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NITAAI-Veda.nyf > All Scriptures By Acharyas > Bhaktivinoda Thakura > Amnaya Sutra > Part Three > Chapter-I

Chapter One

Prayojana-nirnaya-prakarana

What Is the Final Goal

 

 

Sutra 80

 

 

avidya-kalpita-jada-vishesho na prayojanam

 

     avidya - ignorance; kalpita - considered; jada - the inert material world; visheshah - specific; na - not; prayojanam - the goal.

 

 

     The dull material world, which is made of ignorance, is the not the final goal.

 

Commentary by Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura

 

 

     In the Chandogya Upanishad (7.24.2) it is said:

 

 

go ashvam iha mahimety acakshate hasti-hiranyam dasa-bharyam kshetranyayatananiti naham eva bravimi hovacanyo hy asmin pratishthita iti.

 

 

     "People say that wealth is the possession of many cows, horses, elephants, gold, servants, wives, fields, and houses. I do not say these things are wealth. Wealth is something else."

 

     In Shrimad-Bhagavatam (2.1.39) it is said:

 

 

sa sarva-dhi-vritty-anubhuta-sarva-

     atma yatha svapna janekshitaikah

tam satyam ananda-nidhim bhajeta

     nanyatra sajjed yata atma-patah

 

 

     "One should concentrate his mind upon the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who alone distributes Himself in so many manifestations just as ordinary persons create thousands of manifestations in dreams. One must concentrate the mind on Him, the only all-blissful Absolute Truth. Otherwise one will be misled and will cause one's own degradation."*

 

     Shrila Jiva Gosvami explains:

 

 

atha jivas tadiyapi taj-jnana-samsargabhava-yuktatvena tan-maya-parabhutah sann atma-svarupa-jnana-lopan maya-kalpitopadhyaveshac ca anadi-samsara-duhkhena sambadhyate.

 

 

     "The conditioned soul is overpowered by the illusory potency maya. He forgets his original spiritual identity, accepts the illusions maya places before him, and thus suffers in a world of repeated birth and death that seems to have no beginning."

 

 

Sutra 81

 

 

napi nirvisheshah

 

     na - not; api - also; nirvisheshah - that which has no variety.

 

 

     Varietyless impersonal liberation is not the final goal either.

 

Commentary by Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura

 

 

     In the Chandogya Upanishad it is said:

 

 

amusmad akashat samutthaya param jyoti-rupam sampadya svena rupenabhinishpadyate.

 

 

     "Then the soul transcends that effulgent sky and approaches the effulgent form of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Then the soul again manifests his original spiritual form."

 

     In the Shvetashvatara Upanishad (6.15) it is said:

 

 

tam eva viditvati mrityum eti

 

 

     "They who know the Supreme Personality of Godhead cross beyond death."

 

     In Shrimad-Bhagavatam it is said:

 

 

duravagamatma-tattva-nigamaya tavatta-tanos

     carita-mahamritabdhi-parivartam parishramanah

na parilasanti kecid apavargam apishvara te

     carana-saroja-hamsa-kala-sanga-vishrishta-grihah

 

 

     "O Supreme Lord, the great souls do not yearn to attain impersonal liberation. They taste the nectar ocean of Your transcendental pastimes. They are like cooing swans playing at the lotus flower of Your feet."

 

     Shrila Gauda Purnananda explains:

 

 

tat-padarthah prakata-paramananda-purnamritabdhis

     tvam-shabdartho bhava-bhaya-bhara-vragra-citto 'ti-duhkhi

tasmad aikyam na bhavati tayor bhinnayor vastu-gatya

     bhedah sevyah sa khalu jagatam tvam hi dasas tadiyah

 

 

     "The word `tat' means `the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is a nectar ocean of transcendental bliss'. The word `tvam' means `the individual spirit soul who suffers greatly and whose heart trembles in fear of a host of material troubles'. These two are not one. They are different. That is the truth. The Supreme Personality of Godhead is He who should be served by all the worlds. You are His servant.

 

 

yasmin utpatti-mayat tri-bhuvana-sahitam candra-suryadi sarvam

     yasmin nashantam aste vrajati vilayam sva-sva-kalena yasmin

vedair brahmapi vaktum prabhavati na kada yam gunatitam isham

     so 'ham vakyam tu kasmad upadishasi guror manda-bhagyaya mahyam

 

 

     "the Supreme Personality of Godhead is the creator of everything, including the three worlds, the sun, the moon, and everything else. He is never agitated or unhappy. In time the entire material world enters into Him. Even the demigod Brahma and all the Vedas have not the power to describe all His glories. He is the supreme controller and He is beyond the touch of the modes of material nature. Why do you repeat to me that slogan `so 'ham' (I am the Supreme)? Why do you wish to turn me into an unfortunate wretch?

 

 

Sutra 82

 

 

paramarthe tasya na prayojanatvam kintu kvacid abhidheyatvam

 

     parama - supreme; arthe - for th goal; tasya - of that; na - not; prayojanatvam - need; kintu - however; kvacit - sometimes; abhidheyatvam - to be named.

 

 

     Although realization of the impersonal aspect of the Supreme is not the final goal, it is sometimes a useful intermediary stage.

 

Commentary by Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura

 

 

     That the realization of the impersonal aspect of the Supreme is sometimes useful at a certain stage of spiritual development is seen in the following scriptural passages beginning with these words of the Isha Upanishad (7):

 

 

yasmin sarvani bhutany

     atmaivabhud vijanatah

tatra ko mohah kah shoka

     ekatvam anupashyatah

 

 

     "One who always sees all living entities as spiritual sparks, in quality one with the Lord, becomes a true knower of things. What, then, can be illusion or anxiety for him?"*

 

     In the Chandogya Upanishad it is said:

 

 

tat tvam asi shvetaketo

 

 

     "O Shvetaketu, you are the same."

