Click here to load whole tree
NITAAI-Veda.nyf > All Scriptures By Acharyas > Bhaktivinoda Thakura > Amnaya Sutra > Part one > Chappter-III

Chapter Three

Svarupa-prakarana

The Real Form of the Supreme Personality of Godhead

 

 

Sutra 13

 

svarupam tri-vidham

 

     svarupam—own form; tri—three; vidham—kinds.

 

 

     The Supreme Personality of Godhead has three features.

 

Commentary by Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura

 

 

     In the Shvetashvatara Upanishad it is said:

 

 

udgitam etat paramam tu brahma

     tasmims trayam su-pratishthitaksharam ca

tatrantaram brahma-vido viditva

     lina brahmani tat-para yoni-muktah

 

 

     “The Vedas declare that the Absolute Truth exists in three features. He is the Brahman, the Supersoul in everyone’s heart, and the Supreme Person. They who know Him as the impersonal Brahman merge into Brahman. They who are devoted to His original feature as the Supreme Person escape having to enter a mother’s womb.”

 

     In Shrimad-Bhagavatam it is said:

 

 

vadanti tat tattva-vidas

     tattvam yaj jnanam advayam

brahmeti paramatmeti

     bhagavan iti shabdyate

 

 

     “Learned transcendentalists who know the Absolute Truth call this non-dual substance Brahman, Paramatma, or Bhagavan.”*

 

     Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu explains (Shri Chaitanya-caritamrita, Madhya 20.157):

 

 

jnana yoga bhakti tina sadhanera vashe

brahma atma bhagavan tri-vidha prakashe

 

 

     “There are three kinds of spiritual processes for understanding the Absolute Truth: the processes of speculative knowledge, mystic yoga, and bhakti-yoga. According to these three processes, the Absolute Truth is manifested and Brahman, Paramatma, and Bhagavan.”*

 

 

Sutra 14

 

 

jnane cin-matram brahma

 

     jnane—in jnana-yoga; cit—spirit; matram—only; brahma—Brahman.

 

 

     By following jnana-yoga the undifferentiated spirit, the Brahman, is realized.

 

Commentary by Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura

 

 

     In the Kena Upanishad (1.4) it is said:

 

 

yad vacanabhyuditam yan manasa na manute yac cakshusha na pashyanti yac chrotrena na shrinoti yat pranena na praniti tad eva brahma tam viddhi.

 

 

     “Know that the Brahman cannot be described by the voice, conceived of by the mind, seen by the eyes, heard about by the ears, or breathed with the breath.”

 

     In the Mandukya Upanishad it is said:

 

 

sarvam hy etad brahmayam atma brahma so ‘yam atma catushpat.

 

 

     “Everything is Brahman. The Supersoul, present in each of the four quarters, is Brahman.”

 

     In the Bhagavad-gita (14.27), Lord Krishna explains:

 

 

brahmano hi pratishthaham

     amritasyavyayasya ca

shashvatasya ca dharmasya

     sukham aikantikasya ca

 

 

     “I am the basis of the impersonal Brahman, which is immortal, imperishable, and eternal, and is the constitutional position of ultimate happiness.”*

 

     Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu explains:

 

 

brahma anga-kanti tanra nirvishesha prakashe

surya yena carma-cakshe jyotirmaya bhase

 

 

     “The manifestation of the impersonal Brahman effulgence, which is without variety, is the rays of Krishna’s bodily effulgence. It is exactly like the sun. When the sun is seen by our ordinary eyes, it simply appears to consist of effulgence.”*

 

 

Sutra 15

 

 

yoge vishvamaya-paratma

 

     yoge—in yoga; vishvamaya—everywhere in the universe; paratma—the Supersoul.

 

 

     By following the path of yoga the Supersoul, who is present everywhere in the material universe, is realized.

 

Commentary by Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura

 

 

     In the Aitareya Upanishad it is said:

 

 

atma va idam eka evagra asit. nanyat kincana mishat.

 

 

     “In the beginning only the Supersoul existed. There was nothing but Him.”

 

     In the Shvetashvatara Upanishad it is said:

 

 

angushtha-matrah purusho ‘ntaratma

     sada jananam hridaye sannivishthah

hrida manv-isho manasabhiklpto

     yatra tad vidur amritas te bhavanti

 

 

     “The conditioned soul is small like a thumb, splendid like the the sun, and filled with false-ego and material desire. Different from him is the Supersoul, whose form is also very small, but who is filled with intelligence and spiritual knowledge.”

