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NITAAI-Veda.nyf > All Scriptures By Acharyas > Bhaktivinoda Thakura > Amnaya Sutra > Part Three > Chapter-II

Chapter Two

Sthayi-bhava-prakarana

Fervent or Continuous Ecstasy

 

 

Sutra 85

 

 

vishishta-bhavo hi ratih

 

     vishishta - exalted; bhavah - love; hi - indeed; ratih - rati.

 

 

     When spiritual love increases it reaches the stage called `rati'.

 

Commentary by Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura

 

 

     In the Chandogya Upanishad it is said:

 

 

atmaivedam sarvam iti sa va esha evam pashyann evam manvan evam vijanan atma-ratim atma-krida atma-mithuna atmanandah sa svarad bhavati tasya sarveshu kama-caro bhavati.

 

 

     "The Supreme Personality of Godhead is everything. One who sees Him, glorifies Him, and understands Him, attains spiritual love (rati), enjoys spiritual pastimes, becomes the Lord's personal associate, is filled with spiritual bliss, is independent, and can go wherever he likes."

 

     In the Bhagavad-gita (3.17), Lord Krishna explains:

 

 

yas tv atma-ratir eva syat

     atma-triptash ca manavah

atmany eva ca santushtas

     tasya karyam na vidyate

 

 

     "But for one who takes pleasure (rati) in the self, whose human life is one of self realization, and who is satisfied in the self one, fully satiated, for him there is no duty."*

 

     In the Agni Purana it is said:

 

 

abhimanad ratih sa ca

     pariposham upeyushi

vyabhicaradi samanyat

     shringara iti giyate

 

 

     "When spiritual love increases it becomes rati. Rati arouses the mellows of conjugal love for Lord Krishna."

 

     Shrila Rupa Gosvami (Shri Bhakti-rasamrita-sindhu, 1.3.1 and 4) explains:

 

 

shuddha-sattva-visheshatma

     prema-suryamshu-samya-bhak

rucibhish citta-mashrinya-

    krid asau bhava ucyate

 

 

     "When devotional service is situated on the transcendental platform of pure goodness it is like a ray of the sunlight of love for Krishna. At such a time devotional service causes the heart to be softened by various tastes, and it is called `bhava' (emotion)."*

 

 

avirbhuya mano-vrittau

     vrajanti tat-svarupatam

svayam-prakasha-rupapi

     bhasamana prakashya-vat

 

 

     "At that time Lord Krishna reveals His splendid original form, manifested in the devotee's meditation."

 

 

Sutra 86

 

 

ullasamayitara-raga-shunya ratih pritih

 

     ullasamayi - splendid and blissful; itara - other; raga - passion; shunya - without; ratih - rati; pritih - priti.

 

 

     When rati becomes especially splendid and blissful, and when it is passionately directed to Lord Krishna alone, it becomes priti.

 

Commentary by Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura

 

 

     In the Taittiriya Upanishad (3.6.1) it is said:

 

 

anando brahmeti vyajanat. anandad dhy eva khalv imani bhutani jayante. anandena jatani jivanti. anandam prayanty abhisamvishanti.

 

 

     "Then he understood that the Supreme is bliss. From the blissful Supreme everything is born. By the power of the blissful Supreme everything lives. Everything enters the blissful Supreme."

 

     In the Vishnu Purana it is said:

 

 

natha yoni-sahasreshu

     yeshu yeshu vrajamy aham

teshu teshv acyuta bhaktir

     acyute 'stu sada tvayi

 

 

     "O Lord, I pray that wherever I go for my next thousand births I may always have unalloyed love for You, the infallible Supreme Personality of Godhead.

 

 

ya pritir avivekanam

     vishayeshv anapayini

tvam anusmaratah sa me

     hridayan napasarpatu

 

 

     "O Lord, I pray that I may always remember You. I pray that the love that fools feel for material objects I may feel for You. I pray that love will never leave my heart."