 

     In the Gopala-tapani Upanishad it is said:

 

 

so 'ham ity avadharyatmanam gopalo 'ham iti bhavayet

 

 

     "One should think: In quality I am one with Lord Gopala."

 

     In the Nrisim6ha-tapani Upanishad it is said:

 

 

pare brahmani paryavasito bhavet.

 

 

     "Then one enters into the Supreme."

 

     That realization of the impersonal aspect of the Supreme is not essential and may be neglected entirely is seen in the following scriptural passages beginning with these words of Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.14.3):

 

 

jnane prayasam udapasya namanta eva

     jivanti sanmukharitam bhavadiya-vartam

sthane sthitam shruti-gatam tanu-van-manobhir

     ye prayaso 'jita-jito 'py asi tais trilokyam

 

 

     "O My Lord Krishna, a devotee who abandons the path of empiric philosophical speculation aimed at merging in the existence of the Supreme and engages himself in hearing Your glories and activities from a bona fide sadhu, or saint, and who lives an honest life in the occupational engagement of his social life, can conquer Your sympathy and mercy, even though You are ajita, or unconquerable."*

 

     Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (Chaitanya-caritamrita, Madhya 6.175) explains:

 

 

tat tvam asi jiva hetu pradeshika vakya

pranava na mani' tare kahe maha-vakya

 

 

     "The subsidiary vibration `tat tvam asi' (you are the same) is meant for the understanding of the living entity, but the principal vibration is Omkara. Not caring for Omkara, Shankaracarya has stressed the vibration `tat tvam asi'."*

 

 

Sutra 83

 

 

tat tu sarvatra na prashastam

 

     tat - that; tu - but; sarvatra - everywhere; na - not; prashastam - recommended.

 

 

     But the intermediate stage of impersonalism is not always recommended.

 

Commentary by Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura

 

 

     In the Isha Upanishad (12) it is said:

 

 

andham tamah pravishanti

     ye 'vidyam upasate

tato bhuya iva te tamo

     ya u vidyayam ratah

 

 

     "Those who are engaged in the worship of demigods enter into the darkest region of ignorance, and still more so do the worshipers of the impersonal Absolute."*

 

     In Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.14.4) it is said:

 

 

shreyah shritim bhaktim udasya te vibho

     klishyanti ye kevala-bodha-labdhaye

tesham asau kleshala eva shishyate

     nanyad yatha sthula-tushavaghatinam

 

 

     "My dear Lord, devotional service unto You is the only auspicious path. If one gives it up simply for speculative knowledge or the understanding that these living beings are spirit souls and the material world is false, he undergoes a great deal of trouble. He only gains troublesome and inauspicious activities. His endeavors are like beating a husk that is already devoid of rice. One's labor becomes fruitless."*

 

     In Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.2.32) it is also said:

 

 

ye 'nye 'ravindaksha-vimukti-maninas

     tvayy asta-bhavad avishuddha-buddhayah

aruhya kricchrena param padam tatah

     patanty adho 'nadrita-yushmad-anghrayah

 

 

     "O lotus-eyed Lord, although non-devotees who accept severe austerities and penances to achieve the highest position may think themselves liberated, their intelligence is impure. They fall down from their position of imagined superiority because they have no regard for Your lotus feet."*

 

     In Shri Chaitanya-caritamrita (Madhya 22.29) it is said:

 

 

jnani jivan-mukta dasha painu kari' mane

vastutah buddhi shuddha nahe krishna-bhakti vine

 

 

     "There are many philosophical speculators (jnanis) belonging to the Mayavada school who consider themselves liberated and call themselves Narayana. However, their intelligence is not purified unless they engage in Krishna's devotional service."*

 

 

Sutra 84

 

 

cid-vishesha eva prayojanah

 

     cit - spiritual; visheshah - variety; eva - indeed; prayojanah - the final goal.

 

 

     The state of spiritual variety is the final stage of spiritual advancement.

 

Commentary by Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura

 

 

     In the Chandogya Upanishad (8.1.2-3) it is said:

 

 

bruyad yavan va ayam akashas tavan esho 'ntar hridaya akasha ubhe 'smin dyava-prithivi antar eva mamahite ubhav agnish ca vayush ca surya-candramasav ubhau vidyun nakshatrani yac casyehasti yac ca nasti sarvam tad asmin samahitam iti.

 

 

     "The Supreme Personality of Godhead, who resides in the spiritual sky, and the individual spiritual soul, who resides in the sky of the heart, may both move among the spiritual and material worlds. They both may enter Agniloka, Vayuloka, the sun, the moon, the stars, and the lightning. They may enter the spiritual world, which is real, and the material world, which is not an eternal reality."

 

     In Shri Brahma-samhita (5.29) it is said:

 

 

cintamani-prakara-sadmasu kalpa-vrksha-

     lakshavriteshu surabhir abhipalayantam

lakshmi-sahasra-shata-sambhrama-sevyamanam

     govindam adi-purusham tam aham bhajami

 

 

     "I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, the first progenitor, who is tending the cows yielding all desire, in abodes built with spiritual gems, surrounded by millions of purpose trees, and always served with great reverence and affection by hundreds of thousands of lakshmis, or gopis."***

 

     In Shri Chaitanya-caritamrita (Madhya 20.155) it is said:

 

 

svayam bhagavan krishna govinda para nama

sarvaishvarya purna yanra goloka nitya dhama

 

 

     "The original Supreme Personality of Godhead is Krishna. His original name is Govinda. He is full of all opulences, and His eternal abode is known as Goloka Vrindavana."*