Click here to load whole tree
NITAAI-Veda.nyf > All Scriptures By Acharyas > Bhaktivinoda Thakura > Amnaya Sutra > Part Three > Chapter-III

Chapter Three

Rasa-prakarana

The Rasas

 

 

Sutra 94

 

 

samagri-paripushta ratir eva rasah

 

     samagri - by the ingredients; paripushta - nourished; ratih - rati; eva - indeed; rasah - rasa.

 

 

     When it is nourished by various samagris (ingredients), rati becomes rasa (nectar mellows).

 

Commentary by Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura

 

 

     In the Taittiriya Upanishad (2.7.1) it is said:

 

 

raso vai sah. rasam hy evayam labdhvanandi bhavati.

 

 

     "When one understands the Personality of God, the reservoir of pleasure, Krishna, he actually becomes transcendentally blissful."*

 

     In the Agni Purana it is said:

 

 

na bhava-hino 'sti raso

     na bhavo rasa-varjitah

bhavayanti rasan ebhir

     bhavyante ca rasa iti

 

 

     "There is no nectar (rasa) that is empty of love, and there is no love that is empty of nectar. Love creates nectar. Nectar creates love."

 

     Shrila Bharata Muni explains:

 

 

shaktir asti vibhavadeh

     kapi sadharani kritau

pramata tad-abhedena

     svayam yaya pratipadyate

 

 

     "Ecstatic love creates nectar (rasa). That is the proof that love and nectar are not different."

 

     In Shri Chaitanya-caritamrita (Madhya 19.180-182) it is said:

 

 

ei saba krishna bhakti rasa sthayi bhava

sthayi bhave mile yadi vibhavanubhava

 

 

     "All these stages combined are called `sthayi-bhava', or continuous love of Godhead in devotional service. In addition to these stages there are `vibhava' and `anubhava'.*

 

 

sattvika vyabhicari bhavera milane

krishna-bhakti-rasa haya amrita asvadane

 

 

     "When the higher standard of ecstatic love is mixed with the symptoms of `sattvika' and `vyabhicari', the devotee relishes the bliss of loving Krishna in a variety of nectarean tastes.*

 

 

yaiche dadhi sita ghrita marica karpura

milane rasala haya amrita madhura

 

 

     "These tastes are like a combination of yogurt, sugar candy, ghee (clarified butter), black pepper, and camphor and are as palatable as sweet nectar."*

 

 

Sutra 95

 

 

sa ca panca-vidho mukhyah sapta-vidho gaunah

 

     sah - that; ca - and; panca - five; vidhah - kinds; mukhyah - primary; sapta - seven; vidhah - kinds; gaunah - secondary.

 

 

     The primary rasas are five, and the secondary rasas are seven.

 

Commentary by Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura

 

 

     In the Brihad-aranyaka Upanishad (4.4.17) it is said:

 

 

yasmin panca-pancajana

     akasash ca pratishthitah

tam eva manye atmanam

     vidvan brahmamrito 'mritam

 

 

     "A wise man understands the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is worshiped by the devotees in the five rasas. Understanding Him, the wise man becomes immortal. He attains the nectar of transcendental bliss."

 

     In the Varaha Purana it is said:

 

 

putra-bhratri-sakhitvena

     svamitvena yato harih

bahudha giyate vedair

     jiyamsas tasya te na tu

 

 

     "In many ways the Vedas glorify Lord Hari, who is loved as the devotee's son, brother, friend, master, and husband."

 

     In Shri Chaitanya-caritamrita it is said:

 

 

rati-bhede krishna-bhakti-rase panca bheda

 

 

     "The transcendental mellows derived from devotional service are also of five varieties."*

 

 

Sutra 96

 

 

shanta-rasah

 

     shanta - peaceful; rasah - rasa.

 

 

     The first rasa is shanta-rasa (neutrality).

 

Commentary by Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura

 

 

     In the Chandogya Upanishad (3.14.1) it is said:

 

 

sarvam khalv idam brahma taj-jalan iti shanta upasita.

 

 

     "Saying, `The Supreme is everything', the devotee in shanta-rasa worships the Lord."

