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NITAAI-Veda.nyf > All Scriptures By Acharyas > Baladeva Vidyabhushana > Vishnu Sahasra Nama > Thousand Names

The Thousand Names of Lord Vishnu

 

Text 14

 

om vishvam vishnur vashatkaro

†††† bhuta-bhavya-bhavat-prabhuh

bhuta-krid bhuta-bhrid bhavo

†††† bhutatma bhuta-bhavanah

 

 

†††† Let me offer my respectful obeisances to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who pervades the entire universe (vishnu). He is worshiped in the Vedic sacrifices (vashatkara). He is eternally the Supreme Controller, in all phases of time, including past, present and future (bhuta-bhavya-bhavat-prabhu). He is the creator of the cosmic manifestation (bhuta-krit) and He maintains it as well (bhuta-bhrit). He is the master of all spiritual and material potencies (bhava). He is the creator of all living entities (bhutatma) and the well-wisher who promotes their welfare (bhuta-bhavana).

 

 

†††† Note:In his commentary, Shila Baladeva Vidyabhushana quotes the description of creation found in the Upanishads:

 

 

so 'kamayata bahu syam prajayeya

 

 

†††† " Supreme Personality desired: Let me become many. I will manifest the entire creation by My potencies."

 

Text 15

 

putama paramatma ca

†††† muktanam parama gatih

avyayah purushah sakshi

†††† kshetrajo 'kshara eva ca

 

 

†††† Lord Krishna is supremely pure (putatma) and He is the Supreme Soul (paratmatma). He is the ultimate goal and destination of the liberated souls (muktanam parama gatih). and He is the eternal (avyaya) Supreme Person (purusha). He is the witness of everything (sakshi) and He knows what happens to all living entities (kshetrajna). He is infallible (akshara).

 

 

†††† Note: In his commentary, Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana notes that although Lord Krishna is the creator of the cosmic manifestation, He remains aloof from it. For this reason He remains always free from material contamination, and He is the supreme pure.

 

 

Text 16

 

yogo yoga-vidam neta

†††† pradhana-purusheshvarah

narasimha-vapuh shriman

†††† keshavah purushottamah

 

 

†††† He is the auspicious reservoir of yogic perfection, and success in yoga practice depends upon Him (yoga). He is the leader of those advanced in yoga (yoga-vidam neta), and He is the supreme controller of the material universe and all living entities (pradhana-purusheshvara). Even though He has appeared in a half-man, half-lion incarnation (narasimha-vapuh), He is extremely handsome (shriman). He is the father of Brahma and Shiva (Keshava), and He is the supreme Person (purushottama).

 

 

†††† Note: In his commentary, Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana quotes Lord Shiva's explanation of the name Keshava:

 

 

††††††††† ka iti brahmano nama

†††††††††††††† isho 'ham sarva-dehinam

††††††††† avam tavanga-sambhutau

†††††††††††††† tasmat keshava-nama-bhak

 

 

†††† "Ka is a name of Brahma, and I (Shiva) am known as isha, because I am the master of all living entities who reside in material bodies. O Lord Krishna, because we are born from your body, you are therefore known as Keshava (the father of Brahma and Shiva)."

 

†††† Lord Krishna is known as Purushottama because He is the best of all persons including both conditioned and liberated souls. The Lord Himself has explained the meaning of this name in the Bhagavad-gita (15.18):

 

 

††††††††† yasmat ksharam atito 'ham

†† ††††††††††††aksharad api cottamah

††††††††† ato 'smi loke vede ca

†††††††††††††† prathitah purushottamah

 

 

†††† "Because I am transcendental, beyond both the fallible and the infallible, and because I am the greatest, I am celebrated both in the world and in the Vedas as that Supreme Person."*

 

Text 17

 

sarvah sharvah shivah sthanur

†††† bhutadir nidhir avyayah

sambhavo bhavano bharta

†††† prabhavah prabhur ishvarah

 

 

†††† Lord Krishna is present everywhere, and therefore He is everything (sarva). He is supremely benefical (sharva) and He is the most auspicious (shiva). He is always very merciful (sthanu) and He is the creator of all living entities (bhutadi). He gives happiness to all (nidhi) and He is imperishable (avyaya). He always thinks how to protect the devotees (bhavana) and He descends to the material world in order to protect them (sambhava). He is the maintainer of the devotees (bharta) and He is the origin of everything (prabhava). He is the supreme master who can perform any feat impossible to be performed by Brahma or anyone else (prabhu), and He is the supreme controller of all living entities (ishvara).

 

 

†††† Note: In his commentary, Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana quotes Arjuna's explanation of how Krishna is everything (Bhagavad-gita 11.40):

 

 

††††††††† sarvam samapnoshi tato 'si sarvam

 

 

†††† "O Krishna, You are all-pervading, and thus You are everything."*

 

†††† Lord Krishna's appearance within this material world to protect the devotees is explained by the Lord Himself in the Bhagavad-gita (4.8):

 

††††††††† paritranaya sadhunam

†††††††††††††† vinashaya ca dushkritam

††††††††† dharma-samsthapanarthaya

†††††† ††††††††sambhavami yuge yuge

 

†††† "In order to deliver the pious and annihilate the miscreants, as well as to reestablish the principles of religion, I advent Myself millenium after millenium."*

 

†††† The Lord's killing of Hiranyakashipu and protection of the Pandavas by different tactics may be cited as examples of these purposes of the Lord.

 

 

Text 18

 

svayambhuh shambhur adityah

†††† pushkaraksho mahasvanah

anadi-nidhano dhata

†††† vidhata dhatur uttamah

 

 

†††† Lord Krishna is the self-sufficient Lord (svayambhu) whose auspicious transcendental qualities bring great happiness to the devotees (shambhu). Among the demigods He appears in a splendid golden form (aditya) and He is all-pervading (pushkaraksha). He is the supreme object of worship (mahasvana) and He was never born and will never die (anadi-nidhana). He is the original creator, before Brahma or anyone else (dhata) and He is the original author of all Vedic injunctions (vidhata). He is the Supreme Person (dhatur uttama).

 

 

 

†††† Note: Krishna's self-sufficiency is described in Isha Upanishad (mantra 8):

 

 

kavir manishi paribhuh svayambhuh

 

 

"The Supreme Person is the self-sufficient philosopher who is omniscient and the greatest of all."*

 

†††† The all-pervasiveness of the Lord is explained in the shruti-shastra: "akashatma (the Supreme Personality of Godhead is all-pervading)".

