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NITAAI-Veda.nyf > All Scriptures By Acharyas > Bhaktivinoda Thakura > Amnaya Sutra > Part Three > Chapter-IV

Chapter Four

Rasasvadana-prakarana

Relishing the Rasas

 

 

Sutra 104

 

 

samagri catur-vidha

 

     samagri - the ingredients; catuh - four; vidha - kinds.

 

 

     The samagris (ingredients of rasa) are of four kinds.

 

Commentary by Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura

 

 

     In the Mandukya Upanishad (2) it is said:

 

 

brahma catush-pat.

 

 

     "Nectar love for the Supreme Personality of Godhead has four ingredients."

 

     In the Agni Purana it is said:

 

 

sthayi-nyasto rati-mukhya

     stambhadya vyabhicarinah

mano-'nukule 'nubhavah

     sukhasya vatimrirayate

 

 

     "When ecstatic love for the Supreme Lord is firmly established, the vyabhicaris, which begin with the ecstatic symptom of being stunned, increase the bliss of the devotee."

 

     Shrila Rupa Gosvami (Shri Bhakti-rasamrita-sindhu 2.1.4-5) explains:

 

 

athasya keshava-rater

     lakshitaya nigadyate

samagri pariposhena

     parama rasa-rupata

 

vibhavair anubhavaish ca

     sattvikair vyabhicaribhih

svadyatvam hridi bhaktanam

     anita shravanadibhih

esha krishna-rati-sthayi

     bhavo bhakti-raso bhavet

 

 

     "Love for Krishna, Keshava, as previously described, reaches the supreme state of being composed of mellows when its ingredients are fulfilled. By means of vibhava, anubhava, sattvika, and vyabhicari, hearing and chanting are activated, and the devotee is able to taste love for Krishna. Then attachment for Krishna, or permanent ecstasy (sthayi-bhava), becomes the mellow of devotional service (bhakti-rasa)."*

 

 

Sutra 105

 

 

alambanoddipanatmako vibhavah

 

     alambana - alambana; uddipana - uddipana; atmakah - self; vibhavah - vibhava.

 

 

     The first of the samagris (ingredients of rasa) is vibhava (the cause bringing about the tasting of love for Krishna). Vibhava is divided in two features: 1. alambana (support), and 2. uddipana (awakening).

 

Commentary by Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura

 

 

     In the Katha Upanishad it is said:

 

 

etad alambanam shreshtham

     etad alambanam param

etad alambanam jnatva

     brahmaloke mahiyate

 

 

     "The Supreme Personality of Godhead is the supreme alambana of ecstatic love. He is the best alambana of ecstatic love. One who thus knows Him as the alambana of ecstatic love becomes glorious in the spiritual world."

 

     In the Agni Purana it is said:

 

 

vibhava-nama sad-vidha-

     lambanoddipanatmakah

raty-adi-bhava-vargo 'yam

     yam ajivyopajayate

 

 

     "Vibhava has two features: 1. alambana, and 2. uddipana. In this way ecstatic love, which begins with rati, increases."

 

     Shrila Rupa Gosvami (Shri Bhakti-rasamrita-sindhu 2.1.14) explains:

 

 

tatra jneya vibhavas tu

     raty-asvadana-hetavah

te dvidhalambana eke

     tathaivoddipana pare

 

 

     "The cause bringing about the tasting of love for Krishna is called vibhava. Vibhava is divided into two categories: alambana (support) and uddipana (awakening)."*

 

 

Sutra 106

 

 

trayodasha-lakshanatmako 'nubhavah

 

     trayodasha - 13; lakshana - characteristics; atmakah - self; anubhavah - anubhava.

 

 

     The next samagri (ingredient of rasa) is anubhava (subsequent ecstasy). There are thirteen kinds of anubhava.

 

Commentary by Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura

 

 

     In the Taittiriya Upanishad it is said:

 

 

bhrigus tasmai yata vishanti tad vijijnasasva tam trayodasha prana-mano-vijnanam iti.

 

 

     "Bhrigu Muni said: Know that the mind, knowledge, and life-breath manifest thirteen kinds of ecstatic symptoms in love for the Supreme Personality of Godhead."

 

     In the Agni Purana it is said:

 

 

arambha eva vidusham

     anubhava iti smritah

sa canubhuyate catra

     bhavaty uta nirucyate

 

 

     "Subsequent ecstasy is called anubhava because it is what is experienced (anubhuyate) by the enlightened souls."