 

     In Shrimad-Bhagavatam it is said:

 

 

rishayo vata-rasana

     shramana urdhva-manthinah

brahmakhyam dhama te yanti

     shantah sannyasino 'malah

 

 

     "The peaceful, pure-hearted, celibate sages go to the spiritual world, the abode of the Supreme Personality of Godhead."

 

     In Shri Chaitanya-caritamrita (Madhya 19.189) it is said:

 

 

shanta bhakta nava yogendra sanakadi ara

 

 

     "Examples of shanta-bhaktas are the nine Yogendras and the four Kumaras."*

 

     In Shri Chaitanya-caritamrita (Madhya 23.54) it is said:

 

 

shanta-rase shanti rati prema paryanta haya

 

 

     "The position of neutrality increases up to the point where one can appreciate love of Godhead."*

 

     In Shri Chaitanya-caritamrita (Madhya 19.211) it is said:

 

 

shanta-rase svarupa buddhye krishnaika nishthata

 

 

     "When one is fully attached to Krishna's lotus feet, one attains the shamata stage."*

 

     In Shri Chaitanya-caritamrita (Madhya 19.215) it is said:

 

 

krishna nishtha trishna tyaga shantera dui gune

 

 

     "A person situated on the shanta-rasa platform manifests the two transcendental qualities of detachment from all material desire and full attachment to Krishna."*

 

     In Shri Chaitanya-caritamrita (Madhya 19.217-218) it is said:

 

 

ei dui guna vyape sarva bhakta-jnae

akashera shabda guna yena bhuta-gane

 

 

     "These two qualities of the shanta stage spread through the lives of all devotees. They are like the quality of sound in the sky. Sound vibration is found in all material elements.*

 

 

shantera svabhava krishne mamata gandha hina

param brahma paramatma jnana pravina

 

 

     "It is the nature of shanta-rasa that not even the smallest intimacy exists. Rather, knowledge of impersonal Brahman and localized Paramatma is prominent."*

 

 

Sutra 97

 

 

dasya-rasah

 

     dasya-rasah - servitorship.

 

 

     The next rasa is dasya-rasa (servitorship).

 

Commentary by Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura

 

 

     In the Agniveshma-shruti it is said:

 

 

amsho hy esha parasya bhinnam hy ena madhiyire. brahma-dasa brahma-kitava iti.

 

 

     "The individual spirit souls are part and parcel of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, but still they are different from Him. They are all His servants."

 

     In Shrimad-Bhagavatam (11.29.4) it is said:

 

 

kim citram acyuta tavaitad ashesha-bandho

     daseshv ananya-sharaneshu yad atma-sattvam

yo rocayet saha mrigaih svayam ishvaranam

     shrimat-kirita-tata-pidita-pada-pithah

 

 

     "My dear infallible Lord, it is not very astonishing that You intimately approach Your servants who have taken exclusive shelter of You. After all, during Your appearance as Lord Ramacandra, even while great demigods like Lord Brahma were vying to place the effulgent tips of their helmets upon the cushion where Your lotus feet rested, You displayed special affection for monkeys such as Hanuman because they had taken exclusive shelter of You."***

 

     In Shrimad-Bhagavatam (11.6.46) it is also said:

 

 

tvayopayukta-srag-gandha-

     vaso-'lankara-carcitah

uccishtha-bhogino dasas

     tava mayam jayema hi

 

 

     "My dear Lord, the garlands, scented substances, garments, ornaments, and other such things that have been offered to You may later be used by Your servants. By partaking of these things and eating the remnants of food You have left, we will be able to conquer the illusory energy."*

 

     In Shri Chaitanya-caritamrita (Madhya 19.189) it is said:

 

 

dasya-bhava-bhakta sarvatra sevaka apara

 

 

     "Examples of devotees in dasya-bhakti are innumerable, for such devotees exist everywhere."*

 

     In Shri Chaitanya-caritamrita (Madhya 19.219-220) it is said:

 

 

kevala svarupa jnana haya shanta-rase

purnaishvarya prabhura jnana adhika haya dasye

 

 

     "On the platform of shanta-rasa one only realizes his constitutional position. However, when one is raised to the platform of dasya-rasa, he better understands the full opulence of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.*

 

 

ishvara jnana sambhrama gaurava pracura

 

 

