduh—know; te—such persons; vai—certainly; yatra—where; devah—the Supreme Personality of Godhead; janardanah—Krishna, or Vishnu; ahuh—speak; dhumra-dhiyah—the less intelligent class of men; vedam—the four Vedas; sa-karmakam—full of ritualistic ceremonies; a-tat-vidah—persons who are not in knowledge.
Those who are less intelligent accept the Vedic ritualistic ceremonies as all in all. They do not know that the purpose of the Vedas is to understand one's own home, where the Supreme Personality of Godhead lives. Not being interested in their real home, they are illusioned and search after other homes.
4.11.23 Svayambhuva Manu to Dhruva Maharaja
na vai cikirshitam tata
ko vedatha sva-sambhavam
avyaktasya—of the unmanifested; aprameyasya—of the Transcendence; nana—various; shakti—energies; udayasya—of Him who gives rise to; ca—also; na—never; vai—certainly; cikirshitam—the plan; tata—my dear boy; kah—who; veda—can know; atha—therefore; sva—own; sambhavam—origin.
The Absolute Truth, Transcendence, is never subject to the understanding of imperfect sensory endeavor, nor is He subject to direct experience. He is the master of varieties of energies, like the full material energy, and no one can understand His plans or actions; therefore it should be concluded that although He is the original cause of all causes, no one can know Him by mental speculation.
6.4.32 Prajapati Daksha to Shri Vishnu
astiti nastiti ca vastu-nishthayor
avekshitam kincana yoga-sankhyayoh
samam param hy anukulam brihat tat
asti—there is; iti—thus; na—not; asti—there is; iti—thus; ca—and; vastu-nishthayoh—professing knowledge of the ultimate cause; eka-sthayoh—with one and the same subject matter, establishing Brahman; bhinna—demonstrating different; viruddha-dharmanoh—and opposing characteristics; avekshitam—perceived; kincana—that something which; yoga-sankhyayoh—of mystic yoga and the Sankhya philosophy (analysis of the ways of nature); samam—the same; param—transcendental; hi—indeed; anukulam—dwelling place; brihat tat—that ultimate cause.
There are two parties—namely, the theists and the atheists. The theist, who accepts the Supersoul, finds the spiritual cause through mystic yoga. The Sankhyite, however, who merely analyzes the material elements, comes to a conclusion of impersonalism and does not accept a supreme cause—whether Bhagavan, Paramatma or even Brahman. Instead, he is preoccupied with the superfluous, external activities of material nature. Ultimately, however, both parties demonstrate the Absolute Truth because although they offer opposing statements, their object is the same ultimate cause. They are both approaching the same Supreme Brahman, to whom I offer my respectful obeisances.
11.22.4-5 Shri Krishna to Uddhava
yuktam ca santi sarvatra
bhashante brahmana yatha
mayam madiyam udgrihya
vadatam kim nu durghatam
shri-bhagavan uvaca—the Supreme Personality of Godhead said; yuktam—reasonably; ca—even; santi—they are present; sarvatra—everywhere; bhashante—they speak; brahmanah—brahmanas; yatha—how; mayam—the mystic energy; madiyam—My; udgrihya—resorting to; vadatam—of those who speak; kim—what; nu—after all; durghatam—will be impossible.
Lord Krishna replied: Because all material elements are present everywhere, it is reasonable that different learned brahmanas have analyzed them in different ways. All such philosophers spoke under the shelter of My mystic potency, and thus they could say anything without contradicting the truth.
naitad evam yathattha tvam
yad aham vacmi tat tatha
evam vivadatam hetum
shaktayo me duratyayah
na—it is not; etat—this; evam—so; yatha—as; attha—say; tvam—you; yat—which; aham—I; vacmi—am saying; tat—that; tatha—thus; evam—in this way; vivadatam—for those who argue; hetum—over logical reasons; shaktayah—the energies (are impelling); me—My; duratyayah—unsurpassable.
When philosophers argue, "I don’t choose to analyze this particular case in the same way that you have," it is simply My own insurmountable energies that are motivating their analytic disagreements.
