Click here to load whole tree
NITAAI-Veda.nyf > All Scriptures By Acharyas > Bhaktivinoda Thakura > Amnaya Sutra > Part one > Chapter -I

Chapter One

Shaktimattva-prakarana

The Master of All Potencies

 

 

 

Sutra 1

 

 

athata amnaya-sutram pravakshyamah

 

     atha—now; atah—then; amnaya-sutram—the Amnaya-sutra; pravakshyamah—we will speak.

 

     Now we will speak the Amnaya-sutra.

 

Commentary by Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura

 

natva shri-krishna-chaitanyam

     jagad-acarya-vigraham

kena bhaktivinodena

     vaishnavanam prasadatah

 

pramanair ashtabhih shadbhir

     lingair vedartha-nirnayam

abhidha-vrittim ashritya

     shabdanam ca visheshatah

 

trimshottara-shatam sutram

     racitam mahad-ajnaya

pathantu vaishnavah sarve

     chaitanya-pada-sevinah

 

“Bowing down before Lord Shri Krishna Chaitanya, the teacher of the the entire world, a certain person named Bhaktivinoda, by the grace of the Vaishnavas and by the order of the great souls, has composed 130 sutras describing the final conclusion of the Vedas, a conclusion attained by studying the eight sources of evidence, the six signs, and the direct and indirect interpretation of words. May all the Vaishnavas who serve Lord Chaitanya’s feet study these sutras.

 

Sutra 2

 

tattvam ekam evadvitiyam

 

     tattvam—the Absolute Truth; ekam—one; eva—indeed; advitiyam—without a second.

 

 

     The Absolute Truth is one without a second.

 

Commentary by Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura

 

     In the Chandogya Upanishad it is said:

 

sad eva saumyedam agra asid ekam evadvitiyam

 

“O gentle one, in the beginning only the Absolute Truth, who is one without a second, existed.”

 

     In the Brihad-aranyaka Upanishad it is said:

 

purnam adah purnam idam

     purnat purnam udacyate

purnasya purnam adaya

     purnam evavashishyate

 

“The Personality Godhead is perfect and complete, and because He is completely perfect, all emanations from Him, such as this phenomenal world, are perfectly equipped as complete wholes. Whatever is produced of the complete whole is also complete in itself. Because He is the complete whole, even though so many complete units emanate from Him, He remains the complete balance.”*

 

     In Shrimad-Bhagavatam (2.9.33) it is said:

 

aham evasam evagre

     nanyad yat sad asat param

pashcad aham yad etac ca

     yo ‘vashishyeta so ‘smy aham

 

“Brahma, it is I, the Personality of Godhead, who was existing before the creation, when there was nothing but Myself. Nor was there the material nature, the cause of this creation. That which you see now is also I, the Personality of Godhead, and after annihilation what remains will also be I, the Personality of Godhead.”*

 

     In Shri Chaitanya-caritamrita (Madhya 20.152), Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu says:

 

 

krishnera svarupa-vicara shuna sanatana

advaya-jnana tattva vraje vrajendra-nandana

 

“O Sanatana, please hear about the eternal form of Lord Krishna. He is the Absolute Truth, devoid of duality but present in Vrindavana as the son of Nanda Maharaja.”*

 

Sutra 3

 

nityam acintya-shaktikam

 

     nityam—eternal; acintya—inconceivable; shaktikam—potencies.

 

 

He has inconceivable potencies eternally.

 

Commentary by Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura

 

     In the Shvetashvatara Upanishad it is said:

 

vicitra-shaktih purushah purano

     canyesham shaktayas tadrishasyuh

eko vashi sarva-bhutantaratma

     sarvan devan eka evanuvishtah

 

“The Supreme Lord is the oldest, the original person. His powers are inconceivable. Everything is His potency. He is the Supreme Controller, the Supersoul in everyone’s heart. He alone has entered the hearts of all the demigods.”