     "On the dasya-rasa platform knowledge of the Supreme Personality of Godhead is revealed with awe and veneration."*

 

     In Shri Chaitanya-caritamrita (Madhya 19.221) it is said:

 

 

shantera guna dasya ache adhika sevana

 

 

     "The qualities of shanta-rasa are also present in dasya-rasa, but service is added."*

 

     In Shri Chaitanya-caritamrita (Madhya 23.54) it is said:

 

 

dasye rati raga paryanta krameta badaya

 

 

     "The mellow of servitorship gradually increases to the point of spontaneous love of Godhead."*

 

 

Sutra 98

 

 

sakhya-rasah

 

     sakhya-rasah - friendship.

 

 

     The next rasa is sakhya-rasa (friendship).

 

Commentary by Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura

 

 

     In the Mundaka Upanishad (3.1.1) it is said:

 

 

dva suparna sayuja sakhaya

     samanam vriksham parisashvajate

 

 

     "The individual spirit soul and the Supersoul, Supreme Personality of Godhead, are like two friendly birds sitting on the same tree."*

 

     In Shrimad-Bhagavatam (13.5-6) it is said:

 

 

aho 'ti-ramyam pulinam vayasyah

     sva-keli-sampan-mridulac ca balukam

sphutam saro-gandha-hritani patrika-

     dhvani-pratidhvani-lasad-druma-kulam

 

 

     "My dear friends, just see how this riverbank is extremely beautiful because of its pleasing atmosphere. And just see how the blooming lotuses are attracting bees and birds by their aroma. The humming and chirping of the bees and birds is echoing throughout the beautiful trees in the forest. Also, here the sands are clean and soft. Therefore this must be considered the best place for our sporting and pastimes.*

 

 

atra bhoktavyam asmabhir

     divarudham kshudharditah

vatsah samipe 'pah pitva

     carantu shanakais trinam

 

 

     "I think we should take our lunch here, since we are already hungry because the time is very late. Here the calves may drink water and go slowly here and there and eat the grass."*

 

     In the Valmiki Ramayana it is said:

 

 

so 'ham priya-sakham ramam

     shayanam saha sitaya

rakshishyami dhanush-panih

     sarvatha jnatibhih saha

 

 

     "I am the dear friend of Rama. When He sleeps with Sita by His side, I will guard Him. I will stand there, surrounded by my kinsmen, and a bow in my hand."

 

     In Shri Chaitanya-caritamrita (Madhya 19.190) it is said:

 

 

sakhya bhakta shridamadi pure bhimarjuna

 

 

     "In Vrindavana examples of devotees in fraternity are Shridama and Sudama. In Dvaraka the Lord's friends are Bhima and Arjuna."*

 

     In Shri Chaitanya-caritamrita (Madhya 19.222-223) it is said:

 

 

shantera guna dasyera sevana sakhye dui haya

dasyera sambhrama gaurava sakhye vishvasa maya

 

 

     "The qualities of shanta-rasa and the service of dasya-rasa are both present on the platform of sakhya-rasa. On the platform of fraternity the qualities of dasya-rasa are mixed with the confidence of fraternity instead of awe and veneration."*

 

 

kandhe cade kandhe cadaya kare krida-rana

krishna seve krishne karaya apana sevana

 

 

     "On the sakhya-rasa platform the devotee sometimes offers the Lord service and sometimes makes Krishna serve Him in exchange. In their mock-fighting the cowherd boys would sometimes climb on Krishna's shoulders and sometimes they would make Krishna climb on their shoulders."*

 

     In Shri Chaitanya-caritamrita (Madhya 23.55) it is said:

 

 

sakhya vatsalya rati paya anuraga sima

subaladyera bhava paryanta premera mahima

 

 

     "After the mellows of servitorship there are the mellows of friendship and paternal love, which increase to subordinate spontaneous love. The greatness of the love found in friends like Subala extends to the standard of ecstatic love of Godhead."*

 

 

Sutra 99

 

 

vatsalya-rasah

 

     vatsalya-rasah - parental love.

 

 

     The next rasa is vatsalya-rasa (parental love).