11.3.43-46 Avirhotra to Maharaja Nimi
veda-vado na laukikah
tatra muhyanti surayah
shri-avirhotrah uvaca—the sage avirhotra said; karma—the execution of duties prescribed by scripture; akarma—failure to perform such duties; vikarma—engagement in forbidden activities; iti—thus; veda-vadah—subject matter understood through the Vedas; na—not; laukikah—mundane; vedasya—of the vedas; ca—and; ishvara-atmatvat—because of coming from the Personality of Godhead Himself; tatra—in this matter; muhyanti—become confused; surayah—(even) great scholarly authorities.
Shri Avirhotra replied: Prescribed duties, nonperformance of such duties, and forbidden activities are topics one can properly understand through authorized study of the Vedic literature. This difficult subject matter can never be understood by mundane speculation. The authorized Vedic literature is the sound incarnation of the Personality of Godhead Himself, and thus Vedic knowledge is perfect. Even the greatest learned scholars are bewildered in their attempts to understand the science of action if they neglect the authority of Vedic knowledge.
paroksha-vado vedo ‘yam
vidhatte hy agadam yatha
paroksha-vadah—describing a situation as something else in order to disguise its real nature; vedah—Vedas; ayam—these; balanam—of childlike persons; anushasanam—guidance; karma-mokshaya—for liberation from material activities; karmani—material activities; vidhatte—prescribe; hi—indeed; agadam—a medicine; yatha—just as.
Childish and foolish people are attached to materialistic, fruitive activities, although the actual goal of life is to become free from such activities. Therefore, the Vedic injunctions indirectly lead one to the path of ultimate liberation by first prescribing fruitive religious activities, just as a father promises his child candy so that the child will take his medicine.
nacared yas tu vedoktam
svayam ajno ‘jitendriyah
vikarmana hy adharmena
mrityor mrityum upaiti sah
na acaret—does not perform; yah—who; tu—but; veda-uktam—what is prescribed in the Vedas; svayam—himself; ajnah—ignorant; ajita-indriyah—not having learned to control his senses; vikarmana—by not executing scriptural duty; hi—indeed; adharmena—by his irreligion; mrityoh mrityum—death after death; upaiti—achieves; sah—he.
If an ignorant person who has not conquered the material senses does not adhere to the Vedic injunctions, certainly he will engage in sinful and irreligious activities. Thus his reward will be repeated birth and death.
vedoktam eva kurvano
nihsango ’rpitam ishvare
naishkarmyam labhate siddhim
veda-uktam—the regulated activities described by the Vedas; eva—certainly; kurvanah—performing; nihsangah—without attachment; arpitam—offered; ishvare—to the Supreme Lord; naishkarmyam—of liberation from material work and its reactions; labhate—one achieves; siddhim—the perfection; rocana-artha—for the purpose of giving encouragement; phala-shrutih—the promises of material results given in the Vedic scriptures.
By executing without attachment the regulated activities prescribed in the Vedas, offering the results of such work to the Supreme Lord, one attains the perfection of freedom from the bondage of material work. The material fruitive results offered in the revealed scriptures are not the actual goal of Vedic knowledge, but are meant for stimulating the interest of the performer.
11.5.5 Camasa Rishi to Maharaja Nimi
vipro rajanya-vaishyau va
hareh praptah padantikam
viprah—the brahmanas; rajanya-vaishyau—of the royal order and the vaishyas; va—or; hareh—of the Supreme Lord, Hari; praptah—after being allowed to approach; pada-antikam—near the lotus feet; shrautena janmana—by having received the second birth of Vedic initiation; atha—then; api—even; muhyanti—bewildered; amnaya-vadinah—adopting various materialistic philosophies.
On the other hand, brahmanas, members of the royal order and vaishyas, even after being allowed to approach the lotus feet of the Supreme Lord, Hari, by receiving the second birth of Vedic initiation, can become bewildered and adopt various materialistic philosophies.