 

   In the Hayashirsha-pancaratra it is said:

 

paramatma hari-devas

     tac-chaktih shrir ihodita

shri-devi prakritih prokta

     keshavah purushah smritah

 

“Lord Hari is the Supreme Personality of Godhead and the goddess of fortune is His transcendental potency. He is the Supreme God and she the Supreme Goddess.”

 

     Shrila Jiva Gosvami explains:

 

sarvesham bhavanam pavakasyoshnata-vad acintya-jnana-gocarah shaktayah santy eva. brahmanas ta sva-bhava-bhutah svarupad abhinna-shaktayah.

 

“The Supreme Personality of Godhead has many inconceivable potencies, all manifested from His transcendental form. As heat is not different from fire, so the Lord’s potencies are not different from the Lord Himself.”

 

Sutra 4

 

nityam sa-vishesham

 

     nityam—eternal; sa—with; vishesham—variety.

 

He has a variety of transcendental qualities eternally.

 

Commentary by Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura

 

     In the Shvetashvatara Upanishad (6.6) it is said:

 

sa vrksha-kalakritibhih paro ‘nyo

     yasmat prapancah parivartate yam

dharmavaham papa-nudam bhagesham

     jnatvatma-stham amritam vishva-dhama

 

“The Supreme Personality of Godhead is not touched by the material nature, and He is free from the entanglement of the complex tree of material time. He is the origin of the material creation, and it is due to Him only that everything changes. He is the protector of religion and the annihilator of all sinful activities. He is the master of all opulences, and everything rests within Him. He is the Supersoul present in everyone’s heart. Those who understand and worship Him become free from the cycle of birth and death in the material world and return to the eternal spiritual world.”*

 

jnana-shakti-balaishvarya-

     virya-tejamsy asheshatah

bhagavac-chabda-vacyani

     vina heyair gunadibhih

 

“The word Bhagavan means that the Supreme Personality of Godhead has all knowledge, strength, wealth, fame, beauty, and renunciation, and no faults.”

 

     Shrila Rupa Gosvami (Bhakti-rasamrita-sindhu 2.1.37) explains:

 

sada svarupa-sampraptah

     sarvajno nitya-nutanah

sac-cid-ananda-sandrangah

     sarva-siddhi-nishevitah

 

“These [5 qualities that jivas cannot possess but that demigods like Shiva can, as well as all Vishnu-tattvas] are: 1. Always being situated in one’s original position, 2. being omniscient, 3. being always fresh and youthful, 4. being the concentrated form of eternity, knowledge, and bliss, and 5. possessing all mystic perfection.”*

 

 

Sutra 5

 

nityam nirvishesham ca

 

     nityam—eternal; nirvishesham—without qualities; ca—and.

 

He also has no qualities eternally.

 

Commentary by Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura

 

     In the Katha Upanishad (1.3.15) it is said:

 

ashabdam asparsham arupam avyayam

     tatharasam nityam agandhavac ca yat

anady anantam mahatah param dhruvam

     nicayya tan mrityu-mukhat pramucyate

 

“By understanding the Supreme, who has no sound, no touch, no form, no death, no taste, no scent, no beginning, and no end, and who is eternal and greater than the greatest, one is rescued from the jaws of death.”

 

     In the Hari-vamsha it is said:

 

brahma tejomayam divyam

     mahad yad drishtavan asi

aham sa bharata shreshtham

     abhejas tat sanatanam

 

“O Bharata, what you see is effulgent Supreme Brahman. I am that eternal Brahman.”

 

     Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (Shri Chaitanya-caritamrita, Madhya 6.141) explains:

 

nirvishesha tare kahe yei shruti-gana

prakrita nishedhi kare aprakrita-sthapana

 

“Wherever there is an impersonal description in the Vedas, the Vedas mean to establish that everything belonging to the Supreme Personality of Godhead is transcendental and free of mundane characteristics.”*

 

Sutra 6

 

viruddha-dharma-samanjasyam tad-acintya-shaktitvat

 

     viruddha—contradictory; dharma—natures; samanjasyam—propriety; tat—of Him; acintya—inconceivable; shaktitvat—because of potencies.