 

Commentary by Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura

 

 

     In the Parashrayayana-shruti it is said:

 

 

amsho hy esha parasya yo 'yam puman utpadyate ca mriyate ca nana hy esham vyapadishati piteti putreti bhrateti ca sakheti ceti.

 

 

     "The living entity who is born and dies in this world is in truth a part and parcel of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. He can be the Supreme Lord's father, son, brother, or friend."

 

     In Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.13.22) it is said:

 

 

tan-mataro venu-rava-tvarotthita

     utthapya dorbhih parirabhya nirbharam

sneha-snuta-stanya-payah-sudhasavam

     matva param brahma sutan apayayan

 

 

     "The mothers of the boys, upon hearing the sounds of the flutes and bugles being played by their sons, immediately rose from their household tasks, lifted their boys onto their laps, embraced them with both arms, and began to feed them with their breast milk, which flowed forth with extreme love specifically for Krishna. Actually Krishna is everything, but at that time, expressing extreme love and affection, they took special pleasure in feeding Krishna, the Parabrahman, and Krishna drank the milk from His respective mothers as if it were a nectarean beverage."*

 

     In Shri Chaitanya-caritamrita (Madhya 19.190) it is said:

 

 

vatsalya bhakta pita mata yata guru jana

 

 

     "In Vrindavana the devotees in parental love are mother Yashoda and father Nanda Maharaja, and in Dvaraka the Lord's parents are Vasudeva and Devaki. There are also other superior persons who are devotees in parental love."*

 

     In Shri Chaitanya-caritamrita (Madhya 19.226-228) it is said:

 

 

vatsalye shantera guna dasyera sevana

sei sei sevanera inha nama palana

 

 

     "On the platform of parental love the qualities of shanta-rasa, dasya-rasa, and sakhya-rasa are transformed into a form of service called maintenance.*

 

 

sakhyera guna asankoca agaurava ara

mamatadhikye tadana bhartsana vyavahara

 

 

     "The essence of fraternal love is intimacy devoid of the formality and veneration found in the dasya-rasa. Due to a greater sense of intimacy, the devotee functioning in paternal love chastises and rebukes the Lord in an ordinary way.*

 

 

apanare palaka jnane krishna palya jnana

cari gune vatsalya rasa amrita samana

 

 

     "On the platform of paternal love, the devotee considers himself the Lord's maintainer. Thus the Lord is an object of maintenance, like a son, and therefore this mellow is full of the four qualities of shanta-rasa, dasya-rasa, fraternity, and parental love. This is more transcendental nectar."*

 

 

Sutra 100

 

 

madhura-rasah

 

     madhura-rasah - conjugal love.

 

 

     The next rasa is madhura-rasa (conjugal love).

 

Commentary by Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura

 

 

     In the Brihad-aranyaka Upanishad it is said:

 

 

tad yatha priyaya striya samparishvakto na bahyam kim ca na veda nantaram evayam purushah prajnanatmana samparishvakto na bahyam kim ca na veda nantaram.

 

 

     "Embraced by His beloved, the Supreme Personality of Godhead knows nothing else within or without. Filled with spiritual bliss, He knows nothing else within or without."

 

     In Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.33.25) it is said:

 

 

evam sasankamsu-virajita nishah

      sa satya-kamo 'nuratabala-ganah

sisheva atmany avaruddha-sauratah

     sarvah sharat-kavya-katha-rasashrayah

 

 

     "Although the gopis were firmly attached to Lord Krishna, whose desires are always fulfilled, the Lord was not internally affected by any mundane sex desire. Still, to perform His pastimes the Lord took advantage of all those moonlit autumn nights, which inspire poetic descriptions of transcendental affairs."***

 

     In Shri Chaitanya-caritamrita (Madhya 19.231, 232, 234) it is said:

 

 

madhura rase krishna nishtha seva atishaya

sakhye asankoca lalana mamatadhika haya

 

 

     "On the platform of conjugal love, attachment to Krishna, rendering service unto Him, the relaxed feelings of fraternity, and the feelings of maintenance all increase in intimacy.*

 

 

kanta bhave nijanga diya karena sevana

ata eva madhura rase haya panca guna

 

 

     "On the platform of conjugal love the devotee offers his body in the service of the Lord. Thus on this platform all five transcendental qualities are present.*

 