 

†††† Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana presents the following quotes from the Shruti, where Krishna's authorship of them is explained:

 

 

†††† tasya va etasya mahato bhutasya nishvasitam etad yad rig-vedo yajur-vedah

 

 

†††† "The Rig-veda and Yajur-veda are produced from the breathing of the Supreme Personality of Godhead."*

 

 

yo brahmanam vidadhati purvam yo vidyas tasmai jnapayati sa krishnah

 

 

†††† "It was Krishna who in the beginning instructed Brahma in Vedic knowledge and who disseminated Vedic knowledge in the past."*

 

†††† In the Bhagavad-gita (14.3), Krishna Himself explains that He is the original creator of all living entities:

 

 

mama yonir mahad brahma

†††† tasmin garbham dadhamy aham

sambhavah sarva-bhutanam

†††† tato bhavati bharata

 

 

†††† "The total material substance, called brahman, is the source of birth, and it is that brahman that I impregnate, making possible the births of all living beings, O son of Bharata."*

 

Text 19

 

aprameyo hrishikeshah

†††† padma-nabho 'mara-prabhuh

vishva-karma manus tvashta

†††† sthavishthah sthaviro dhruvah

 

 

†††† Lord Krishna is unlimited and cannot be measured by the finite senses of Brahma and the other demigods (aprameya), and He is the master of the senses (Hrishikesha). Lord Brahma took birth from His lotus-navel (padma-nabha) and He is the master of the demigods (amara-prabhu) who gives them jurisdiction in the affairs of creation and maintenance of the material universe. Seated within the hearts of Brahma and the other demigods, He gives them the ability to create and maintain the universe (vishva-karma). He knows everything (manu) and His form is very handsome and splendid (tvashta). He creates innumerable universes by His inconceivable potency (sthavishtha) and He is eternal (sthavira and dhruva).

 

 

 

†††† Note: That Lord Krishna is unlimited and immeasurable is explained in the following statement of Lord Brahma:

 

 

na hy adi-madhyantam ajasya yasya

†††† vidmo vayam sarvamayasya dhatuh

 

 

†††† "Neither I, nor any other demigod can understand the beginning middle or end of the unborn, all-pervading Supreme Personality of Godhead, the creator of everything."

 

†††† The handsomeness of Lord Krishna is described in the following quote from the Shruti-shastra:

 

 

†††† sarvani rupani vicitya dhiro

††††††††† namani kritvabhivadan yad aste

 

 

†††† "The saintly devotees meditate on the handsomeness of the forms of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and chant His holy names."

 

†††† That Lord Krishna is the source from whom the universe has emanated is confirmed in the Smriti-shas tra:

 

 

nistarah sarva-bhutasya

†††† vishnor vishvam idam jagat

 

 

†††† "From Lord Vishnu the entire universe and all living entities have emanated."

 

†††† The inconceivable potencies of the Lord are described in the Shvetashvatara Upanishad (6.8):

 

 

parasya shaktir vividhaiva shruyate

†††† svabhaviki jnana-bala-kriya ca

 

 

†††† "The Supreme Personality of Godhead has such potencies that anything He wants done will be done perfectly well through the control of material nature."*

 

†††† It is further explained:

 

 

††††††††† pradhana-kshetrajna-patir guneshah

 

 

†††† The Supreme Personality of Godhead is the controller of the material manifestation and the living entities. He is the master of the modes of nature."

 

 

Text 20

 

agrahyah shashvatah krishno

†††† lohitakshah pratardanah

prabhutas trikakud dhama

†††† pavitram mangalam param

 

 

†††† The Supreme Personality of Godhead is the non-material cause of the material manifestation (agrahya), and He is eternal (shashvata). He has an eternal, all-attractive form (krishna), and His handsome eyes are reddish (lohitaksha). He removes the distresses in the hearts of His devotees (pratardana), and He is the supreme monarch (prabhuta). He resides in the spiritual world, which is three fouths of the entire existance (trikakud-dhama). He is the supreme pure, free from all material contamination, and He is the supreme purifier (pavitram). He is the supreme auspiciousness (mangalam param).

 

 

†††† Note: Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana notes that the most important form of the Supreme is the form of Krishna. This form is a completely spiritual and it is full of spiritual bliss. This form is extremely handsome, and is compared to the exquisite atasi flower. The etymological derivation of the name Krishna is found in the Mahabharata (Udyoga-parva 71.4):

 

 

krishir bhu-vacakah shabdo

†††† nash ca nirvriti-vacakah

tayor aikyam param brahma

†††† krishna ity abhidhiyate

 

 

†††† "The word "krish" is the attractive feature of the Lord's

existance, and "na" means spiritual pleasure. When the verb "krish" is added to affix "na", it becomes Krishna, which indicates the Absolute Truth."*

 

†††† Of all the names of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Krishna is the most important, as the Lord Himself has confirmed:

 

 

namnam mukhyatamam nama

†††† krishnakhyam me parantapa

 

 

†††† "My dear Arjuna, 'Krishna' is the most important of all My names."

 

†††† The Lord's handsome eyes are reddish. This is described in the Shruti:

 

 

†††† samavrisho lohitakshah

 

 

†††† "The Supreme Lord has a complexion like a dark monsoon cloud and His eyes are reddish."

 

†††† The handsome eyes of the Lord are also described in the Smriti:

 

 

†††† mada-vighurnita-locana ishan manadah sav-suhridam vana-mali

 

 

†††† "TheSupreme Personality of Godhead wears an exquisite garland of forest flowers, and His eyes move as if He were intoxicated. He is very kind and affectionate to His friends and He is fond of praising them."

 

†††† Lord Krishna is the supreme auspiciousness. This is confirmed in the Smriti-shastra:

 

 

ashubhani niracashte

†††† tanoti shubha-santatim

smriti-matrena yat pumsam

†††† brahma tan mangalam viduh

 

 

†††† "Simply by rembering the Supreme Personality of Godhead all inauspiciousness is driven away, and auspiciousness becomes very prominent. For this reason, the Personality of Godhead is known as the supreme auspiciousness."

 

†††† The Smriti-shastra again confirms this point:

 

 

†††† mangalaya parasmai namah

 

†††† "I offer my respectful obeisances to the Personality of Godhead, who is the supreme auspiciousness"

 

Text 21

 

ishanah pranadah prano

†††† jyeshthah shreshthah prajapatih

hiranyagarbho bhugarbho

†††madhavo madhusudanah

 

 

†††† Lord Krishna is the creator of everything (ishana), and in His form as the first purusha-avatara, Karanodakashayi Vishnu, He gives life and the functions of the mind and senses to the living entities (pranada). As the second purusha-avatara, He is the life-force, which maintains the living entities (prana). He is the oldest person (jyeshtha), and He is the best person, full of excellent transcendental qualities (shreshtha). He is the master of Garuda and other eternally liberated souls (prajapati), and His spiritual realm is as splendid as gold (hiranyagarbha). He is the maintainer of the earth planet (bhugarbha) and the husband of the goddess of fortune, Lakshmi-devi (madhava). Rememberance of Him puts an end to the repetition of birth and death in this material world (madhusudana).

 

 

†††† Note: Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana gives the following explanation of the word pranada (giver of life, mind and senses to the living entities):

 

 

buddhindriya-manah-pranan

†††† jananam ashrijat prabhuh

 

 

††††† "The Supreme Personality of Godhead created the intelligence, mind, senses, and life-force of the many living entities."

 

†††† Lord Krishna is the master of all living entities. This is described in the Shruti:

 

 

tad akshare parame prajah

 

 

†††† "The imperishable Personality of Godhead is the supreme master and father of all living entities."

 

†††† The Lord's spiritual realm is as splendid as gold. This is confirmed in the Shruti-shastra:

 

 

hiranmaye pure koshe

†††† virajam brahma nishkalam

 

 

†††† "The supremely pure Personality of Godhead resides in the spiritual world, which has a golden effulgence."

 

†††† Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana gives the following derivation of the name Madhava: "ma" means Lakshmi-devi, the goddess of fortune. "Dhava" means husband. Therefore "madhava" means "the husband of the Goddess of fortune".