 

     Shrila Rupa Gosvami (Shri Bhakti-rasamrita-sindhu 2.2.2) explains:

 

 

nrityam viluthitam gitam

     kroshanam tanu-motanam

hunkaro jrimbhanam shvasa-

     bhuma lokan apekshita

lala-sravo 'tta-hasash ca

     ghurna hikkadayo 'pi ca

 

 

     "Practical examples of anubhava are as follows: dancing, rolling on the ground, singing very loudly, stretching the body, crying loudly, yawning, breathing very heavily, neglecting the presence of others, drooling, laughing like a madman, wheeling the head, and belching."*

 

 

Sutra 107

 

 

ashta-lakshanah sattvikah

 

     ashta - eight; lakshanah - characteristics; sattvikah - sattvika-bhava.

 

 

     The next samagri (ingredient of rasa) is sattvika-bhava (constitutional or existential ecstasy). Sattvika-bhava has eight features.

 

Commentary by Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura

 

 

     In the Mundaka Upanishad (3.1.4) it is said:

 

 

prano hy esha sarva-bhutair vibhati

     vijanan vidvan bhavate nati-vadi

atma-krida atma-ratih kriyavan

     esha brahma-vidam varishthah

 

 

     "The Supreme Personality of Godhead is the life of all. He is the Supersoul splendidly manifest in all living beings. One who knows Him becomes wise. That person turns from the logicians' debates. He meditates on the Lord's pastimes. He loves the Lord. He serves the Lord. He is the best of transcendentalists."

 

     In the Agni Purana it is said:

 

 

ashta-stambhadayah sattvad

     rajasas tamasah param

 

 

     "Sattvika-bhava has eight features beginning with becoming stunned in ecstasy. It is called sattvika because it is situated in pure goodness, free from any touch of passion or ignorance."

 

     Shrila Rupa Gosvami (Shri Bhakti-rasamrita-sindhu 2.3.11-12) explains:

 

 

cittam satvi-bhavat prane

     nyasyaty atmanam udbhatam

pranas tu vikriyam gacched

     deham vikshobhayaty alam

tada stambhadayo bhava

     bhakta-dehe bhavaty ami

 

 

     "When the devotee feels great ecstatic love in his heart, his transformed life-force agitates his body and then ecstatic symptoms, such as becoming stunned, are manifested on his body.

 

 

te stambha-sveda-romancah

     svara-bhedo 'tha vepathuh

vaivarnyam ashru-pralaya

     ity ashtau sattvikah smritah

 

 

     "There are eight symptoms of existential ecstatic love: becoming stunned, perspiring, standing of the hairs on the body, faltering of the voice, trembling of the body, changing of bodily colors, shedding of tears, and devastation."*

 

 

Sutra 108

 

 

sancaris tu trayastrimsha-lakshanah

 

     sancarih - sancari-bhava; tu - indeed; trayastrimsha - thirty-three; lakshanah - features.

 

 

     The next samagri (ingredient of rasa) is sancari-bhava (continuously existing ecstatic symptoms). Sancari-bhava has thirty-three features.

 

Commentary by Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura

 

 

     In the Aitareya Upanishad (3.1.2) it is said:

 

 

yad etad dhridayam manash caitat samjnanam ajnanam vijnanam prajnanam medha drishtir dhritir manisha jutih smritih sankalpah kratur asuh kamo vasha iti. sarvany evaitani prajnanasya namadheyani bhavanti.

 

 

     "The heart, mind, knowledge, perception, wisdom, discrimination, intelligence, vision, patience, thoughtfulness, action, memory, will, talent, reflection, desire, and control are the various parts of wisdom."

 

     In the Agni Purana it is said:

 

 

vairagyadir manah khedo

     nirveda iti kathyate

 

 

     "Renunciation is defined as that condition where the mind is no longer passionate to enjoy the things of this world."

 

     Shrila Rupa Gosvami (Shri Bhakti-rasamrita-sindhu 2.4.4-6) explains:

 

 

nirvedo 'tha vishado dainyam

     glani-shramau ca mada-garvau

shanka-trasa-vega unmada-

     pasmriti tatha vyadhih

 

moho mritir alasyam

     jadyam vridavahittha ca

smritir atha vitarka-cinta-

     mati-dhritayo harsha utsukatvam ca

 

augryamarshasuyash

     capalyam caiva nidra ca

suptir bodha itime bhava

     vyabhicarinah samakhyatah

 

 