 

ei mata madhure saba bhava samahara

ata eva asvadadhikye kare camatkara

 

 

     "Similarly, on the platform of conjugal love all the feelings of the devotees are amalgamated. The intensified taste is certainly wonderful."*

 

     In Shri Chaitanya-caritamrita (Madhya 23.57-58) it is said:

 

 

rudha adhirudha bhava kevala madhure

 

 

     "Only in the conjugal mellow are there two ecstatic symptoms called `rudha' (advanced) and adhirdha' (highly advanced).*

 

 

adhirudha maha-bhava dui ta prakara

 

 

     "Highly advanced ecstasy is divided into two categories: madana and mohana. Meeting together is called madana, and separation is called mohana."*

 

 

 

Sutra 101

 

 

uttarottara-mukhya-rasa-prashamsa

 

     uttara - higher; uttara - and higher; mukhya - primary; rasa - rasas; prashamsa - glory.

 

 

     Each of these primary rasas is more glorious than the previous rasa.

 

Commentary by Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura

 

 

     In the Brihad-aranyaka Upanishad (4.4.8) it is said:

 

 

anuh pantha vitatah purano

     mam sprishto 'nuvritto mayaiva

tena dhira api yanti brahma-vidah

     svargam lokam ita urdhva vimuktah

 

 

     "The ancient and subtle spiritual path has touched me. Now I understand it. Following that path, the enlightened souls become liberated. Following it, they ascend to the spiritual world."

 

     In the Brahma-samhita (5.61) it is said:

 

 

dharman anyan parityajya

     mam ekam bhaja vishvasan

yadrishi yadrishi shraddha

     siddhir bhavati tadrishi

 

 

     "Abandoning all meritorious performances serve Me with faith. The realization will correspond to the nature of one's faith."**

 

     In Shri Chaitanya-caritamrita (Madhya 23.53) it is said:

 

 

panca-vidha rasa shanta dasya sakhya vatsalya

madhura nama shringara bhavete prabalya

 

 

     "There are five transcendental mellows: neutrality, servitorship, friendship, paternal affection, and conjugal love, which is also known as the mellow of sweetness. Conjugal love excels all others."*

 

 

Sutra 102

 

 

hasadbhuta-vira-karuna-raudra-bhayanaka-bibhatseti gauna-rasah sapta-vidhah

 

     hasa - comedy; adbhuta - wonder; vira - chivalry; karuna - compassion; raudra - anger; bhayanaka - fear; bibhatsa - horror; iti - thus; gauna-rasah - the secondary rasas; sapta-vidhah - seven kinds.

 

 

     The seven secondary rasas are: laughter, wonder, chivalry, compassion, anger, disaster, and fear.

 

Commentary by Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura

 

 

     The hasya-rasa (laughter) is described in the Kena Upanishad (3.1):

 

 

ta aikshantasmakam evayam vijayo 'smakam evayam mahimeti.

 

 

     "Even though the Supreme Personality of Godhead had personally conquered the demons, the demigods became very proud. They declared, `Ours is the victory! Ours is the glory!'."

 

     The adbhuta-rasa (wonder) is also described in the Kena Upanishad (3.2):

 

 

yan na vyajananta kim idam yaksham iti.

 

 

     "Unaware that the yaksha standing before them was the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself, the demigods became filled with wonder. They declared, `Who is this yaksha?' "

 

     The vira-rasa (chivalry) is described in the Shvetashvatara Upanishad:

 

 

viran mano rudra ity adi

 

 

     "The Supreme Personality of Godhead is heroic and powerful."

 

     The karuna-rasa (compassion) is described in the Shvetashvatara Upanishad:

 

 

anishaya shocati muhyamanah

 

 

     "The Supreme Personality of Godhead laments for the fate of the conditioned souls."

 

     The raudra-rasa (anger) is described in the Shvetashvatara Upanishad:

 

 

eva hi rudrena dvitiyaya tastarya imal lokan ishate ishanibhih

 

 

     "With His powerful potencies the Supreme Lord angrily rules the worlds."

 

     The bhayanaka-rasa (fear) is described in the Katha Upanishad (2.3.2-3):

 

 

mahad bhayam vajram udyatam. . .