 

†††† In this connection, the Purusha-sukta prayer explains:

 

 

shrish ca te lakshmis ca patnyau

 

 

†††† "Shri and Lakshmi are the wives of theSupreme Personality of Godhead."

 

†††† Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura notes in this regard that Shrimati Radharani is the principal goddess of fortune, and therefore the name "Madhava" also means "the husband of Shrimati Radharani", or the husband of the gopis in Vrajabhumi".

 

†††† Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana quotes Lord Shiva's explanation of the name Madhusudana:

 

 

madhuh samsara-nameti

†††† tato madhu-nisudanah

 

†††† "`Madhu' means the material existance of repeated birth and death, and `nisudana' means killer. Therefore, the name Madhusudana means `He who stops the repetition of birth and death'".

 

 

Text 22

 

ishvaro vikrami dhanvi

†††† medhavi vikramah kramah

anuttamo duradharshah

†††† kritajnah krtir atmavan

 

 

†††† Lord Krishna is the Supreme Controller (ishvara), and He is unlimitedly powerful (vikrami). He wields the transcendental sharnga bow (dhanvi), and He is supremely intelligent and expert (medhavi). He can travel anywhere immediately, even without the help of Garuda (vikrama and krama), and there is no one who is superior or equal to Him (anuttama). The non-devotees cannot approach Him (duradharsha), and He is very grateful to they who offer even a small tulasi leaf or forest flower with sincere devotion (kritajna). By His illusory potency, maya, the conditioned souls engage in fruitive activites (kriti). He keeps an eternal loving relationship with the liberated souls (atmavan).

 

 

†††† Note: Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana explains the word anuttama by citing the Vedic literatures:

 

 

na tat samash cabhyadhikash ca drishyate

 

 

†††† "No one is superior or equal to the Supreme Personality of Godhead." (Shvetashvatara Upanishad 6.8)

 

 

mattah parataram nanyat

 

 

†††† "O Arjuna, there is no truth superior to Me." (Bhagavad-gita 7.7)*

 

†††† The Lord Himself has explained the word kritajna:

 

 

patram pushpam phalam toyam

†††† yo me bhaktya prayacchati

tad aham bhakty-upahritam

†††† ashnami prayatatmanah

 

 

†††† "If one offers me with love and devotion a leaf, flower, fruit or water, I will accept it." (Bhagavad-gita 9.26)*

 

Text 23

 

sureshah sharanam sharma

†††† vishva-retah praja-bhavah

ahah samvatsaro vyalah

†††† pratyayah sharva-darshanah

 

†††† Lord Krishna is the master of the demigods and the benefactor of the worthy devotees (suresha). He is the shelter that removes the distresses of they who approach Him (sharana), and He is full of transcendental bliss (sharma). He is full of spiritual prowess (vishvaretah) and He is the father of all living entities (prajabhava). He is like a daytime that causes the conditioned souls to awaken from the long night of material ignorance (ahar), and He rescues the devotees from the fearful ocean of repeated birth and death (samvatsara). Everything enters into Him at the time of devastation, and He is the dear friend of Shrimati Radharani, Taraka and Pali (vyala). He is the only person in whom one can completely place his trust (pratyaya). He reveals His form, qualities, and everything about Himself to the sincere devotees, who have full confidence in the instructions of the spiritual master and the words of the Vedic literatures (sarvadarshana).

 

 

†††† Note: Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana quotes the description of the word sharana found in the Vedic literatures:

 

 

sarvasya sharanam suhrt

 

 

†††† TheSupreme Personality of Godhead is the friend and shelter of all living entities."

 

†††† The word sharma is described in the Shruti-mantra:

 

 

anandam brahma

 

 

†††† " The Supreme Personality of Godhead is full of transcendental bliss."

 

 

†††† The Lord Himself describes the word samvatsara:

 

 

tesham aham samuddharta

†††† mrityu-samsara-sagarat

bhavami ma cirat partha

†††† mayy aveshita-cetasam

 

 

†††† "O Son of Pritha, for the devotees who have fixed their minds upon Me, I am the swift deliverer from the ocean of birth and death." (Bhagavad-gita 12.7)*

 

†††† The Lord further states:

 

 

dadami buddhi-yogam tam

†††† yena mam upayanti te

 

 

†††† "To those who are constantly devoted and worship Me with love I give the understanding by which they can come to Me."

(Bhagavad-gita 10.10)*

 

†††† Lord Kapiladeva gives the following description of the word sarva-darshana:

 

 

pashyanti te me rucirany amba santah

††† prasanna-vaktraruna-locanani

rupani divyani vara-pradani

†††† sakam vacam sprihaniyam vadanti

 

 

†††† "O My mother, My devotees always see the smiling face of My form, with eyes like the rising morning sun. They like to see My various transcendental forms, which are all benevolent, and they also talk favorably with Me." (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 3.25.35)*

 

 

Text 24

 

ajah sarveshvarah siddhah

†††† siddhih sarvadir acyutah

vrishakapir ameyatma

†††† sarva-yoga-vinihshritah

 

 

†††† Although Lord Krishna does not take birth in a material body forced by the laws of karma as an ordinary living entity, He nevertheless appears within this material world in the abode of Vrindavana, just to give transcendental bliss to His devotees (aja). Lord Krishna is the master of Brahma, all the demigods, and all living entities (sarveshvara), and He knows everything in the past, present and future (siddha). He is full of unlimited powers (siddhi), and He is the origin of everything (sarvadi). He protects His devotees from falling down (acyuta). He fulfills the desires of the devotees and strikes fear into the hearts of the demons (vrishakapi). His form and intelligence are unlimited and immeasurable, and he is supremely dear to the devotees (ameyatma). He is always free from material contact (sarva-yoga-vinihshrita).

 

 

†††† Note: Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana quotes the following description of the word sarvadi, which is found in the Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.81.19)

 

 

svargapavargayoh pumsam

†††† rasayam bhuvi sampadam

sarvasam api siddhanam

†††† mulam tac-caranarcanam

 

 

†††† "By worshiping Lord Krishna's lotus feet, one attains both liberation and heavenly happiness within this world. That worship is the cause of attaining all mystic powers, and all the opulences of the earthly and patala planets."*

 

†††† The meaning of the name acyuta is explained by Lord Krishna Himself in the Bhagavad-gita (6.30):

 

 

tasyaham na pranashyami

†††† sa ca me na pranashyati

 

 

†††† "For one who sees Me everywhere and sees everything in Me, I am never lost, nor is he ever lost to Me."*

 

Text 25

 

vasur vasumanah satyah

†††† samatma sammitah samah

amoghah pundarikaksho

†††† vrishakarma vrishakritih

 

 

†††† Lord Krishna always resides in the hearts of the devotees that relish hearing and chanting His glories (vasu). He meditates on how to increase the transcendental opulences of the devotees that consider Him their only wealth (vasu-manah). He never speaks a lie, and He is very dear to the truthful devotees (satya). He accepts the role of being equal to the devotees who approach Him in sakhya-rasa, or friendship (samatma). He magnanimously presents Himself as equal to His devotee (sammita). In order to glorify the devotees related to Him in friendship and the other rasas, He presents Himself as their equal (sama). He grants His own supremely valuable devotional service to they who become attached to Him (amogha), and He is always manifest in the lotus-like hearts of the pure devotees (pundarikaksha). He fulfills the desires of the pure devotees (vrishsakarma), and His transcendental form is supremely handsome (vrishakriti).