 

Because He has inconceivable potencies, it is proper that He has these mutually contradictory natures.

 

Commentary by Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura

 

     In the Shvetashvatara Upanishad (3.19) it is said:

 

apani-pado javano grahita

     pashyaty acakshuh sa shrinoty akarnah

sa vetti vedyam na ca tasyasti vetta

     tam ahur agryam purusham mahantam

 

“Learned transcendentalists explain that God is the greatest, the original person. He has no material hands, but He can take anything. He has no material legs, but He can travel faster than anyone. He has no material eyes, but He sees everything. He has no material ears, but He hears everything. He knows everything, but no one knows Him.”*

 

 

     In the Kurma Purana it is said:

 

aishvarya-yogad bhagavan

     viruddhartho ‘bhidhiyate

tathapi doshah parama

     naivaharyah kadacana

 

“Because He has inconceivable powers, the Supreme Personality of Godhead has many mutually contradictory qualities. There is never any fault in this.”

 

     Shrila Jayatirtha Muni explains:

 

na kevalam samanyato vicitra-shaktir ishvarah kintu sarva-vishaye sarvada vidyamana-vicitra-shaktih.

 

“It is not merely that, in general, the Supreme Lord has wonderful powers; it is that always and in every circumstance His power and glory are wonderful.”

 

     Shrila Jiva Gosvami explains:

 

dharma eva dharmitvam nirbheda eva nana-bhedavattvam arupitva eva rupitvam vyapakatva eva madhyamattvam iti paraspara-viruddhananta-guna-nidhih.

 

 

     “The Supreme Personality of Godhead, who possesses all transcendental qualities, is not different from His many qualities and glories. He has a form, and yet He has no form. He is all-pervading, and yet He stands in one place. He is a great treasure-house of limitless and mutually contradictory transcendental qualities.”

 

 

Sutra 7

 

 

sa-visheshatvam eva balavad itaranupalabdhe

 

     sa—with; vishesha—qualities; tvam—the state of being; eva—indeed; balavat—powerful; itara—of the other; anupalabdhe—unperceived.

 

 

     Because the Lord’s feature without qualities cannot be perceived, His feature with qualities is more important.

 

Commentary by Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura

 

 

     In the Rigveda-samhita it is said:

 

 

tad vishnoh paramam padam

     sada pashyanti surayah

diviva cakshur atatam

     tad vipraso vipanyavo jagrivamsah samindhate

vishnor yat paramam padam

 

 

     “Just as the sun’s rays in the sky are extended to the mundane vision, so in the same way the wise and learned devotees always see the supreme abode of Lord Vishnu. Because those highly praiseworthy and spiritually awake brahmanas are able to see the spiritual world, they are also able to reveal that supreme abode of Lord Vishnu.”*

 

     In the Varaha Purana it is said:

 

 

sarve nityah shashvatash ca

     devad yasya paratmanah

heyopadeya-rahitah

     naiva prakritijah kvacit

 

 

     “All the varied expansions of the Personality of Godhead are transcendental and eternal, and all of them repeatedly descend to all the different universes of the material creation. Their bodies, composed of eternity, bliss, and knowledge, are everlasting. There is no chance of their decaying, for they are not creations of the material world. Their forms are concentrated spiritual existence, always complete with all spiritual qualities and devoid of material contamination.”*

 

 

paramananda-sandoha-

     jnana-matra ca sarvatah

deha-dehi-bhida catra

     neshvare vidyate kvacit

 

 

     “All the forms of the Supreme Personality of Godhead are full of knowledge and bliss. The Supreme Personality of Godhead and His forms are never different.”

 

     Shrila Jiva Gosvami explains:

 

 

akhanda-tattva-rupo bhagavan samanyakarasya sphurti-lakshanatvena sva-prabhakarasya brahmano ‘py ashraya iti yuktam eva.