 

     In Shri Chaitanya-caritamrita (Madhya 23.13) it is said:

 

 

sei bhava gadha haile dhare prema nama

sei prema prayojana sarvananda dhama

 

 

     "When that ecstatic emotional stage intensifies, it is called love of Godhead. Such love is life's ultimate goal and the reservoir of all pleasure."*

 

 

Sutra 87

 

 

dridha-mamatatishayatmika pritih prema

 

     dridha - firm; mamata - possessiveness; atishaya - great; atmika - of the self; pritih - priti; prema - love.

 

 

     When it is very intense, and when the lover becomes very possessive of the beloved, priti becomes prema.

 

Commentary by Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura

 

 

     In the Katha Upanishad (1.2.23) it is said:

 

 

nayam atma pravacanena labhyo

     na medhaya na bahuna shrutena

yam evaisha vrinute tena labhyas

     tasyaisha atma vivrinute tanum svam

 

 

     "The Supreme Lord is not attained by expert explanations, by vast intelligence, nor even by much hearing. He is attained only by one who He Himself chooses. To such a person He manifests His own form."*

 

     In the Gopala-tapani Upanishad it is said:

 

 

etad vishnoh paramam padam ye

     nitya-yuktah samyujante na kamattesham asau gopa-rupah

     prakashayet atma-padam tadaiva

 

 

     "Free from material desires, the sages always strive to attain Lord Vishnu's supreme abode. Lord Vishnu, in His original form as a cowherd boy, appears before them and shows them His own abode."

 

     In Shri Narada-pancaratra it is said:

 

 

ananya-mamata vishnau

     mamata prema-sangata

bhaktir ity ucyate bhishma-

     prahladoddhava-naradaih

 

 

     "When one develops an unflinching sense of ownership or possessiveness in relation to Lord Vishnu, or, in other words, when one thinks Vishnu and no one else to be the only object of love, such an awakening is called bhakti (devotion) by exalted persons like Bhishma, Prhalada, Uddhava, and Narada."*

 

     Shrila Rupa Gosvami (Shri Bhakti-rasamrita-sindhu 1.4.1) explains:

 

 

samyan mashrinita-svanto

     mamatvatishayankitah

bhavah sa eva sandratma

     budhaih prema nigadyate

 

 

     "When the heart is completely softened and devoid of all material desires and when one's emotional feelings become very strong, one becomes very much attached to Krishna. Such purified emotion is known as pure love."*

 

 

Sutra 88

 

 

vishrambhatma-prema pranayah

 

     vishrambha - intimate and confident; atma - of the self; prema - prema; pranayah - pranaya.

 

 

     When the love becomes intimate and lover confident of his position, prema becomes pranaya.

 

Commentary by Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura

 

 

     In the Taittiriya Upanishad (2.7.2) it is said:

 

 

yada hy evaisha etasminn adrishye 'natmye 'nirukte 'nilayane 'bhayam pratishtham vindate. atha so 'bhayam gato bhavati.

 

 

     "Taking shelter of the Supreme, who is invisible to material eyes, not a material person, indescribable by material words, and without a material home, the living entity becomes fearless. He becomes fearless."

 

     In Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.18.24) it is said:

 

 

uvaha krishno bhagavan

     shridamanam parajitah

 

 

     "Defeated, Lord Krishna carried Shridama."

 

     Shrila Rupa Gosvami (Shri Bhakti-rasamrita-sindhu 3.3.108) explains:

 

 

praptayam sambhramadinam

     yogyatayam api sphutam

tad-gandhenapy asamsprishta

     ratih pranaya ucyate

 

 

     "When there is full knowledge of Krishna's superiority and yet in dealings with Him on friendly terms respectfulness is completely absent, that stage is called affection."*

 

 

Sutra 89

 

 

kautilyabhasatmaka-bhava-vaicitranuguna-pranayo manah

 

     kautilya - of crookedness; abhasa - with the reflection; atmaka - of the self; bhava - love; vaicitra - wonder; anuguna - favorable; pranayah - pranaya; manah - mana.