 

 

†††† Note: Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana explains the word vasu by quoting the following sataement of Lord Krishna found in the smriti-shastra:

 

 

mad-bhakta yatra gayanti

†††† tatra tishthami narada

 

 

†††† "O Narada, I remain where My devotees engage in glorifying My activities."*

 

††† Queen Kuntidevi explains the meaning of the word vasu-manah in the following words:

 

 

namo 'kincana-vittaya

 

 

†††† "O Lord Krishna, my obeisances are unto You, who are the property of the materially impoverished."*

 

†††† The name amogha is explained by Lord Krishna in the smriti-shastra:

 

 

amogha bhagavad-bhaktir

†††† netareti matir mama

 

 

†††† "I am not inclined to give my pure devotional service to anyone and everyone, but I give it to only a few rare souls."

 

††† The name vrishakriti is explained in the smriti-shastra:

 

 

bibhrad vapuh sakala-sundara sannivesham

†††† karmacaran bhuvi sumangalam apta-kamah

 

†††† "Lord Krishna's transcendental form is supremely handsome and auspicious. All His desires are automatically fulfilled. He appeared on this earth planet and performed His transcendental pastimes."

 

 

Text 26

 

rudro bahu-shira babhrur

†††† vishva-yonih shuci-shravah

amritah shashvatah sthanur

†††† vararoho maha-tapah

 

 

†††† Lord Krishna cures the disease of material existance afflicting the conditioned souls (rudra), and He appears as the thousand-headed Lord Anantadeva (bahu-shirah). He is the maintainer (babhru) and creator (vishva-yoni) of millions of universes. He is supremely pure, and He cleanses whatever impurity may contaminate the hearts of His genuine devotees (shuci-shravah). His handsomeness is as sweet as nectar, and He rescues the devotees from the cycle of repeated birth, old-age and death (amrita). He is eternal (shashvata), and He eternally apears before the pure devotees and grants them transcendental bliss (sthanu). He always remains in His eternal abode, Goloka Vrindavana, and he rescues His devotees from the cycle of birth and death (vararoha). He is Himself the original cause of the multiple distresses of material existance (maha-tapah).

 

††††

†††† Note: Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana quotes the following description of the name rudra found in the smriti-shastra:

 

 

rujam dravayate yasmad rudras tasmaj janardanah

 

 

†††† "Because Lord Janardana cures the sickness that is material life, He is known as Rudra."

 

†††† The namebahu-shirah is described in the purusha-sukta prayers:

 

 

sahasra-shirsha purushah

 

 

†††† "TheSupreme Person appears as the thousand-headed Lord Anantadeva."

 

†††† Lord Krishna explains the meaning of the name shuci-shravah in the following verse from the smriti-shastra:

 

 

shucini sravaniyani

†††† shrinomiha dhananjaya

 

na ca papani grihnami

†††† tato 'ham vai shuci-shravah

 

 

†††† "O Dhananjaya, I am never contaminated by any sinful action, and therefore I am known as shuci-shravah."

 

Text 27

 

sarvagah sarva-vid bhanur

†††† vishvakseno janardanah

vedo veda-vid avyango

†††† vedango veda-vit kavih

 

 

†††† Lord Krishna is present everywhere in the material manifestation composed of 24 elements, and He reciprocates the loving service rendered by His devotees (sarvaga). He knows everything auspicious and inauspicious and He knows all the spiritual and material worlds (sarva-vit). He is like a brilliant sun shining in this world (bhanu). His associates are like a host of armies stationed in every corner of the universe for it's protection (vishvaksena). He crushes the demons that seek to destroy the world and He protects the saintly devotees, removing all their sufferings (janardana). He is manifested as the Vedic hymns (veda), and He is the knower of the Vedas (veda-vit). He is not directly described in the six Vedangas, which describe grammar, astronomy, and similar subjects (avyanga). The Vedic literatures comprise His instructions (vedanga). He is the most expert theologian, philosopher and poet (kavi).

 

 

†††† Note: Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana quotes the description of the word veda, found in the smriti-shastra:

 

 

vedo narayanah sakshat

 

 

†††† "The Vedas are a direct manifestation of Lord Narayana."

 

†††† The name veda-vit is described by Lord Krishna Himself in the Bhagavad-gita (15.15):

 

 

vedanta-krid veda-vid eva caham

 

 

†††† "I am the compiler of Vedanta, and I am the knower of the Vedas."*

 

 

Text 28

 

lokadhyakshah suradhyaksho

†††† dharmadhyakshah kritakritah

catur-atma catur-vyuhash

†††† catur-damshtrash catur-bhujah

 

 

†††† Lord Krishna is the master of the Vaishnavas, who engage in His devotional service and He is also the master of the vaidika-brahmanas, who worship Him by the performance of agnihotra-yajnas (lokadhyaksha). He is the master of all the demigods (suradhyaksha), the superintendent of religious principles, and the judge of all living entities (dharmadhyaksha). He is completely free from material contact (kritakrita) and He has expanded Himself as Lord Vasudeva, Sankarshana, Pradyumna and Aniruddha (catur-atma and catur-vyuha). He has all the 14 characteristics of an exalted personality (catur-damshtra), and He is manifested as four-armed Lord Vishnu, who holds a conch, disk, club, and lotus (catur-bhuja).

 

 

Text 29

 

bhrajishnur bhojanam bhokta(-)

†††† sahishnur jagad-adijah

anagho vijayo jeta

†††† vishva-yonih punar-vasuh

 

 

†††† Lord Krishna is effulgent (bhrajishnu), and He supplies the neccessities of life to all living entities (bhojana). He relishes foodstuffs and other things offered to Him with devotion, and He is the protector of the gentle devotees (bhokta). He is intolerant of the demons (asahishnu) and tolerant of the offenses accidentally committed by His devotees (sahishnu). He is the father of Lord Brahma, the first living being to appear in the universe (jagad-adija). Even though He appears in this material world, He remains always pure and full of transcendental bliss, free form this world's contamination (anagha). He is always victorious (vijaya) and He is the Supreme Person because He can defeat any demigod or living entity (jeta). He is the original creator of all universes (vishva-yoni), and He appears within this material world again and again to protect the devotees (punar-vasu).

 

 

†††† Note: Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana quotes Lord Brahma's explanation of the word jagad-adija found in the smriti-shastra:

 

 

yasya prasadad aham acyutasya

†††† bhutah praja-shrishti-karo 'nta-kari

krodhac ca rudrah sthiti-hetu-bhuto

†††† yasmac ca madhye purushah purastat

 

 

†††† "Born from the mercy of infallible Lord Krishna, I appear in this world to generate the living entities. Shiva is born from Lord Krishna's anger in order to destroy the universes, and Lord Krshna appears as Lord Vishnu, the primeval person, in order to maintain the universe."