     "There are some bodily symptoms that express overwhelming ecstatic love (vyabhicari-bhava). They are counted at thirty-three as follows: disappointment, lamentation, humility, guilt, fatigue, intoxication, pride, doubt, apprehension, intense emotion, madness, forgetfulness, disease, confusion, death, laziness, inertness, bashfulness, concealment, remembrance, argumentativeness, anxiety, thoughtfulness, endurance, happiness, eagerness, violence, haughtiness, envy, impudence, dizziness, sleepiness, and alertness."*

 

 

Sutra 109

 

 

bhakti-raso hi maya-gandha-shunya-paramartha-sva-rupa-gata-cid-vaicitryam

 

     bhakti-raso - the rasas of devotional service; hi - indeed; maya - of material illuison; gandha - of the scent; shunya - devoid; parama - supreme; artha - treasure; sva - own; rupa - form; gata - attained; cid - spiritual; vaicitryam - wonder of variety.

 

 

     The rasas of devotional service are free from the slightest scent of maya (the illusory potency of matter). They are a great wonder of spiritual variety. They are the greatest treasure.

 

Commentary by Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura

 

 

     In the Brihad-aranyaka Upanishad (4.4.21) it is said:

 

 

tam eva dhiro vijnaya

     prajnam kurvita brahmanah

nanudhyayad bahn cchabdad

     vaco viglapatam hi tat

 

 

     "A wise brahmana will use his intelligence to understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead. He will not study other things. Other topics are a waste of words."

 

     In the Gopala-tapani Upanishad (1.5-6) it is said:

 

 

sakalam param brahmaivaitad. yo dhyayati rasayati bhajati so 'mrito bhavati. so 'mrito bhavati.

 

 

     "The Supreme Personality of Godhead is everything. One who meditates on Him, glorifies Him, and worships Him, and thus enjoys the nectar of transcendental bliss, becomes immortal. He becomes immortal."

 

     In Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.87.23) it is said:

 

 

nibhrita-marun-mano-'ksha-dridha-yoga-yujo hridi yan-

     munaya upasate tad arayo 'pi yayuh smaranat

striya uragendra-bhoga-bhuja-danda-visakta-dhiyo

     vayam api te samah sama-drisho 'nghri-saroja-sudhah

 

 

     "Great sages, by practicing the mystic yoga system and controlling the breath, conquer the mind and senses. Thus engaging in mystic yoga and seeing the Supersoul within their hearts, they ultimately enter into the impersonal Brahman along with the enemies of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. However, the damsels of Vraja, the gopis, want to embrace Krishna and His arms, which are like serpents. Being attracted by the beauty of Krishna, the gopis ultimately tasted the nectar of the lotus feet of the Lord. The Upanishads have also tasted the nectar of His lotus feet by following in the footsteps of the gopis."*

 

     Shrila Rupa Gosvami (Shri Bhakti-rasamrita-sindhu 2.5.131) explains:

 

 

sarvathaiva duruho 'yam

     abhhaktair bhagavad-rasah

tat-padambuja-sarvasvair

     bhaktir evanurasyate

 

 

     "Nondevotees cannot understand the transcendental mellows experienced between the devotee and the Lord. In all respects this is very difficult, but one who has dedicated everything to the lotus feet of Krishna can taste the transcendental mellows."*

 

     Shrila Rupa Gosvami (Shri Bhakti-rasamrita-sindhu 2.5.112) also explains:

 

 

paramananda-tad-atmyad

     raty-ader asya vastutah

rasasya sva-prakashatvam

     akhandatvam ca sidhyati

 

 

     "Attraction to Lord Krishna and the various kinds of ecstatic love for Krishna all come from the Lord's pleasure potency. In this way the mellows of spiritual love are self-manifest, unbroken, and perfect."

 

 

Sutra 110

 

 

shri-krishna-lilastu sarva-rasa-pratishtha

 

     shri-krishna-lila - the pastimes of Lord Krishna; astu - are; sarva-rasa - of all rasas; pratishtha - the basis.

 

 

     Lord Krishna's pastimes are the place where all the rasas rest.

 

Commentary by Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura

 

 

     In the Gopala-tapani Upanishad (1.8-9) it is said:

 

 

tad u hovaca hairanyo gopa-vesham abhrabham tarunam kalpa-drumashritam

 

 

     "Brahma said: He appears like a cowherd boy. His complexion is like a monsoon cloud. He stays under a desire tree."

 

     In the Gopala-tapani Upanishad (1.54) it is also said:

 

 

tasmat krishna eva paro daivas tam dhyayet tam rasayet tam yajet tam bhajed iti. om tat sad iti.

 

 

     "Therefore, Krishna is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. One should meditate on Him, glorify Him, serve Him, and worship Him. Om Tat Sat."