 

     In the Satvata Tantra it is said:

 

 

vishnos tu trini rupani

     purushakhyany atho viduh

prathamam mahatah srashtri

     dvitiyam tv anda-samsthitam

tritiyam sarva-bhuta-stham

     ta vijnatva pramucyate

 

 

     “Vishnu has three forms, called purushas. The first, Maha-Vishnu, is the creator of the total material energy (mahat), the second is Garbhodashayi, who is situated within each universe, and the third is Kshirodashayi, who lives in the heart of every living being. He who knows these three becomes liberated from the clutches of maya.”*

 

     Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (explains:

 

 

paramatma yenho tinho krishnera eka amsha

atmara atma hana krishna sarva avatamsa

 

 

     “The Paramatma, the Supersoul feature, is the partial plenary portion of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is the original source of all living entities. It is also Krishna who is the original source of Paramatma.”*

 

 

Sutra 16

 

 

tad-avatara hy asankhyah

 

     tat—of Him; avatarah—incarnations; hy—indeed; asankhyah—countless.

 

 

     From Him come countless incarnations.

 

Commentary by Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura

 

 

     In the Catur-veda-shikha, the Lord says:

 

 

vasudevah sankarshanah pradyumno ‘niruddho ‘ham matysah kurmo varaho nrisimho vamano ramo ramo buddha-kalkir aham

 

 

     “I am Vasudeva, Sankarshana, Pradyumna, Aniruddha, Matysa, Kurma, Varaha, Nrisimha, Vamana, Rama, Parashurama, Buddha, and Kalki.”

 

     In Shrimad-Bhagavatam (1.3.26) it is said:

 

 

avatara hy asankhyeya

     hareh sattva-nidher dvijah

yatha vidamsinah kulyah

     sarasah syuh sahasrashah

 

 

     “O brahmanas, the incarnations of the Lord are innumerable, like rivulets flowing from inexhaustible sources of water.”*

 

     Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (Shri Chaitanya-caritamrita, Madhya 20.245-246) explains:

 

 

purushavatara eka lilavatara ara

 

gunavatara ara manvantaravatara

yugavatara ara shaktyaveshavatara

 

 

     “There are six types of incarnations (avataras) of Krishna. One is the incarnations of Vishnu (purusha-avataras), and another is the incarnations meant for the performance of pastimes (lila-avataras). There are incarnations that control the material qualities (guna-avataras), incarnations of the Manus (manvantara-avataras), incarnations in different millenniums (yuga-avataras), and incarnations of empowered living entities (shaktyavesha-avataras).”*

 

 

Sutra 17

 

 

sarve cic-chaktimanto maheshvarah

 

     sarve—all; cit—spiritual; shakti—potencies; mantah—possessing; maheshvarah—the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

 

 

     All these incarnations are the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself. They are the masters of the spiritual potencies.

 

Commentary by Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura

 

 

     In the Catur-veda-shikha it is said:

 

 

naivete jayante naitesham ajnana-bandho na muktih. sarva esha hy ete purna ajara amritah paramah paramanandah.

 

 

     “The incarnations of the Lord do not take birth. They are never bound by ignorance. They never require to become liberated. They are all perfect and complete. They are free from old-age and death. They are full of transcendental bliss. They are all the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself.”

     In the Varaha Purana it is said:

 

 

svamshash catho vibhinnamsha iti dvedhamsha ishyate.

 

 

     “There are two kinds of amshas. The svamshas are incarnations of the Lord and the vibhinnamshas are the individual spirit souls.”

 

     In the Sammohana Tantra it is said:

 

 

dharmartha-kama-mokshanam

     ishvaro jagad-ishvarah

santi tasya maha-bhaga

     avatarah sahasrashah

 

 

     “the Supreme Personality of Godhead is the master of all the universes. He is the master of religion, economic development, sense gratification, and liberation. In many thousands of very glorious incarnations, He comes to this world.”