 

 

Text 30

 

upendro vamanah pramshur

†††† amoghah shucir urjitah

atindrah sangrahah sargo

†††† dhritatma niyamo yamah

 

 

†††† Lord Krishna is Indra's younger brother (upendra), who appeared as a young brahmacari to help Indra and cheat Bali Maharaja (vamana). In this incarnation the Lord became so tall He could immediately step over the entire universe (pramshu). His activities are always successful (amogha), and He is supremely pure (shuci). He is so powerful (urjita) that He easily defeated Bali's army, and He surpasses the strength of Indra (atindra). He accepts they who become devoted to Him (sangraha). He created the demigods and everything else (sarga). He enchants and delights the hearts and minds of Indra and the other devotees (dhritatma). He controls the devotees (niyama) and He resides in their hearts and minds (yama).

 

 

†††† Note: Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana observes that the names in this verse all describe the Lord's incarnation as Vamanadeva. The smriti-shastra describes Lord Vamana in the following way:

 

 

dvadashaivaditeh putrah

†††† shakra-mukhya naradhipa

tesham avarajo vishnur

†††† yatra lokah pratishthitah

 

 

†††† "O King, Aditi gave birth to twelve sons. The eldest son was Indra, and the youngest of Her sons was Vamana, who was actually Lord Vishnu, in whom all planetary systems rest."

 

†††† The name pramshu is described in the smriti-shastra:

 

 

toye tu patite haste††††

†††† vamano 'bhud avamanan

sarva-devamayam rupam

†††† darshayam asa vai bhuvi

 

†††† "Although Lord Vamana was a very short small boy, He quickly expanded His form to include all the demigods."

 

Text 31

 

vedyo vaidyah sada-yogi

†††† viraho madhavo madhuh

atindriyo maha-mayo

†††† mahotsaho maha-balah

 

 

†††† Lord Krishna appeared as Kurma-avatara to deliver nectar to the demigods and remove their poverty (vedya). He appeared as Lord Dhanvantari, the original physician, who cures the people's diseases simply by the expansion of His fame. As Lord Dhanvantari, He gave nectar to the demigods (vaidya). He always acts for the welfare of the demigods (sada-yogi). He kills the powerful demons such as Kamsa and the demons eager to fight the demigods to attain the nectar churned from the ocean of milk (viraha). He is the husband of Lakshmi-devi, who appeared from the ocean of milk (madhava). With His handsomeness and charm He enchanted Lakshmi-devi and all the pious demigods (madhu). Removing the nectar from the possession of the demigods, He disappeared, because He always remains invisible to they who have no devotion to Him (atindriya). He then appeared in the attractive female form of Mohini-murti to bewilder the demons and also Lord Shiva (maha-maya). In this way He earnestly endeavored to make the demigods' plans successful (mahotsaha), and He displayed His great prowess, which can thwart or bewilder anyone (maha-bala).

 

 

†††† Note: Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana observes that the names in this verse describe the Lord's incarnations (Kurma, Dhanvantari and Mohini-murti) that appeared when the demigods and demons jointly churned the ocean of milk.

 

The smriti-shastra describes the name viraha:

 

 

†††† suparna-pakshabhihata nipetur danavarshabhah

 

†††

†††† "When Lord Vishnu fought the demons, He rode on Garuda. Simply by the blows from Garuda's wings, the demons fell in the battle."

 

†††† The name madhava may also mean "the master of all transcendental knowledge". This is confirmed by the following statement of Lord Shiva:

 

 

mavidya ca hareh prokta

†††† tasyam isho yato bhavan

tasman madhava-namasi

†††† purvam asiti shabditah

 

†††† "O Lord Hari, knowledge of transcendence is known as ma, and because you are the master of all such transcendental knowledge, You are known as `madhava'".

 

 

Text 32

 

maha-buddhir maha-viryo

†††† maha-shaktir maha-dyutih

anirdeshya-vapuh shriman

†††† ameyatma mahadri-dhrik

 

 

†††† Lord Krishna is supremely intelligent (maha-buddhi), supremely powerful (maha-virya), and the master of all transcendental potencies (maha-shakti). He is supremely splendid (maha-dyuti) and His transcendental form cannot be seen by material eyes (anirdeshya-vapuh). He is supremely handsome (shriman), and His unlimited nature cannot be measured by any living entity or demigod (ameyatma). Appearing as Lord Kurma, He held up the Mandara Mountain (mahadri-dhrik).

 

 

†††† Note: Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana comments that Lord Krishna used His great prowess (maha-virya) to take the nectar on behalf of the demigods, and He used His great potency (maha-shakti) to bewilder the demons and bring them under His control.

††††

†††† A further explanation of the name maha-dyuti is found in the following description by Shrila Shukadeva Gosvami:

 

 

megha-shyamah kanaka-paridhih karna-vidyoti-vidyun-

†††† murdhi-bhrajad-vilulita-kacah srag-dharo rakta-netrah

jaitrair dorbhir jagad-ubhayadair dandashukam grihitva

†††† mantha-manthan prati girir ivashobhatatho dhritadrih

 

†††† "The Lord appeared like a blackish cloud. He was dressed with yellow garments, earrings shone on His ears like lightning, and His hair was spread over His shoulders. He wore a garland of flowers and His eyes were pinkish.With His strong glorious arms, which award fearlessness throughout the universe, He took hold of Vasuki, and began churning the ocean, using Mandara Mountain as a churning rod. When engaged in this way, the Lord appeared like a splendid sapphire mountain."

 

Text 33

 

maheshvaso mahi-bharta

†††† shri-nivasah satam gatih

aniruddhah suranando

†††† govindo govindam patih

 

 

†††† Lord Krishna is the celebrated archer Lord Ramacandra (maheshvasa) and He is the husband of the goddess of fortune (shrinivasa). He is the maintainer of the earth (mahi-bharta). He is the destination and master of the devotees (satam gatih) and He cannot be controlled by anything except pure devotional service (aniruddha). He gives transcendental bliss to the devotees and demigods (surananda) and He gives pleasure to the cows, land and senses (govinda). With His spiritual effulgence He removes all obstacles from the path of His devotees (govindam patih).

 

††††

†††† Note: Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana observes that the first four names in this verse describe the Lord's expansions that are worshiped in different parts of the universe. Lord Maheshvasa is worshiped in Kimpurusha-varsha, Lord Shrinivasa is worshiped in Ketumala-varsha. Lord Satam Gatih is worshipped by devotees throughout the entire universe.

††††

†††† The remaining names in this verse describe the Lord as He appears in the abode of Shvetadvipa.

 

 

Text 34

 

maricir damano hamsah

†††† suparno bhujagottamah

hiranya-nabhah sutapah

†††† padma-nabhah praja-patih

 

 

†††† Lord Krishna is effulgent (marici) and He removes the distresses of His devotees (damana). He appeared as a swan to enlighten Lord Brahma and the four Kumaras (hamsa). In His form as Lord Vishnu He reclines on Ananta-shesha (bhujagottama) and is carried by Garuda (suparna). His beautiful navel is splendid as gold (hiranyanabha). He appeared before the great devotees worshiping Him with great austerities (sutapah) and His navel is as beautiful as a lotus flower (or He appears before the pure devotees who worship His lotus feet) (padmanabha). He is the master and protector of Shiva, Brahma, and all other living entities (prajapati).

 

 

†††† Note Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana comments that Lord Krishna

appeared in the form of a swan because a swan can discriminate between milk and water, accepting only the milk and rejecting the water when they are mixed together. Just as the swan discriminates in this way, the Lord distinguished the actual truth from that which is only illusion.