11.5.11 Camasa Rishi to Maharaja Nimi
nitya hi jantor na hi tatra codana
vyavasthitis teshu vivaha-yajna
sura-grahair asu nivrittir ishta
loke—in the material world; vyavaya—sex indulgence; amisha—of meat; madya—and liquor; sevah—the taking; nityah—always found; hi—indeed; jantoh—in the conditioned living being; na—not; hi—indeed; tatra—in regard to them; codana—any command of scripture; vyavasthitih—the prescribed arrangement; teshu—in these; vivaha—by sacred marriage; yajna—the offering of sacrifice; sura-grahaih—and the acceptance of ritual cups of wine; asu—of these; nivrittih—cessation; ishta—is the desired end.
In this material world the conditioned soul is always inclined to sex, meat-eating and intoxication. Therefore religious scriptures never actually encourage such activities. Although the scriptural injunctions provide for sex through sacred marriage, for meat-eating through sacrificial offerings and for intoxication through the acceptance of ritual cups of wine, such ceremonies are meant for the ultimate purpose of renunciation.
11.5.13-14 Camasa Rishi to Maharaja Nimi
yad ghrana-bhaksho vihitah surayas
tatha pashor alabhanam na himsa
evam vyavayah prajaya na ratya
imam vishuddham na viduh sva-dharmam
yat—because; ghrana—by smell; bhakshah—the taking; vihitah—is enjoined; surayah—of wine; tatha—similarly; pashoh—of a sacrificial animal; alabhanam—prescribed killing; na—not; himsa—wanton violence; evam—in the same way; vyavayah—sex; prajaya—for the purpose of begetting children; na—not; ratyai—for the sake of sense enjoyment; imam—this (as pointed out in the previous verse); vishuddham—most pure; na viduh—they do not understand; sva-dharmam—their own proper duty.
According to the Vedic injunctions, when wine is offered in sacrificial ceremonies it is later to be consumed by smelling, and not by drinking. Similarly, the sacrificial offering of animals is permitted, but there is no provision for wide-scale animal slaughter. Religious sex life is also permitted, but only in marriage for begetting children, and not for sensuous exploitation of the body. Unfortunately, however, the less intelligent materialists cannot understand that their duties in life should be performed purely on the spiritual platform.
ye tv anevam-vido ’santah
pashun druhyanti vishrabdhah
pretya khadanti te ca tan
ye—those who; tu—but; anevam-vidah—not knowing these facts; asantah—very impious; stabdhah—presumptuous; sat-abhimaninah—considering themselves saintly; pashun—animals; druhyanti—they harm; vishrabdhah—being innocently trusted; pretya—after leaving this present body; khadanti—they eat; te—those animals; ca—and; tan—them.
Those sinful persons who are ignorant of actual religious principles, yet consider themselves to be completely pious, without compunction commit violence against innocent animals who are fully trusting in them. In their next lives, such sinful persons will be eaten by the same creatures they have killed in this world.
11.5.15 Camasa Rishi to Maharaja Nimi
svatmanam harim ishvaram
mritake sanubandhe ’smin
baddha-snehah patanty adhah
dvishantah—envying; para-kayeshu—(the souls) within the bodies of others; sva-atmanam—their own true self; harim ishvaram—the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Hari; mritake—in the corpse; sa-anubandhe—together with its relations; asmin—this; baddha-snehah—their affection being fixed; patanti—they fall; adhah—downward.
The conditioned souls become completely bound in affection to their own corpselike material bodies and their relatives and paraphernalia. In such a proud and foolish condition, the conditioned souls envy other living entities as well as the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Hari, who resides in the heart of all beings. Thus enviously offending others, the conditioned souls gradually fall down into hell.
11.11.18-19 Shri Krishna to Uddhava
na nishnayat pare yadi
shramas tasya shrama-phalo
hy adhenum iva rakshatah
shabda-brahmani—in the Vedic literature; nishnatah—expert through complete study; na nishnayat—does not absorb the mind; pare—in the Supreme; yadi—if; shramah—labor; tasya—his; shrama—of great endeavor; phalah—the fruit; hi—certainly; adhenum—a cow that gives no milk; iva—like; rakshatah—of one who is taking care of.