 

     Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (Shri Chaitanya-caritamrita, Madhya 20.145) explains:

 

 

mayatita paravyoma sabara avasthana

vishve avatari dhari avatara nama

 

 

     “All the expansions of Lord Krishna are actually residents of the spiritual world. However, when They descend into the material world, they are called incarnations (avataras).”*

 

 

Sutra 18

 

 

bhaktau purna-purusho bhagavan

 

     bhaktau—in devotional service; purna-purushah—the perfect Supreme Personality of Godhead; bhagavan—the master of all opulences.

 

 

     By following the path of devotional service the perfect Supreme Personality of Godhead, the master of all opulences, is realized.

 

Commentary by Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura

 

 

     In the Shvetashvatara Upanishad (3.8) it is said:

 

 

vedaham etam purusham mahantam

     aditya-varnam tamasah parastat

tam eva viditvati mrityum eti

     nanyah pantha vidyate ‘yanaya

 

 

     “I know that Supreme Personality of Godhead who is transcendental to all material conceptions of darkness. Only he who knows Him can transcend the bonds of birth and death. There is no way for liberation other than this knowledge of the Supreme Person.”*

 

     In the Garga-samhita it is said:

 

 

purnah puranah purushottamottamah

     parat paro yah purushah pareshvarah

svayam sad-anandamayam kripakaram

     gunakaram tam sharanam vrajamy aham

 

 

     “I take shelter of the perfect Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is older than the oldest, greater than the greatest, the supreme person, the supreme master, full of transcendental bliss, a jewel mine of mercy, and a jewel mine of transcendental virtues.”

 

     Shri Nimbarka Svami explains:

 

 

sva-bhavato ‘pasta-samasta-dosham

     ashesha-kalyana-gunaika-rashim

vyuhanginam brahma-param varenyam

     dhyayema krishnam kamalekshanam harim

 

 

     “I meditate on Lord Krishna, the lotus-eyed Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is completely faultless, who is a treasury of all auspicious virtues, who is the Supreme, who is the greatest, and who expands in many forms.”

 

 

Sutra 19

 

 

audarya-madhuryaishvarya-bhedena tat-svarupam api tri-vidham

 

     audarya—generosity; madhurya—sweetness; aishvarya—opulence; bhedena—with difference; tat—His; svarupam—nature; api—also; tri—three; vidham—kinds.

 

 

     He has three features: Audarya (generosity), Madhurya (sweetness), and Aishvarya (opulence).

 

Commentary by Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura

 

 

     In the Shvetashvatara Upanishad (6.7 and 3.12) it is said:

 

 

tam ishvaranam paramam maheshvaram

     tam devatanam paramam ca daivatam

patim patinam paramam parastat

     vidama devam bhuvanesham idyam

 

 

     “We meditate on the Supreme Personality of Godhead. He is the controller of all other controllers, and He is the greatest of all the diverse planetary leaders. Everyone is under His control. All entities are delegated with particular power only by the Supreme Lord. They are not Supreme themselves. He is also worshipable by all demigods and is the supreme director of all directors. Therefore, He is transcendental to all kinds of material leaders and controllers and is worshipable by all. There is no one greater than Him, and He is the supreme cause of all causes.”*

 

 

mahan prabhur vai purushah

     sattvasyaishah pravartakah

su-nirmalam imam praptim

     ishano jyotir avyayah

 

 

     “the Supreme Personality of Godhead is the source of the Brahman effulgence, and He is imperishable. He is the Supreme Controller. He controls the mode of goodness, and He awards various kinds of intelligence to the living entities. He is the controller of spiritual purity and liberation.”*

 

     In the Gopala-tapani Upanishad it is said:

 

 

sat-pundarika-nayanam

     meghambhram vaidyutambaram

dvi-bhujam mauna-mudradhyam

     vana-malinam ishvaram

 

 

     “I offer my respectful obeisances to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, whose eyes are lotus flowers, who is splendid like a dark monsoon cloud, whose garments are lightning, who has two arms, who is filled with transcendental knowledge, and who is decorated with a garland of forest flowers.”

 

     In tha Manu-samhita it is said:

 

 

prashasitaram sarv/esham

     aniyamsam anor api

rukmabham svapna-dhi-gamyam

     vidyat tam purusham param

 

 

     “Please know that the Supreme Personality of Godhead is the master and controller of everyone. He is smaller than the smallest. He is splendid like gold. He sometimes appears in a dream.”