 

Text 35

 

amrityuh sarva-drik simhah

†††† sandhata sandhiman sthirah

ajo durmarshanah shasta

†††† vishrutatma surariha

 

 

†††† Lord Krishna is immortal, and He also frees His devotees from death (amrityu). He sees everything, including the devotional activities of His servants (sarva-drik). He sprinkles the nectar of His merciful glance upon the pure devotees, and he becomes like a ferocious lion to attack the demons (simha). He is the creator of innumerable universes, and He appeared as Lord Ramacandra, the most expert archer (sandhata). In His plan to kill Ravana and rescue Sita, He became the ally of Sugriva (sandhiman). He is theconstant friend of Vibhishana and all who approach to take shelter of Him (sthira). He never takes birth in a material body, and he never abandons His friend (aja). He is merciful (durmarshana) and also expert at punishing the demons (shasta). He is famous (as Lord Rama, who is very merciful to the devotees, and who is the killer of Ravana) (vishrutatma). He is the killer of Ravana and other demons, who are always enimical to the demigods and devotees (surariha).

 

 

†††† Note: Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana quotes the shruti-mantra to explain the name sarva-drik. The shruti explains "yah sarvajnah" (the Supreme Personality of Godhead is omniscient).

 

†††† The commentator explains that, beginning with the name sandhata, the names in this verse refer to the Lord's appearance as Lord Ramacandra, the son of Maharaja Dasharatha.

†††† The name aja is explained by Lord Ramacandra Himself in the following way:

 

 

mitra-bhavena sampraptam

†††† na tyajeyam kathancana

dosho yadyapi tasmin syat

†††† satam etad vigarhitam

 

sakrid eva prapanno yas

†††† tavasmiti ca yacate

abhayam sarvada tasmai

†††† dadamy etad vratam mama

 

†††† "If one becomes My friend, then I shall never leave Him, and even if His character is very faulty, I shall not take His faults very seriously. If one surrenders to Me even once, and even once says `O Lord, from today I am Yours', I continually protect Him from all dangers and make Him fearless. This is My vow."

 

 

Text 36

 

gurur gurutamo dhama

†††† satyah satya-parakramah

nimisho 'nimishah sragvi

†††† vacaspatir udara-dhih

 

 

†††† Lord Krishna empowers the initiating and instructing spiritual masters to benefit the residents of the material world (guru). He is Himself the best of spiritual masters who taught Brahma and other great devotees (gurutama). He is the shelter and resting place of everything (dhama). He is the benefactor of Vishvamitra and the other saintly devotees, and He is always truthful (satya). His extraordinary prowess is supremely auspicious (satya-parakrama). He blinks, not recognizing the merit of sinful actions (nimisha) and he never blinks in His continual recognition of the auspicious actions of devotional service (animisha). He wears a vaijayanti garland (sragvi) and He is the protector of Sarasvati (vacaspati). He is generous (udara-dhi).

 

 

†††† Note Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana explains that the Lord's generosity may be seen by the fact that He liberally granted to Guha, Jatayu, Sabari, and many others the great treasure of His lotus feet, which is difficult to attain even by becoming the most learned Vedic scholar.

 

Text 37

 

agranir gramanih shriman-

†††† nyayo neta samiranah

sahasra-murdha vishvatma

†††† sahasrakshah sahasra-pat

 

 

†††† Lord Krishna appeared as Matsya-avatara and rescued the Vedas, which were tied to His horn by the rope of Vasuki-naga (agranih). As He pulled Lord Manu and the other sages in a golden boat, Lord Matsya enjoyed pastimes on the waters of the ocean of devastation (gramanih). Lord Matsya spoke the message of the Vedas and protected the Vedas at the time of devastation (shrimannyaa). He is the leader of all living entities (neta), and He moves about with consummate grace (samirana). Appearing with uncountable thousands of heads (sahasra-murdha), uncountable thousands of eyes (sahasraksha), and uncountable thousands of feet (sahasra-pat), Lord Krishna is the Supreme Soul who pervades the entire universe (vishvatma).

 

 

†††† Note: Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana observes that the first two lines of this verse describe the Lord's universal form, which is also described in the Bhagavad-gita (13.14):

 

 

sarvatah pani-padam tat

†††† sarvato 'kshi-shiro-mukham

sarvatah shrutimal loke

†††† sarvam avritya tishthati

 

†††† "Everywhere are His hands and legs, His eyes and faces, and He hears everything."*

 

 

Text 38

 

avarttano nivrittatma

†††† samvritah sampratardanah

ahah samvartako vahnir

†††† anilo dharani-dharah

 

 

†††† Lord Krishna is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who causes the conditioned souls to rotate in the cycle of birth

and death (avarttana), although He Himself is full of all apiritual opulences and He resides in the eternal spiritual world, free from any material contact (nivrittatma). He remains always invisible to the conditioned souls who are very eager to attain the tiny happinesses of material existance (samvrita), and He causes distress to the demons who are opposed to Him, even if they assume the forms of so-called scholars, saintly persons or demigods (sampratardana). He is Himself the succession of days (or He speaks very eloquently and sweetly (aha). He is time itself (samvartaka), and with part of Himself He carries the weight of the entire universe (vahni). Supremely independent, at various times He voluntarily descends to this material world for the welfare of the conditioned souls (anila). He is the maintainer of the earth (dharani-dhara).

 

 

Note: Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana quotes the following explanation of the name avarttana from the shruti-mantra:

 

 

tenedam bhramyate brahma-cakram

 

 

†††† "The Supreme Personality of Godhead causes the living entities to rotate in the cycle of birth and death."

 

†††† The shruti-mantra gives the following explanation of the name nivrittatma:

 

 

tri-pad urddhu udaita purushah

 

 

†††† "The Supreme Person resides in the eternal spiritual world, which is three-quarters of the entirety of existance."

 

†††† The shruti-mantra also gives the following explanation of the name samvartaka:

 

 

samvartako yah kalah

 

 

†††† "The Supreme Personality of Godhead is manifested as the time-factor."

 

†††† The shruti-mantra explains the name dharani-dhara:

 

 

sa dadhara prithivim

 

 

†††† The Supreme Personality of Godhead maintains the earth."

 

Text 39

 

suprasadah prasannatma

†††† vishva-dhrig vishva-bhug vibhuh

sat-karta sat-kritah sadhur

†††† jahnur narayano narah

 

 

†††† Lord Krishna is very merciful (suprasada). His desires are always fulfilled, and His heart and mind are always clear and pure (prasannatma). He maintains (vishva-dhrik) and protects (vishva-bhuk) the multitude of material universes, and He is the all-pervading, all-powerful, unlimited, and fearless Supreme Controller (vibhu). He is the benefactor of the demigods, pitas, brahmanas and devotees (sat-karta) and He is worshiped by them (sat-krita). He is the benefactor of all living entities and His eternal spiritual form is free from any touch of matter (sadhu). He defeats the enemies of His devotees (jahnu), and He is the shelter within whom all living entities rest, as well as the destroyer of ignorance (narayana). He is the Supersoul who resides in the hearts of all beings (nara).

 

 

†††† Note: Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana explains that the names in this verse indicate the Lord's form of a small child resting on a banyan leaf at the time of universal annihilation.