 

     In the Chandogya Upanishad (8.13.1) it is said:

 

 

shyamac chavalam prapadye

     shavalac chyamam prapadye

 

 

     "By the mercy of Lord Krishna, I take shelter of His transcendental potency, Shri Radha. By the mercy of Shri Radha, I take shelter of Lord Krishna."

 

     In the Vishnu Purana it is said:

 

 

yatravatirnam krishnakhyam

     param brahma narakritih

 

 

     "Lord Krishna is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, whose form is like that of a human being. Now He has descended to the earth."

 

     In Shri Chaitanya-caritamrita (21.101 and 103) it is said:

 

 

krishnera yateka khela  sarvottama nara-lila

          nara-vapu tahara svarupa

gopa-vesha venu-kara  nava kishora nata-vara

          nara-lila haya anurupa

 

 

     "Lord Krishna has many pastimes, of which His pastimes as a human being are the best. His form as a human being is the supreme transcendental form. In this form He is a cowherd boy. He carries a flute in His hand, and His youth is new. He is also an expert dancer. All this is just suitable for His pastimes as a human being."*

 

 

yogamaya cic-chakti  vishuddha-sattva-parinati

          tara shakti loka dekhaite

ei rupa ratana  bhakta-ganera gudha-dhana

          prakata kaila nitya lila haite

 

 

     "the transcendental form of Krishna is shown to the world by Lord Krishna's internal spiritual energy, which is a transformation of pure goodness. This jewellike form is the most confidential treasure of the devotees. This form is manifest from Krishna's eternal pastimes."*

 

 

Sutra 111

 

 

vishuddha-raga-margena saivanuveshtavya

 

     vishuddha - pure; raga - of spontaneous love; margena - by the path; sa - that; eva - indeed; anuveshtavya - should be sought.

 

 

     By following the path of pure and spontaneous love, one shook seek entrance into Lord Krishna's pastimes.

 

Commentary by Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura

 

 

     In the Gopala-tapani Upanishad (2.25-26) it is said:

 

 

yo vai kaman kamayate sa kami bhavati yo tv akamena kaman kamayate so 'kami bhavati.

 

 

     "He who lusts after sense pleasures is lusty. He who does not lust after sense pleasure is not lusty."

 

     In the Brahma-samhita (5.56) it is said:

 

 

shriyah kantah kantah parama-purushah kalpa-taravo

     druma bhumish cintamani gunamayi toyam amritam

katha ganam natyam gamanam api vamshi priya-sakhi

     cid-anandam jytoih param api tad asvadyam api ca

 

 

     "I worship that transcendental seat, known as Shvetadvipa, where as loving consorts the Lakshmis in their unalloyed spiritual essence practice the amorous service of the Supreme Lord Krishna as their only lover, where every tree is a transcendental purpose tree, where the soil is the purpose gem, all water is nectar, every word is a song, every gait is a dance, the flute is the favorite attendant, effulgence is full of transcendental bliss, and the supreme spiritual entities are all enjoyable and tasty."**

 

     In Shri Chaitanya-caritamrita (Madhya 24.84, 85, and 87) it is said:

 

 

raga-bhakti vidhi-bhakti haya dui rupa

svayam bhagavatve bhagavatve prakasha dvi-rupa

 

 

     "There are two kinds of devotional activity: spontaneous and regulative. By spontaneous devotional service one attains the Original Personality of Godhead, Krishna, and by the regulative process one attains the expansion of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.*

 

 

raga-bhaktye vraje svayam bhagavane paya

 

 

     "By executing spontaneous devotional service in Vrindavana one attains the original Supreme Personality of Godhead, Krishna."*

 

 

vidhi bhakte parshada dehe vaikunthete yaya

 

 

     "By executing regulative devotional service one becomes an associate of Narayana and attains the Vaikunthalokas, the spiritual planets in the spiritual sky."*

 

 

Sutra 112

 

 

svena siddha-svarupena tat-pravesham tu jiva-carama-mahima

 

     svena - with their own; siddha - perfect; svarupena - form; tat - into that; pravesham - entrance; tu - indeed; jiva - of the individual spirit souls; carama - final; mahima - glory.

 

 

     Regaining their original spiritual forms, the individual souls may enter Lord Krishna's pastimes. That is their greatest glory.

 

Commentary by Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura

 

 

     In the Chandogya Upanishad (8.12.3) it is said:

 

 

atha sa esha samprasado 'smac charirat samutthaya param jyoti-rupam sampadya svena rupenabhinishpadyate

 

 

     "The enlightened soul then leaves his material body behind and goes to meet the effulgent Supreme Personality of Godhead. Then the soul manifests his original spiritual form."