 

     In Shrimad-Bhagavatam (2.2.17) it is said:

 

 

na yatra kalam nimisham parah prabhuh

    

 

     “In that transcendental state of labdhopashanti, there is no supremacy of devastating time.”*

 

     In the Narada-pancaratra it is said:

 

 

manir yatha vibhagena

     nila-pitadibhir yutah

rupa-bhedam avapnoti

     dhyana-bhedat tathacyutah

 

 

     “When the jewel known as vaidurya touches other materials, it appears to be separated into different colors. Consequently the forms also appear different. Similarly, according to the meditational ecstasy of the devotee, the Lord, who is known as Acyuta (infallible), appears in different forms, although He is essentially one.”*

 

     In Shri Chaitanya-caritamrita (2.22) it is said:

 

 

sei narayana krishnera svarupa abheda

 

 

     “Lord Narayana and Lord Krishna are not different.”

 

 

sei govinda sakshac chaitanya gosai

jiva nistarite aiche dayalu ara nai

 

 

     “That Govinda personally appears as Chaitanya Gosani. No other Lord is as merciful in delivering the fallen souls.”*

 

     In the Chaitanya-candrodaya, Lord Advaita Prabhu says:

 

 

nava-kuvalaya-dhama shyamalo vama-jangha

     hita-tad-itara-janghah ko ‘pi divya-kishorah

tam iva sa sa iva tvam gocaro naiva bhedah

     kathayatha rupyam aho me jagratah svapna eshah

 

 

     “O Lord Chaitanya, You are not different from Lord Krishna, the divine youth who is dark like a splendid blue lotus. Please reveal to Me this form of Lord Krishna.”

 

 

Sutra 20

 

 

svena dhamnatma-shaktya ca so ‘py avatarati

 

     svena—own; dhamna—with abode; atma—own; shaktya—with potency; ca—and; sah—He; api—indeed; avatarati—descends.

 

 

     To this world He descends with His own potency and His transcendental abode.

 

Commentary by Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura

 

 

     In the Chaitanya Upanishad it is said:

 

 

gaurah sarvatma maha-purusho mahatma maha-yogi tri-gunatita-sattva-rupo bhaktim loke kashayati.

 

 

     “Lord Gaura, who is the all-pervading Supersoul, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, appears as a great saint and powerful mystic who is above the three modes of nature, and is the emblem of transcendental activity. He disseminates the cult of devotion throughout the world.”*

 

     In the Kena Upanishad (3.2) it is said:

 

 

tad vaisham vijajno tebhyo prahurbabhuva

 

 

     “Understanding them, the Supreme Personality of Godhead appeared before them.”

 

     In the Kalika Purana, in the Devi-stuti prayers, it is said:

 

 

tasya brahmadayo deva

     munayash ca tapo-dhanah

na vivrinnanti rupani

     varnaniyah katham sa me

 

 

     “Brahma, the demigods, and the sages whose wealth is austerity cannot properly describe the transcendental forms of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. How can I describe Them?”

 

     In Govinda dasa’s Prarthana it is said:

 

 

hari hari bada duhkha rahala marame

 

gaura kirtana rase    jaga-jana matala 

          vancita mo hena adhame

 

 

     “Alas! Alas! I am very unhappy at heart. Everyone in the world is now intoxicated with the nectar of Lord Gaura’s kirtana. Only I, the lowest of the low, have been cheated of tasting it.

 

 

vrajendra-nandana   jei shaci-suta bhela sei

          balarama haila nitai

dina hina jata chila  hari-name uddharila

          tara sakshi jagai madhai

 

 

     “The prince of Vraja has become Shaci’s son. Balarama has become Nityananda. The holy name has delivered all the fallen. Jagai and Madhai are the witnesses to prove that fact.

 

hena prabhu shri-carane   rati na janmila kene

          na bhajilama hena avatara

daruna bishaya bishe   satata majiya renu

          mukhe dinu jvalanta angara

 

 

     “I do not love the Lord’s feet. I do not worship Him as He appears in this incarnation. Again and again I drink the most terrible poison. My mouth is now burned to ashes.

 

 

emana dayalu data   ara na paiba kotha

          paiya helaya harainu

govinda-dasiya kaya   anale pudinu naya

          saha jei atma-ghati hainu

 

 

     “He is the most merciful. Still, Govinda dasa burns in this fire of illusions.