†††† The Lord's feature as vishva-dhrik (holder of the universes) is seen when He caused all the universes to exit from His body with His exhaling breath, thus astonishing Markandeya Rishi.

†††† The name jahnu (defeater of enemies) may also describe, when, appearing as Nara-Narayana Rishi, the Lord defeated many apsaras sent by Indra, and when the Lord also defeated Shiva, who was very eager to fight with Him.

 

†††† The smriti-shastras explain the name Narayana:

 

 

naraj jatani tattvani

†††† naraniti vidur budhah

tasya tany ayanam purvam

†††† tena narayanah smritah

 

 

†††† "From Lord Vishnu (nara) all the living entities have emanated. For this reason, the living entites are known as nara

(born from nara). Because the Lord is the resting place (ayana) of the total group of living entities (nara), the learned sages call Him Narayana."

 

 

Text 40

 

asankhyeyo 'prameyatma

†††† vishishtah shishta-kric chucih

siddharthah siddha-sankalpah

†††† siddhidah siddhi-sadhanah

 

 

†††† Lord Krishna's transcendental attributes cannot be counted (asankhyeya), His patience is unlimited (aprameyatma). and His opulences are unlimited (vishishta). He gives His devotees great faith in the message of the Vedas, and thus transforms them into the most elevated of peaceful saintly persons (shishta-krit). Simply by hearing about Him of or remembering Him, all living entities become purified and the entire world becomes an auspicious place (shuci). All His desires are automatically fulfilled (siddhartha and siddha-sankalpa), and it is He who fulfills the desires of all living entities (siddhida). Simply by remembering Him, the devotees become successful in their devotional activities, and freed from all impediments (siddhi-sadhana).

 

 

†††† Note: Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana explains the name aprameyatma (unlimitedly patient), by recounting the pastimes of Nara-Narayana Rishi. The Lord remained unidsturbed when the damsels sent by Indra tried to distract Him from His vow of celibacy. At that time the Lord manifested by His own potency a host of transcendental beautiful girls much more beautiful than the young soldiers of Indra, and thus casually frustrated their attempt to break His vow, and caused them to become very astonished.

 

Text 41

 

vrishahi vrishabho vishnur

†††† vrishaparva vrishodarah

vardhano vardhamanash ca

†††† viviktah shruti-sagarah

 

 

†††† Lord Krishna's transcendental qualities eclipse the glory of Indra (vrishahi). Lord Krishna illuminates and protects the entire world by teaching the principles of devotional service (vrishabha), and He is all-pervading, present in every atom of the cosmic manifestation (vishnu). He is a jubliant festival for Indra and the best of the yogis (vrishaparva), and he protects Indra in the same way a mother protects her child (vrishodara). He causes the prajapatis to prosper (vardhana) and He considers even the smallest gift given by His pure devotee to be very great (vardhamana). Although He is present in every corner of the cosmic manifestation, He remains always free from material contact (vivikta). He is like an ocean in which all the rivers of Vedic knowledge converge (shruti-sagara).

 

 

†††† Note: Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana quotes Lord Shiva's explanation of the name Vishnu:

 

 

vyapya sarvan iman lokan

†††† sthitah sarvatra keshavah

tatash ca vishnu-namasi

†††† visher dhatoh pradarshanat

 

 

†††† "The verb vish means 'to enter'. Because Lord Keshava is all-pervading and present in every corner of every planet, as well as in the hearts of all living beings, He is therefore known as 'Vishnu'."

 

†††† The name vardhana begins the list of the names of the Hayagriva incarnation of the Lord.

 

 

Text 42

 

subhujo durdharo vagmi

†††† mahendro vasudo vasuh

naika-rupo brihad-rupah

†††† shipi-vishtah prakashanah

 

 

†††† With His two strong arms, Lord Krishna grants fearlessness to the devotees, and also protects the Vedas (subhuja). He cannot be defeated by Madhu, Kaitabha, or any other demon (durdhara). He is the proper object of eloquent prayers, and He is Himself supremely eloquent (vagmi). He is the supreme monarch, who possess all opulences (mahendra). He defeats the demons, gives shelter to the living entities, and grants the nectarean mellows of love of God to the pure devotees (vasuda). He appears before they who understand His transcendental glories, and thus He becomes their only wealth (vasu). He appears in many different forms to satisfy the desiresof His devotees (naika-rupa). His transcendental from is larger than everything (brihad-rupa). He enters the waters of devastation, and causes the inundation at the end of the universe (shipi-vishta). He is the original cause of the cosmic manifestation (or he rescued the Vedas from the demons Madhu and Kaitabha) (prakashana.)

 

Text 43

 

ojas tejo dyuti-dharah

†††† prakashatma pratapanah

riddah spashtaksharo mantrash

†††† candramshur bhaskara-dyutih

 

 

†††† Lord Krishna is supremely powerful (ojah and tejah) and He is handsome and effulgent (dhyuti-dhara). He personally appears before His pure devotees (prakashatma), and He troubles the demons (pratapana). He is full of all transcendental opulences (ridhha). mHe teaches the message of the Vedas (spashtakshara), and He reveals the truth of His confidential pastimes to the most exalted and intimate devotees (mantra). He is splendid as the moon (candramshu). He is effulgent and He defeated the demons Madhu and Kaitabha with His supreme power (bhaskara-dyuti).

 

 

Text 44

 

amritamshudbhavo bhanuh

†††† shashabinduh sureshvarah

aushadham jagatah setuh

†††† satya-dharma-parakramah

 

 

†††† Lord Krishna is the father of the moon, (amrtamshudbhava) and He is very powerful and splendid (bhanu). He defeats the atheists (shashabindu) and He is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, understood by the theists (sureshvara). Devotional service to Him is the nectar-medicine that counteracts the poisnous snake-bite of material existance (aushadham). He is the enemy of the demons (jagatah setuh). He defeats the impersonalists and establishes the actual truth of spiritual variety (satya-dharma-parakrama).

 

 

†††† Note: Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana quotes the following description of the name amritamshudbhava found in the shruti-shastra:

 

 

candrama manaso jatah

 

 

†††† "The moon is born from the mind of the Supreme Personality of Godhead."

 

†††† Baladeva Vidyabhushana explains that the name shashabindu begins the list of the names of the Lord's incarnation as Dattatreya.

 

Text 45

 

bhuta-bhavya-bhavan-nathah

†††† pavanah pavano 'nalah

kamaha kamakrit kantah

†††† kamah kama-pradah prabhuh

 

 

†††† In all three phases time: past, present and future, Lord Krishna is eternally the supreme master of all living entities (bhuta-bhavya-bhavan-natha). He rescues the living entities from material existance with His merciful sidelong glance (pavana) and He purifies the devotees (pavana). He appears in many forms to protect the devotees (anala). He tears into pieces the material desires of His devotees (kamaha and kama-krit). He is the supreme handsomeness and the object of the aspirations of the saintly paramahamsas (kanta). He is the source of all that is desirable, even for the buddhists and other bewildered living beings, (kama) and it is He who grants sense gratification, liberation or whatever is desired by the conditioned souls (kama-prada). He is omnipotent (prabhu).

