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NITAAI-Veda.nyf > All Scriptures By Acharyas > Bhaktivinoda Thakura > Amnaya Sutra > Part one > Chapter-V

Chapter Five

Bahirangamaya-vaibhava-prakarana

The External Potency of the Supreme Personality of Godhead

 

 

Sutra 25

 

 

svarupa-vaibhava-prati-cchavi-rupa maya

 

     svarupa - of the form; vaibhava - potency; prati-cchavi - reflection; rupa - form; maya - illusion.

 

 

     The material energy is the reflected potency of the Lord.

 

Commentary by Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura

 

 

     In the Shvetashvatara Upanishad (6.14) it is said:

 

 

na tatra suryo bhati na candra-tarakam

     nema vidyuto bhanti kuto 'yam agnih

tam eva bhantam anubhati sarvam

     tasya bhasa sarvam idam vibhati

 

 

     "In the sva-dhama (the abode) of the Lord there is no need of sun, moon, or stars for illumination. Nor is there need of electricity, so what to speak of ignited lamps. On the other hand, it is because these planets are self-illuminating that all-effulgence has become possible, and whatever there is that is dazzling is due to the reflection of that sva-dhama."*

 

     In Shrimad-Bhagavatam it is said:

 

 

idam hi vishvam bhagavan ivetaro

     yato jagat-sthana-nirodha-sambhavah

tad dhi svayam veda bhavams tathapi te

     pradesha-matram bhavatah pradarshitam

 

 

     "The Supreme Personality of Godhead is Himself this cosmos, and still He is aloof from it. From Him only has this cosmic manifestation emanated, in Him it rests, and unto Him it enters after annihilation. Your good self knows all about this. I have given only a synopsis."*

 

     Shrila Jiva Gosvami explains:

 

 

bahirangaya mayayakhyaya prati-cchavi-gata-varna-savalya-sthaniya-bahiranga-vaibhava-jadatma-pradhana-rupena. abhaso jyotir-bimbasya sviya-prakashad vyavahita-pradeshe kathancid ucchalitah prati-cchavi-visheshah.

 

 

     "The Lord's external material potency is like His reflection. It is like the reflected light of the sun."

 

 

Sutra 26

 

 

pradhanadi-pada-vacya

 

     pradhana - pradhana; adi - beginning with; pada-vacya - by the words.

 

 

     The material energy is called by the name pradhana and other names also.

 

Commentary by Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura

 

 

     In the Brihad-aranyaka Upanishad (4.4.10) it is said:

 

 

andham tamah pravishanti

     ye 'vidyam upasate.   

 

 

     "They who engage in the culture of nescient activities shall enter into the darkest region of ignorance."*

 

     In the Shvetashvatara Upanishad (1.10) it is said:

 

 

ksharam pradhanam

 

 

     "The material world is a world of repeated death."

 

     In the Maha-samhita it is said:

 

 

shri bhur durgeti yabhinna

     jiva-maya mahatmanah

atma-maya tad-iccha syad

     guna-maya jadatmika

 

 

     "The Supreme Lord's material energy is known as Shri, Bhu, Durga, Jiva-maya, Atma-maya, Guna-maya, and Jadatmika."

 

     Shrila Nimbarka Svami explains:

 

 

maya pradhanadi-pada-pravacya shukladi-bheda same 'pi tatra.

 

 

     "The Supreme Lord's material energy, which consists of the three modes, beginning with the mode of goodness, is called by the name pradhana and many other names also."

 

     Shrila Jiva Gosvami explains:

 

 

tasyapy abhasakhyatvam api dhvanitam.

 

 

     "The Lord's material energy is called by the name Abhasa."

 

 

Sutra 27

 

 

gunatmika sthula-lingabhyam cid-avarani ca

 

     guna - the modes of nature; atmika - consisting of; sthula-lingabhyam - with gross and subtle bodies; cit - the soul; avarani - covering; ca - also.