 

 

     “The Supreme Personality of Godhead is never different from any of His forms. He is the shelter of the effulgent impersonal Brahman, which is the light emanating from His transcendental form.”

 

 

Sutra 8

 

 

svarupa-tad-rupa-vaibhava-jiva-pradhana-rupena tac caturdha

 

     svarupa—own form; tad-rupa-vaibhava—expansions; jiva—individual spirit souls; pradhana—matter; rupena—in the form; tat—that; caturdha—in four ways.

 

 

     He has four manifestations: 1. His original form, 2. the forms of His direct expansions, 3. the individual spirit souls, and 4. the world of matter.

 

Commentary by Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura

 

 

     In the Shvetashvatara Upanishad (6.16) it is said:

 

 

sa vishva-krid vishva-vid atma-yonih

     kala-karo guni sarva-vidyah

pradhana-kshetra-patir guneshah

     samsara-moksha-sthiti-bandha-hetuh

 

 

     “The Supreme Lord, the creator of the cosmic manifestation, knows every nook and corner of His creation. Although He is the cause of creation, there is no cause for His appearance. He is fully aware of everything. He is the Supersoul, the master of all transcendental qualities, and He is the master of this cosmic manifestation in regard to bondage to the conditional state of material existence and liberation from that bondage.”*

 

     In Shrimad-Bhagavatam it is said:

 

 

bhakti-yogena manasi

     samyak pranihite ‘male

apashyat purusham purnam

     mayam ca tad-apashrayam

 

 

     “Thus he fixed his mind, perfectly engaging it by linking it in devotional service (bhakti-yoga) without any tinge of materialism, and thus he saw the Absolute Personality of Godhead along with His external energy, which was under full control.”*

 

 

yaya sammohito jiva

     atmanam tri-gunatmakam

paro ‘pi manute ‘nartham

     tat-kritam cabhipadyate

 

 

     “Due to this external energy, the living entity, although transcendental to the three modes of material nature, thinks of himself as a material product and thus undergoes the reactions of material miseries.”*

 

     Shrila Jiva Gosvami explains:

 

 

ekam evam paramam tattvam svabhavikacintya-shaktya sarvadaiva svarupa-tad-rupa-vaibhava-jiva-pradhana-rupena caturdhavatishthate.

 

 

     “Although the Supreme Persoanlity of Godhead is one, by His inconceivable potencies He always has four manifestations: 1. His original form, 2. the forms of His direct expansions, 3. the individual spirit souls, and 4. the world of matter.”

 

 

Sutra 9

 

 

acintya-bhedabhedatmakam

 

     acintya—inconceivable; bheda—different; abheda—not different; atmakam—Self.

 

 

     Everything is inconceivably different and not different from Him.

 

Commentary by Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura

 

 

     In the Katha Upanishad (2.2.12) it is said:

 

 

eko vashi sarva-bhutantaratma

     ekam rupam bahudha yah karoti

tam atma-stham ye ‘nupashyanti dhiras

     tesham sukham shashvatam netaresham

 

 

     “Wise men who in their hearts see the one Supreme Personality of Godhead, who becomes many and enters everyone’s heart, attain eternal bliss. Others cannot.”

 

     In Shrimad-Bhagavatam it is said:

 

 

yatha mahanti bhutani

     bhuteshuccavaceshv anu

pravishtany apravishtani

     yatha teshu na teshv aham

 

 

     “O Brahma, please know that the universal elements enter into the cosmos and at the same time they do not enter into the cosmos. Similarly, I Myself also exist within everything created, and at the same time I am outside of everything.”*

 

     In the Padma Purana it is said:

 

 

acintyayaiva shaktyaiva

     eko ‘vayava-varjitah

atmanam bahudha kritva

     kridate yoga-sampada

 

 

     “With the help of His inconceivable mystic potency, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who has no material body, becomes many and enjoys pastimes.”

 

 

     Shrila Jiva Gosvami explains:

 

 

sva-mate tv acintya-bhedabhedav eva.

 

 

     “Everything is inconceivably different and not different from the Supreme Lord.”