 

bhayad asyagnis tapati

     bhayat tapati suryah

bhayad indrash ca vayush ca

     mrityur dhavati pancamah

 

 

     "The Supreme Personality of Godhead is frightening like a raised thunderbolt. . . . Out of fear of Him fire burns. Out of fear of Him the sun shines. Out of fear of Him Indra, Vayu, and Yama perform their duties."

 

     The bibhatsa-rasa (disaster) is described in the Chandogya Upanishad:

 

 

imani rudrany asakrid avartini bhutani bhavanti jayasva mriyasvety etat tritiya-sthanam tenasau loke na sampuryate tasmaj jugupsate.

 

 

     "From the Supreme Personality of Godhead all ferocious monsters are born and in Him they perish. In this way the world is not overcome. From Him all horrors come."

 

     In the Agni Purana it is said:

 

 

ragad bhavati shringaro

     raudrah kshanat prajayate

viro 'shta-bhujah sankoca-

     bhur bibhatsa ishayte

 

 

     "From passionate attraction comes conjugal love. From anger comes chivalry. From having an eight-armed form disaster is born.

 

 

shringaraj jayate haso

     raudrat tu karuna-rasah

virac cadbhuta-nishpattih

     syad bibhatsad bhayanakah

 

 

     "From conjugal love joking and laughter are born. From anger compassion is born. From chivalry wonder is born. From disaster fear is born."

 

     Shrila Rupa Gosvami (Shri Bhakti-rasamrita-sindhu 2.5.116) explains:

 

 

hasyo 'dbhutas tatha virah

     karuno raudra ity api

bhayanakah sa bibhatsa

     iti gaunash ca saptadha

 

 

     "Besides the five direct mellows there are seven indirect mellows known as laughter, wonder, chivalry, compassion, anger, disaster, and fear."*

 

 

Sutra 103

 

 

gaunas tu mukhyan paricaranto bhakti-rasabdhim parivardhayanti

 

     gaunah - the secondary rasas; tu - indeed; mukhyan - the primary rasas; paricarantah - meeting; bhakti-rasabdhim - the nectar ocean of the bhakti-rasa; parivardhayanti - causes to increase.

 

 

     When the secondary rasas meet the primary rasas the nectar ocean of the devotional rasas increases.

 

Commentary by Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura

 

 

     In the Mundaka Upanishad it is said:

 

 

yatha nadyah syandamanah samudre

     'stam gacchanti nama-rupe vihaya

tatha vidvan nama-rupad vimuktah

     parat param purusham upaiti divyam.

 

 

     "As flowing rivers abandon their names and forms and enter the great ocean, so the enlightened soul abandons his material name and form and meets the effulgent Supreme Personality of Godhead."

 

 

     "

 

     In the Agni Purana it is said:

 

 

apara-kavya-samsare

     kavir eva prajapatih

tatha vai rocate vishvam

     tathedam parivartate

 

 

     "In the material world, which is like a shoreless ocean of poets, the demigod Brahma is the best poet. His poetry pleases the entire world.

 

 

shringare cet kavih kavye

     jatam rasamayam jagat

sa cet kavir vita-rago

     nirasa-vyaktam eva tat

 

 

     "If a poet writes love-poems, he fills the world with nectar. If he writes poems about renunciation, there is no nectar.

 

 

kavibhir yojaniya vai-

     bhavah kavyadike rasah

vibhavyate hi raty-adir

     yatra yena vibhavyate

 

 

     "It is right that poets write about the nectar of love. They reveal the nectar of love."

 

     Shrila Rupa Gosvami (Shri Bhakti-rasamrita-sindhu 4.1.4 and 4.7.14) explains:

 

 

bhaktanam pancadhoktanam

     esham madhyata eva hi

kvapy ekah kvapy anekash ca

     gauneshv alambano matah

 

 

     "Of the the devotees in these five primary rasas some are also situated in one of the secondary rasas, and others are situated in more than one."

 

 

ami pancaiva shantadya

     harer bhakti-rasa matah

esha hasyadayah prayo

     bibhrati vyabhicaritam

 

 

     "The rasas beginning with shanta-rasa are the five primary rasas. The secondary rasas, which begin with hasya-rasa, act to increase (vyabhcari) the mellows of the primary rasas."