 

 

     The material nature, which consists of the modes of material nature, covers the spirit souls with gross and subtle bodies.

 

Commentary by Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura

 

 

     In the Shvetashvatara Upanishad (1.4) it is said:

 

 

ashtakaih shadbhir vishva-rupaika-pasham

     tri-marga-bhedam dvi-nimittaika-moham

 

 

     "They saw the potency of the Supreme Personality of Godhead as a great wheel with a single rim divided first into three and then into sixteen, with 50 spokes, 20 counter-spokes, six groups of eight, one rope, three paths, and an illusion with two causes."

 

     (Note: Shri Ranga Ramanuja explains that the three divisions of the rim are the material modes of goodness, passion, and ignorance, the sixteen divisions are the five gross elements (earth, water, fire, air, and ether), the five working senses (voice, arms, legs, belly, and genital), the five knowledge-acquiring senses (eyes, ears, tongue, nose, and touch), and the mind. The fifty spokes and 20 counter-spokes are the varieties of material suffering. The six groups of eight are: 1.earth, water, fire, air, ether, mind, intelligence, and false ego, 2. the outer layer of sin, the inner layer of skin, flesh, blood, bones, marrow, fat, and semen, 3. mercy, forbearance, non-enviousness, diligence, being a source of auspiciousness for others, generosity, and freedom from material desire, 4. the eight mystic powers, 5. piety, knowledge, renunciation, opulence, sinfulness, ignorance, sense-happiness, and poverty, and 6. Brahma, the prajapatis, devas, gandharvas, yakshas, rakshasas, pitas, and pishacas. The single rope is material desire, the three paths are karma (fruitive action), jnana (the search for knowledge), and bhakti (devotional service), and the two causes of illusion are sense-pleasure and material-piety._

 

     In the Markandeya Purana it is said:

 

 

tan natra vismayah karyo

     yoga-nidra jagat-pateh

maha-mayam haresh caitat

     taya sammohyate jagat

 

 

     "It is not surprising that the Supreme Lord's mystic sleep is an illusory potency that bewilders all the world."

 

     In the Bhagavad-gita (7.14), Lord Krishna explains:

 

 

daivi hy esha gunamayi

     mama maya duratyaya

 

 

     "This divine energy of Mine, consisting of the three modes of material nature, is difficult to overcome."*

 

     Shrila Jiva Gosvami explains:

 

 

yadyapiyam bahiranga tathapy asyam tatastha-shakti-mayam api jivam avaritum samarthyam astiti. iyam api jiva-jnanam avrinoti.

 

 

     "The Lord's external potency has the power to cover the marginal potency, which consists of the individual spirit souls. Thus the marginal potency covers the souls' true knowledge."

 

 

Sutra 28

 

 

tasmin desha-kala-karmadi-jada-vyapara-visheshah

 

     tasmin - in that; desha - place; kala - time; karma - action; adi - beginning with; jada-vyapara-visheshah - various material things.

 

 

     In that external potency are situated time, space, karma, and other aspects of matter.

 

Commentary by Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura

 

 

     In the Shvetashvatara Upanishad (4.9) it is said:

 

 

chandamsi yajna ritavo vratani

     bhutam bhavyam yac ca veda vadanti

yasman mayi shrijate vishvam etat

     tasmimsh canyo mayaya sanniruddham

 

 

     "The Vedas describe a bewildering variety of hymns, prayers, sacrifices, rituals, vows, austerities, history, and predictions of the future. Simply by studying the Vedas it is very difficult for the conditioned soul, illusioned by maya and trapped in the material world, to understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the controller of the illusory potency and the creator of the material universes."*

 

     In Shrimad-Bhagavatam (3.5.25) it is said:

 

 

sa va etasya sandrashtuh

     shaktih sad-asad-atmika

maya nama maha-bhaga

     yayedam nirmame vibhuh

 

 

     "The Lord is the seer, and the external energy, which is seen, works as both cause and effect in the cosmic manifestation. O greatly fortunate Vidura, this external energy is known as maya or illusion, and through her agency only is the entire material manifestation made possible."*

 

     Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana explains:

 

 

prakritih sattvadi-guna-samyavastha tamo-mayadi-shabda-vacya kalam tu nimitta-bhuto jada-dravya-visheshah karma tu jadam adrishtadi vyapadeshyam anadi-vinashi ca.