 

 

     When the dim reflection of crookedness is present, and when the love is both wonderful and pleasing, pranaya becomes mana, (jealous anger).

 

Commentary by Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura

 

 

     In the Taittiriya Upanishad (3.10.4) it is said:

 

 

tan-mana ity upasita. manavan bhavati.

 

 

     "One should worship Him as the supreme mind. Filled with jealous anger, one may worship Him."

 

     In Shrimad-Bhagavatam it is said:

 

 

kvacid bhru-kutim abadhya

     prema-samrambha-vihvalah

 

 

     "Sometimes there would be knitting of the eyebrows. They were overcome with feelings of love."

 

     Shrila Rupa Gosvami (Shri Ujjvala-nilamani, Shringara-bheda-kathana, 102) explains:

 

 

aher iva gatih premnah

     svabhava-kutilabhavat

ato hetor ahetosh ca

     yunor mana udancati

 

 

     "The progress of loving affairs between young couples is like the movement of a snake. On account of this two types of anger arise between young couples: anger with cause and anger without cause."*

 

 

Sutra 90

 

 

ceto-dravatishayatmaka-premaiva snehah

 

     cetah - of the heart; drava - melting; atishaya - great; atmaka - of the self; prema - prema; eva - indeed; snehah - sneha.

 

 

     When the heart melts, prema becomes sneha.

 

Commentary by Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura

 

 

     In the Brihad-aranyaka Upanishad (1.4.8) it is said:

 

 

tad etat preyah putrat preyo vittat preyo 'nyasmad anantarataram yad ayam atma.

 

 

     "The Supreme Personality of Godhead is more dear than sons, more dear than wealth, more dear than anything."

 

     In Shrimad-Bhagavatam it is said:

 

 

vikshyantah sneha-sambandha

     vicelus tatra tatra ha

 

nyarundhann udgalad-bashpam

     autkanthad devaki-sute

niryaty agaran no bhadram

     iti syad bandhava-striyah

 

 

     "Gazing, they were overcome with love. They went here and there. Eager to see Devaki's son, the women ran from their rooms."

 

     In Shri Chaitanya-caritamrita (Madhya 3.143-144) it is said:

 

 

kandiya kahena shaci bachare nimani

vishvarupa sama na kariha nithurai

 

 

     "Understanding that Lord Chaitanya had accepted the renounced order of life, Shacimata, crying, said to the Lord, `My darling Nimai, do not be cruel like Vishvarupa, Your elder brother'."*

 

 

sannyasi haiya more na dila darashan

tumi taiche haile mora haibe maran

 

 

     "Mother Shaci continued: `After accepting the renounced order Vishvarupa never again gave me audience. If You do like Him, that will certainly be the death of me."*

 

 

Sutra 91

 

 

abhilashatmaka-sneha eva ragah

 

     abhilasha - desire; atmaka - of the self; sneha - sneha; eva - indeed; ragah - raga.

 

 

     When the lover's desires are strong, sneha becomes raga.

 

Commentary by Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura

 

 

     In the Brihad-aranyaka Upanishad (it is said:

 

 

atmanam ced vijaniyad ayam astiti purushah. kim icchan kasya kamaya shariram anusancaret.

 

 

     "If a person knows the Supreme Personality of Godhead and says, "Here is the Supreme Personality of Godhead", why would he desire to cling to this material body?"