If through meticulous study one becomes expert in reading Vedic literature but makes no endeavor to fix one’s mind on the Supreme Personality of Godhead, then one’s endeavor is certainly like that of a man who works very hard to take care of a cow that gives no milk. In other words, the fruit of one’s laborious study of Vedic knowledge will simply be the labor itself. There will be no other tangible result.
gam dugdha-doham asatim ca bharyam
deham paradhinam asat-prajam ca
vittam tv atirthi-kritam anga vacam
hinam maya rakshati duhkha-duhkhi
gam—a cow; dugdha—whose milk; doham—already taken; asatim—unchaste; ca—also; bharyam—a wife; deham—a body; para—upon others; adhinam—always dependent; asat—useless; prajam—children; ca—also; vittam—wealth; tu—but; atirthi-kritam—not given to the proper recipient; anga—O Uddhava; vacam—Vedic knowledge; hinam—devoid; maya—of knowledge of Me; rakshati—he takes care of; duhkha-duhkhi—he who suffers one misery after another.
My dear Uddhava, that man is certainly most miserable who takes care of a cow that gives no milk, an unchaste wife, a body totally dependent on others, useless children or wealth not utilized for the right purpose. Similarly, one who studies Vedic knowledge devoid of My glories is also most miserable.
11.21.35-36 Shri Krishna to Uddhava
paroksham mama ca priyam
vedah—the Vedas; brahma-atma—the understanding that the soul is pure spirit; vishayah—having as their subject matter; tri-kanda-vishayah—divided into three sections (which represent fruitive work, worship of demigods and realization of the Absolute Truth); ime—these; paroksha-vadah—speaking esoterically; rishayah—the Vedic authorities; paroksham—indirect explanation; mama—to Me; ca—also; priyam—dear.
The Vedas, divided into three divisions, ultimately reveal the living entity as pure spirit soul. The Vedic seers and mantras, however, deal in esoteric terms, and I also am pleased by such confidential descriptions.
shabda-brahma—the transcendental sound of the Vedas; su-durbodham—extremely difficult to comprehend; prana—of the vital air; indriya—senses; manah—and mind; mayam—manifesting on the different levels; ananta-param—without limit; gambhiram—deep; durvigahyam—unfathomable; samudra-vat—like the ocean.
The transcendental sound of the Vedas is very difficult to comprehend and manifests on different levels within the prana, senses and mind. This Vedic sound is unlimited, very deep and unfathomable, just like the ocean.
11.21.40-42 Shri Krishna to Uddhava
shrijaty akshipate svayam
vicitra—variegated; bhasha—by verbal expressions; vitatam—elaborated; chandobhih—along with the metrical arrangements; catuh-uttaraih—each having four syllables more than the previous; ananta-param—limitless; brihatim—the great expanse of Vedic literature; shrijati—He creates; akshipate—and withdraws; svayam—Himself.
The Veda is then elaborated by many verbal varieties, expressed in different meters, each having four more syllables than the previous one. Ultimately the Lord again withdraws His manifestation of Vedic sound within Himself.
gayatry ushnig anushtup ca
brihati panktir eva ca
trishtub jagaty aticchando
gayatri ushnik anushtup ca—known as Gayatri, Ushnik and Anushtup; brihati panktih—Brihati and Pankti; eva ca—also; trishtup jagati aticchandah—Trishtup, Jagati and Aticchanda; hi—indeed; atyashti-atijagat-virat—Atyashti, Atijagati and Ativirat.
The Vedic meters are Gayatri, Ushnik, Anushtup, Brihati, Pankti, Trishtup, Jagati, Aticchanda, Atyashti, Atijagati and Ativirat.
kim vidhatte kim acashte
kim anudya vikalpayet
ity asya hridayam loke
nanyo mad veda kashcana
kim—what; vidhatte—enjoins (in the ritualistic karma-kanda); kim—what; acashte—indicates (as the object of worship in the devata-kanda); kim—what; anudya—describing in different aspects; vikalpayet—raises the possibility of alternatives (in the jnana-kanda); iti—thus; asyah—of Vedic literature; hridayam—the heart, or confidential purpose; loke—in this world; na—does not; anyah—other; mat—than Me; veda—know; kashcana—anyone.
In the entire world no one but Me actually understands the confidential purpose of Vedic knowledge. Thus people do not know what the Vedas are actually prescribing in the ritualistic injunctions of karma-kanda, or what object is actually being indicated in the formulas of worship found in the upasana-kanda, or that which is elaborately discussed through various hypotheses in the jnana-kanda section of the Vedas.