 

 

     "The Lord's material energy, which consists of the material modes beginning with the mode of goodness, and which is neither created nor destroyed, is called by the names tamah, maya, and many other names also. In that material energy are situated time, the lifeless material elements, karma, destiny, and many other features of matter."

 

 

Sutra 29

 

 

bahiranga-vaicitram tu antaranga-vaicitra-vikritih

 

     bahiranga - of the external energy; vaicitram - the wonderful variety; tu - indeed; antaranga - of the internal potency; vaicitra - wonderful variety; vikritih - transformation.

 

 

     The wonderful variety present in the Lord's external energy is a perverted reflection of the wonderful variety present in the Lord's internal energy.

 

Commentary by Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura

 

 

     In the Mundaka Upanishad it is said:

 

 

asmin dyauh prithivi cantariksham otam manah saha pranaish ca sarvaih tam evaikam janathah atmanam anyavaco vimuncatha amritasyaishah prabhuh. etasyaivanandasyanyani bhutani matram upajivanti.

 

 

     "Please know that heaven, earth, outer space, mind, life, and everything else are all the potencies of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Please avoid speaking of them in any other way. They are all the Lord's potencies. Everything depends on the blissful Supreme Lord."

 

     In Shrimad-Bhagavatam (3.5.37) it is said:

 

 

bhutanam nabha-adinam

     yad-yad-bhavyavaravaram

tesham paranusamsargad

     yatha sankhyam gunan viduh

 

 

     "O gentle one, of all the physical elements, beginning from the sky down to the earth, all the inferior and superior qualities are due only to the final touch of the glance of the Supreme Personality of Godhead."*

 

     Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu explains:

 

 

yaiccha suryera sthane bhasaye abhasa

surya vina svatah tara na haya prakasha

 

 

     "The Supreme Lord is like the sun. As nothing can be seen without the sun, so nothing is manifested with the Lord."

 

     In the following song Vidyapati Thakura describes the transcendental realm of Vrindavana:

 

 

bahiranga-prakrita

          vaicitra ihara vikriti

 

nava vrindavana    navina taru-gana  

          nava nava vikasita phula

navina vasanta    navina malayanila  

          matala nava ali-kula

 

          biharai naula kishora

kalindi pulina    kunja nava shobhana

          nava nava prema vibhora

 

navina rasala   mukula madhu matiya

          nava kokila kunja gaya

nava-yuvati-gana   cita umatayai

          nava rase kanane dhaya

 

nava yuva raja   navina nagari

          milaye nava nava bhati

niti niti aichana   nava nava khelana

          vidyapati mati mati

 

 

     "The material world is only a perverted reflection of the spiritual world of Vrindavana. Vrindavana is eternally new and fresh. The trees there are eternally new and fresh, the blossoming flowers are eternally new and fresh, the springtime is eternally new and fresh, the Malaya breezes are eternally new and fresh, the buzzing bees are eternally new and fresh, and Lord Krishna is eternally youthful and playful. The Yamuna, the riverbanks, and the forest groves are eternally new and eternally beautiful. The pure love is eternally new and fresh. The mango trees, the new buds, and the honey are all eternally new and fresh. The eternally young cuckoos sing in the forest groves. The eternally-young gopis enjoy eternally-new nectar pastimes in the forests there. Krishna is the eternally youthful king. Radha is His eternally youthful heroine. Their lover's meeting is eternally new and fresh. Their pastimes are eternally new and fresh. Vidyapati dasa thinks of Them again and again."