 

     In Shrimad-Bhagavatam (1.8.25) Queen Kunti tells Lord Krishna:

 

 

vipadah santu tah shasvat

     tatra tatra jagad-guro

bhavato darshanam yat syad

     apunar-bhava-darshanam

 

 

     "I wish that all those calamities may happen again and again so that we could see You again and again, for seeing You means that we will no longer see repeated births and deaths."*

 

     In Shri Chaitanya-caritamrita (3.143-145) it is said:

 

 

nilacale navadvipe yena dui ghara

loka gatagati varta paba nirantara

 

 

     "Since Jagannatha Puri and Navadvipa are intimately related, as if they were two rooms in the same house, people from Navadvipa generally go to Jagannatha Puri, and those from Jagannatha Puri go to Navadvipa. This going and coming will help carry news of Lord Chaitanya. In this way I will be able to get news of Him.*

 

 

tumi saba karite para gamanagamana

ganga-snane kabhu habe tanra agamana

 

 

     "All you devotees will be able to come and go, and sometimes He may also come to take His bath in the Ganges.*

 

 

apanara duhkha sukha tahan nahi gani

tara yei sukha taha nija sukha mani

 

 

     "I do not care for my personal happiness or unhappiness, but only for His happiness. Indeed, I accept His happiness as my happiness."*

 

 

Sutra 92

 

 

rago 'nukshanam vishayashrayayor navinatvam sampadayann anuragah

 

     ragah - lobe; anukshanam - at every moment; vishaya - of the object; ashrayayoh - of the shelter; navinatvam - newness; sampadayann - establishing; anuragah - anuraga.

 

 

     When the feelings between the lover and beloved are newer and newer at every moment, raga becomes anuraga.

 

Commentary by Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura

 

 

     In the Taittiriya Upanishad it is said:

 

 

etam anandamayam atmanam upasankramya imal lokan kamashi kama-rupy anusancarann etat samagayann aste. habu habu habu.

 

 

     "The sage always yearns to leave this material world and approach the blissful Supreme Personality of Godhead."

 

     In Shrimad-Bhagavatam it is said:

 

 

yadyapy asau parshva-gato raho gatas

     tathapi tasyanghri-yugam navam navam

pade pade ka virameta tat-pada

     calapi yam shrir na jahati karhicit

 

 

     "Although again and again we meet Him in a secluded place, His feet are always filled with newer and newer bliss. What woman could leave His feet? Even the goddess of fortune never leaves His feet."

 

     Shrila Vasudeva Ghosha explains:

 

 

na janiya na shuniya   priti karilama go

          pariname para-mada dekhi

asadha shravana mase   ghana deya barikhaye

          emati jharaya duti ankhi

 

hera je amare dekha   manusha akara go

          manera anale ami pudi

jvalanta anale jena   pudiya raiyachigo

          pakaliya patera dunri

 

andhuya purukhe jena  dina hina mina hena

          nishvasa chadite nahi thani

basudeva ghosha kahe  dakati pirita go

          tile tile bandhure harai

 

 

Sutra 93

 

 

asamordhva-camatkarenonmadanam maha-bhavah

 

     a - without; sama - equal; urdhva - or superior; camatkarena - with wonder; unmadanam - intoxication; maha-bhavah - maha-bhava.

 

 

     When it is intoxicated with wonders that have no equal or superior, anuraga becomes maha-bhava.

 

Commentary by Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura

 

 

     In the Mundaka Upanishad (3.2.8) it is said:

 

 

yatha nadyah syandamanah samudre

     'stam gacchanti nama-rupe vihaya

tatha vidvan nama-rupad vimuktah

     parat param purusham upaiti divyam.

 

 

     "As flowing rivers abandon their names and forms and enter the great ocean, so the enlightened soul abandons his material name and form and meets the effulgent Supreme Personality of Godhead."

 

     In Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.19.16) it is said:

 

 

gopinam paramananda

     asid govinda-darshane

kshanam yuga-shatam iva

     yasam yena vina bhavet

 

 

   "Gazing at Lord Krishna, the gopis became filled with bliss. A moment without Him seemed like a hundred yugas."

 

   Shrila Rupa Gosvami explains:

 

 

iyam eva ratih praudha

     maha-bhava-dasham vrajet

ya mrigyasya vimuktanam

     bhaktanam ca variyasam

 

 

   "Among the most exalted of liberated souls love for Lord Krishna becomes intensified to the stage known as maha-bhava."