11.19.33-39 Shri Krishna to Uddhava
ahimsa satyam asteyam
asango hrir asancayah
astikyam brahmacaryam ca
maunam sthairyam kshamabhayam
shaucam japas tapo homah
ete yamah sa-niyama
ubhayor dvadasha smritah
pumsam upasitas tata
yatha-kamam duhanti hi
shri-bhagavan uvaca—the Supreme Personality of Godhead said; ahimsa—nonviolence; satyam—truthfulness; asteyam—never coveting or stealing the property of others; asangah—detachment; hrih—humility; asancayah—being nonpossessive; astikyam—trust in the principles of religion; brahmacaryam—celibacy; ca—also; maunam—silence; sthairyam—steadiness; kshama—forgiving; abhayam—fearless; shaucam—internal and external cleanliness; japah—chanting the holy names of the Lord; tapah—austerity; homah—sacrifice; shraddha—faith; atithyam—hospitality; mat-arcanam—worship of Me; tirtha-atanam—visiting holy places; para-artha-iha—acting and desiring for the Supreme; tushtih—satisfaction; acarya-sevanam—serving the spiritual master; ete—these; yamah—disciplinary principles; sa-niyamah—along with secondary regular duties; ubhayoh—of each; dvadasha—twelve; smritah—are understood; pumsam—by human beings; upasitah—being cultivated with devotion; tata—My dear Uddhava; yatha-kamam—according to one’s desire; duhanti—they supply; hi—indeed.
The Supreme Personality of Godhead said: Nonviolence, truthfulness, not coveting or stealing the property of others, detachment, humility, freedom from possessiveness, trust in the principles of religion, celibacy, silence, steadiness, forgiveness and fearlessness are the twelve primary disciplinary principles. Internal cleanliness, external cleanliness, chanting the holy names of the Lord, austerity, sacrifice, faith, hospitality, worship of Me, visiting holy places, acting and desiring only for the supreme interest, satisfaction, and service to the spiritual master are the twelve elements of regular prescribed duties. These twenty-four elements bestow all desired benedictions upon those persons who devotedly cultivate them.
shamo man-nishthata buddher
danda-nyasah param danam
kama-tyagas tapah smritam
satyam ca sama-darshanam
anyac ca sunrita vani
karmasv asangamah shaucam
tyagah sannyasa ucyate
dharma ishtam dhanam nrinam
yajno ’ham bhagavattamah
pranayamah param balam
shamah—mental equilibrium; mat—in Me; nishthata—steady absorption; buddheh—of the intelligence; damah—self-control; indriya—of the senses; samyamah—perfect discipline; titiksha—tolerance; duhkha—unhappiness; sammarshah—tolerating; jihva—the tongue; upastha—and genitals; jayah—conquering; dhritih—steadiness; danda—aggression; nyasah—giving up; param—the supreme; danam—charity; kama—lust; tyagah—giving up; tapah—austerity; smritam—is considered; svabhava—one’s natural tendency to enjoy; vijayah—conquering; shauryam—heroism; satyam—reality; ca—also; sama-darshanam—seeing the Supreme Lord everywhere; anyat—the next element (truthfulness); ca—and; su-nrita—pleasing; vani—speech; kavibhih—by the sages; parikirtita—is declared to be; karmasu—in fruitive activities; asangamah—detachment; shaucam—cleanliness; tyagah—renunciation; sannyasah—the sannyasa order of life; ucyate—is said to be; dharmah—religiousness; ishtam—desirable; dhanam—wealth; nrinam—for human beings; yajnah—sacrifice; aham—I am; bhagavat-tamah—the Supreme Personality of Godhead; dakshina—religious remuneration; jnana-sandeshah—the instruction of perfect knowledge; pranayamah—the yogic system of controlling the breath; param—the supreme; balam—strength.