 

     In the Chandogya Upanishad it is also said:

 

 

esha atmeti hovaca tad amritam abhayam etad brahmeti tasya ha va etasya nama satyam iti.

 

 

     "Then he said: That is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is fearless, eternal, and sweet like nectar. He is the Supreme Reality."

 

     In the Kurma Purana it is said:

 

 

agni-putra mahatmanas

     tapasa stritvam apire

bhartaram ca jagad-yonim

     vasudevam ajam vibhum

 

 

     "By performing severe austerities Agni's sons became gopis. They attained as their husband Lord Krishna, the unborn and all-powerful creator of all the worlds."

 

     In the Padma Purana it is said:

 

 

te sarve stritva-sampannah

     samudbhutash ca gokule

harim samprapya kamena

     tato mukto bhavarnavat

 

 

     "They all became gopis and were born in Gokula. They attained Lord Krishna as their lover. In this way they were rescued from the ocean of of birth and death."

 

     Shrila Rupa Gosvami (Shri Bhakti-rasamrita-sindhu 1.2.308) explains:

 

 

pati-putra-suhrid-bhratri-

     pitri-van mitra-vad dharim

ye dhyayanti sadodyuktas

     tebhyo 'piha namo namah

 

 

     "Let me offer my respectful obeisances again and again to those who always eagerly meditate upon the Supreme Personality of Godhead as a husband, son, friend, brother, father, or intimate friend."*

 

 

Sutra 113

 

 

tatraiva tad-bhajanam tad-rasanam shuddha-cin-maye svarupena sidhyati

 

     tatra - there; eva - indeed; tad - to Him; bhajanam - devotional service; tad - in Him; rasanam - the bliss of the rasas; shuddha - pure; cin-maye - spiritual; svarupena - with the original form; sidhyati - becomes perfect.

 

 

     When he regains his original spiritual form, enters Lord Krishna's pure spiritual abode, worships and serves the Lord there, and there tastes the nectar of the rasas with Lord Krishna, the soul attains perfection.

 

Commentary by Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura

 

 

     In the Gopala-tapani Upanishad (2.12 and 14) it is said:

 

 

tasam madhye hi shreshtha gandharvity uccatam hi vaitabhir eva vicaryam.

 

 

     "Shri Radha, the best of the gopis, thought for a moment."

 

 

tam hi mukhyam vidhaya purvam anu kritva tushnim asa.

 

 

     "Accepting Radha and their leader, the other gopis became silent."

 

     In the Brahma-samhita (5.2-4) it is said:

 

 

sahasra-patra-kamalam

     gokulakhyam mahat padam

tat-karnikaram tad-dhama

     tad-anantamsha-sambhavam

 

 

     "The superexcellent station of Krishna, which is known as Gokula, has thousands of petals and a corolla like that of a lotus sprouted from a part of His infinitary aspect, the whorl of the leaves being the actual abode of Krishna.**

 

 

karnikaram mahad yantram

     shat-konam vajra-kilakam

shad-anga-shat-padi-sthanam

     prakritya purushena ca

 

 

premananda-mahananda-

     rasenavasthitam hi yat

jyoti-rupena manuna

     kama-bijena sangatam

 

 

     "The whorl of that transcendental lotus is the realm wherein dwells Krishna. It is a hexagonal figure, the abode of the indwelling predominated and predominating aspect of the Absolute. Like a diamond, the central supporting figure of self-luminous Krishna stands as the transcendental source of all potencies. The holy name consisting of eighteen transcendental letters is manifested in a hexagonal figure with sixfold divisions.**

 

 

tat kinjalkam tad-amshanam

     tatra patrani shriyam api

 

 

     "The whorl of that eternal realm Gokula is the hexagonal abode of Krishna. Its petals are the abodes of gopis who are part and parcel of Krishna, to whom they are most lovingly devoted and are similar in essence. The petals shine beautifully like so many walls. The extended leaves of that lotus are the garden-like dhama, i.e. spiritual abode of Shri Radhika, the most beloved of Krishna."**

 

     Shrila Rupa Gosvami (Shri Bhakti-rasamrita-sindhu 2.1.10) explains:

 

 

krishnadibhir vibhavadyair

     gater anubhavadhvani

praudhananda-camatkara

     kastham apadyate param

 

 

     "Thus the mixture of ecstatic ingredients of spiritual love for Lord Krishna becomes tasty and, being within the perception of the devotee, reaches the highest platform of wonder and deep bliss."*