Absorbing the intelligence in Me constitutes mental equilibrium, and complete discipline of the senses is self-control. Tolerance means patiently enduring unhappiness, and steadfastness occurs when one conquers the tongue and genitals. The greatest charity is to give up all aggression toward others, and renunciation of lust is understood to be real austerity. Real heroism is to conquer one’s natural tendency to enjoy material life, and reality is seeing the Supreme Personality of Godhead everywhere. Truthfulness means to speak the truth in a pleasing way, as declared by great sages. Cleanliness is detachment in fruitive activities, whereas renunciation is the sannyasa order of life. The true desirable wealth for human beings is religiousness, and I, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, am sacrifice. Religious remuneration is devotion to the acarya with the purpose of acquiring spiritual instruction, and the greatest strength is the pranayama system of breath control.
11.19.40-44 Shri Krishna to Uddhava
bhago ma aishvaro bhavo
labho mad-bhaktir uttamah
jugupsa hrir akarmasu
shrir guna nairapekshyadyah
pantha man-nigamah smritah
bandhur gurur aham sakhe
griham shariram manushyam
gunadhyo hy adhya ucyate
daridro yas tv asantushtah
kripano yo ’jitendriyah
guneshv asakta-dhir isho
bhagah—opulence; me—My; aishvarah—divine; bhavah—nature; labhah—gain; mat-bhaktih—devotional service unto Me; uttamah—supreme; vidya—education; atmani—in the soul; bhida—duality; badhah—nullifying; jugupsa—disgust; hrih—modesty; akarmasu—in sinful activities; shrih—beauty; gunah—good qualities; nairapekshya—detachment from material things; adyah—and so on; sukham—happiness; duhkha—material unhappiness; sukha—and material happiness; atyayah—transcending; duhkham—unhappiness; kama—of lust; sukha—on the happiness; apeksha—meditating; panditah—a wise man; bandha—from bondage; moksha—liberation; vit—one who knows; murkhah—a fool; deha—with the body; adi—and so forth (the mind); aham-buddhih—one who identifies himself; panthah—the true path; mat—to Me; nigamah—leading; smritah—is to be understood; utpathah—the wrong path; citta—of consciousness; vikshepah—bewilderment; svargah—heaven; sattva-guna—of the mode of goodness; udayah—the predominance; narakah—hell; tamah—of the mode of ignorance; unnahah—the predominance; bandhuh—the real friend; guruh—the spiritual master; aham—I am; sakhe—My dear friend, Uddhava; griham—one’s home; shariram—the body; manushyam—human; guna—with good qualities; adhyah—enriched; hi—indeed; adhyah—a rich person; ucyate—is stated to be; daridrah—a poor person; yah—one who; tu—indeed; asantushtah—unsatisfied; kripanah—a wretched person; yah—one who; ajita—has not conquered; indriyah—the senses; guneshu—in material sense gratification; asakta—not attached; dhih—whose intelligence; ishah—a controller; guna—to sense gratification; sangah—attached; viparyayah—the opposite, a slave.
Actual opulence is My own nature as the Personality of Godhead, through which I exhibit the six unlimited opulences. The supreme gain in life is devotional service to Me, and actual education is nullifying the false perception of duality within the soul. Real modesty is to be disgusted with improper activities, and beauty is to possess good qualities such as detachment. Real happiness is to transcend material happiness and unhappiness, and real misery is to be implicated in searching for sex pleasure. A wise man is one who knows the process of freedom from bondage, and a fool is one who identifies with his material body and mind. The real path in life is that which leads to Me, and the wrong path is sense gratification, by which consciousness is bewildered. Actual heaven is the predominance of the mode of goodness, whereas hell is the predominance of ignorance. I am everyone’s true friend, acting as the spiritual master of the entire universe, and one’s home is the human body. My dear friend Uddhava, one who is enriched with good qualities is actually said to be rich, and one who is unsatisfied in life is actually poor. A wretched person is one who cannot control his senses, whereas one who is not attached to sense gratification is a real controller. One who attaches himself to sense gratification is the opposite, a slave.
12.4.41-43 Shukadeva Gosvami to Maharaja Parikshit
rishir narayano ’vyayah
naradaya pura praha
purana—of all the Puranas; samhitam—the essential compendium; etam—this; rishih—the great sage; narayanah—Lord Nara-Narayana; avyayah—the infallible; naradaya—to Narada Muni; pura—previously; praha—spoke; krishna-dvaipayanaya—to Krishna Dvaipayana Vedavyasa; sah—he, Narada.
Long ago this essential anthology of all the Puranas was spoken by the infallible Lord Nara-Narayana rishi to Narada, who then repeated it to Krishna Dvaipayana Vedavyasa.
sa vai mahyam maha-raja
imam bhagavatim pritah
sah—he; vai—indeed; mahyam—to me, shukadeva Gosvami; maharaja—O King Parikshit; bhagavan—the powerful incarnation of the Supreme Lord; badarayanah—shrila Vyasadeva; imam—this; bhagavatim—Bhagavata scripture; pritah—being satisfied; samhitam—the anthology; veda-sammitam—equal in status to the four Vedas.
My dear Maharaja Parikshit, that great personality shrila Vyasadeva taught me this same scripture, , which is equal in stature to the four Vedas.
imam vakshyaty asau suta
imam—this; vakshyati—will speak; asau—present before us; sutah—Suta Gosvami; rishibhyah—to the sages; naimisha-alaye—in the forest of Naimisha; dirgha-satre—at the lengthy sacrificial performance; kuru-shreshtha—O best of the Kurus; samprishtah—questioned; shaunaka-adibhih—by the assembly led by shaunaka.
O best of the Kurus, the same Suta Gosvami who is sitting before us will speak this Bhagavatam to the sages assembled in the great sacrifice at Naimisharanya. This he will do when questioned by the members of the assembly, headed by shaunaka.
12.5.1 Shukadeva Gosvami to Maharaja Parikshit
vishvatma bhagavan harih
yasya prasada-jo brahma
shri-shukah uvaca—shri shukadeva Gosvami said; atra—in this shrimad-Bhagavatam; anuvarnyate—is elaborately described; abhikshnam—repeatedly; vishva-atma—the soul of the entire universe; bhagavan—the Supreme Personality of Godhead; harih—Lord Hari; yasya—of whom; prasada—from the satisfaction; jah—born; brahma—Lord Brahma; rudrah—Lord shiva; krodha—from the anger; samudbhavah—whose birth.
Shukadeva Gosvami said: This shrimad-Bhagavatam has elaborately described in various narrations the Supreme Soul of all that be—the Personality of Godhead, Hari—from whose satisfaction Brahma is born and from whose anger Rudra takes birth.
1.3.41 Suta Gosvami to Shaunaka Rishi
tad idam grahayam asa
sutam atmavatam varam
saram saram samuddhritam
tat—that; idam—this; grahayam asa—made to accept; sutam—unto his son; atmavatam—of the self-realized; varam—most respectful; sarva—all; veda—Vedic literatures (books of knowledge); itihasanam—of all the histories; saram—cream; saram—cream; samuddhritam—taken out.
shri Vyasadeva delivered it to his son, who is the most respected among the self-realized, after extracting the cream of all Vedic literatures and histories of the universe.
1.3.43 Suta Gosvami to Shaunaka Rishi
kalau nashta-drisham esha
krishne—in Krishna’s; sva-dhama—own abode; upagate—having returned; dharma—religion; jnana—knowledge; adibhih—combined together; saha—along with; kalau—in the Kali-yuga; nashta-drisham—of persons who have lost their sight; eshah—all these; purana-arkah—the Purana which is brilliant like the sun; adhuna—just now; uditah—has arisen.
This Bhagavata Purana is as brilliant as the sun, and it has arisen just after the departure of Lord Krishna to His own abode, accompanied by religion, knowledge, etc. Persons who have lost their vision due to the dense darkness of ignorance in the age of Kali shall get light from this Purana.
12.13.14 Suta Gosvami to Shaunaka Rishi
rajante tavad anyani
puranani satam gane
yavad bhagavatam naiva
rajante—they shine forth; tavat—that long; anyani—the other; puranani—Puranas; satam—of saintly persons; gane—in the assembly; yavat—as long as; bhagavatam—shrimad-Bhagavatam; na—not; eva—indeed; shruyate—is heard; amrita-sagaram—the great ocean of nectar.
All other Puranic scriptures shine forth in the assembly of saintly devotees only as long as that great ocean of nectar, shrimad-Bhagavatam, is not heard.