 

 

Text 46

 

yugadi-krid yugavarto

†††† naika-mayo mahashanah

adrishyo vyakta-rupash ca

†††† sahasra-jid ananta-jit

 

 

†††† Lord Krishna begins the four yugas by His appearance as the yuga-avatara (yugadi-hrit). He causes the sucession of four yugas (yugavarta). He preaches the specific processes of spiritual realization intended for each yuga (naika-maya), and He is full of transcendental knowledge, opulences and renunciation (mahashana). He is invisible to the uncivilized and demonic (adrishya) and His form in unlimited (vyakta-rupa). He defeats thousands of uncivilized atheists (sahasra-jit). He defeats unlimited numbers of atheists (ananta-jit).

 

 

†††† Note: Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana observes that the first four names in this verse describe the Lord's yuga-avataras. The names of Lord Kalki are given in the next series

of four names, which begin with adrishya.

 

Text 47

 

ishto vishishtah shishteshtah

†††† shikhandi nahusho vrishah

krodhaha krodha-krit karta

†††† vishva-bahur mahi-dharah

 

 

†††† Lord Krishna is worshiped and glorified by Brahma, Shiva, and all demigods and saintly persons (ishta). Holding the sudarshana-cakra, club, lotus and conch, and decorated with the kaustubha jewel and other ornaments, He is splendidly manifest in the city of Mathura (vishishta). He is worshiped by they who know the purpose of the Vedas (shishteshta). In His Vrindavana pastimes He is crowned with a peacock feather (shikhandi). His handsomeness enchanted the minds of the residents of Vrajabhumi (nahusha) and He showered upon them a nectar rain of transcendental bliss and pure love of God (vrisha). When, hearing the description of His naughty childhood pranks, Mother Yashoda became angry, He pacified Her with sweet words (krodhaha), but when she interrupted feeding Him to tend to the overflowing pot of boiling milk, He became angry and broke the butter-pot (krodha-krit). He killed the host of demons sent to Vrindavana by Kamsa (karta), and He protects the entire universe with His powerful arms (vishva-bahu). He lifted Govardhana Hill to protect the residents of Vrajabhumi (mahi-dhara).

 

 

†††† Note: Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana quotes the following description of the name vishishta, found in the Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.3.9):

 

 

tam adbhutam balakam ambujekshanam

†††† catur-bhujam shankha-gadady-udayudham

shrivatsa-lakshmam gala-shobhi-kaustubham

†††† pitambaram sandra-payoda-saubhagam

 

 

†††† "Lord Krishna then appeared in Mathura as the newborn child of Vasudeva and Devaki. Lord Krishna had wonderful lotuslike eyes and He bore in His hands the four weapons, shankha, cakra, gada and padma. On His chest was the mark of Shrivatsa and on His neck the brilliant kaustubha gem. He was dressed in yellow, and His body was blackish like a dense cloud."*

 

†††† The following description of krodhaha is found in the Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.8.31):

 

.

†††† ittham stribhih sa-bhaya-nayana-shri-mukhalokinibhir

††††††††† vyakhyatartha prahasita-mukhi na hy upalabdhum aicchat

.

 

†††† "Sometimes all the gopish would look at Krishna sitting there, His eyes fearful so that His mother would not chastise Him, and when they saw Krishna's beautiful face, instead of chastising Him, they would simply look upon His face and enjoy transcendental bliss. Mother Yashoda would mildly smile at all this fun, and she would not want to chastise her blessed transcendental son."*

 

†††† The following description of the name krodha-krit is found in the Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.9.6):

 

 

sanjata-kopah sphuritarunadharam

†††† sandashya dadbhir dadhi-mantha-bhajanam

bhittva mrishashrur drishad-ashmana raho

†††† jaghasa haiyangavam antaram gatah

 

 

†††† "Being very angry, and biting His reddish lips with His teeth, Krishna, with false tears in His eyes, broke the container of yogurt with a piece of stone. Then He entered a room and began to eat the freshly churned butter in a solitary place."*

 

 

Text 48

 

acyutah prathitah pranah

†††† pranado vasavanujah

apam-nidhir adhishthanam

†††† apramattah pratishthitah

 

 

†††† Lord Krishna is eternal and unchanging, and He is the protector of the residents of Vraja (acyuta). He is famous in Vrajabhumi and the entire universe (prathita). He is the object of the pure love of the residents of Vraja (prana) and He is the source of their strength and their very life (pranada). Even though Indra offended Him by trying to flood Vrindavana with rain, Krishna kindly appeared before him (vasavanuja). After He had forgiven Indra's offenses, Krishna was bathed with the milk of the surabhi cows, who thus proclaimed that Lord Krishna was their Indra (apam-nidhi). Lord Krishna is personally manifest as the transcendental abode of Mathura and the other places where He performed pastimes (adhishthanam). He protects the residents of Vrajabhumi with great care and attention (apramatta), and he is respected by all the cowherd men because He is the son of Nanda Maharaja, the king of Vraja (pratishthita).

 

 

†††† Note: Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana quotes King Indra's explanation of the name apam-nidhi:

 

 

aham kilendro devanam

†††† tvam gavam indratam gatah

 

†††† "Although I am the indra who rules over the demigods you are the indra of these transcendental surabhi cows."*

 

†††† Shukadeva Gosvami also confirms:

 

 

indro gavam

 

 

†††† "Lord Krishna is the indra of the transcendental surabhi cows."

 

†††† The name adhishthanam is described in the shruti-mantra:

 

 

sakshad brahma gopala-puri

 

 

†††† "The transcendental abode of Mathura is a direct incarnation of the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself."

 

†††† The smriti-shastra further explains:

 

 

panca-yojanam evasti

†††† vanam me deha-rupakam

 

††††

†††† The transcendental land of Vrindavana, which is five yojanas in area, is a direct manifestation of My own transcendental form."

 

†††† In the Vedic literatures, Lord Krishna Himself explains the name apramatta:

 

 

tasman mac-charanam goshtham

†††† man-natham mat-parigraham

gopaya svatma-yogena

†††† so 'yam me vrata ahitah

 

 

†††† "I vow that with My own internal potency I shall always protect the cows, cowherd men and gopis who reside in Vrindavana and who have all taken shelter of Me and depend upon Me. I vow that I shall alwyas protect my dear parents and my relatives and friends who reside here."

 

Text 49

 

skandah skanda-dharo dhuryo

†††† varado vayu-vahanah

vasudevo brihad-bhanur

†††† adi-devah purandarah

 

 

†††† Lord Krishna causes Kamsa's demon friends to whither away (skanda), and at the same time He grants strength to Karttikeya, the general of the demigod armies (skanda-dhara). It is upon Him that the burden of all the universes rests (dhurya), and He grants the benedictions desired by the florist Sudama and all other devotees (varada). He is the source of life for all living entities, and His chariot moves more swiftly than the wind (vayu-vahana). He is the splendid and effulgent (brihad-bhanu) son of King Vasudeva (vasudeva). He is the original source of all the demigods (adi-deva) and he is the destroyer of the demons (purandara).

 

†††† Lord Krishna explains the meaning of the name devadi in the Bhagavad-gita (10.2):

 

 

aham adir hi devanam

 

 

†††† "I am the source of the demigods."*

 

 

Text 50

 

ashokas taranas tarah

†††† shurah shaurir janeshvarah

anukulah shatavartah

†††† padmi padma-nibhekshanah

 

†††† Lord Krishna removed the lamentation of the earth (ashoka) and also removed the fear inspired in the hearts of the devotees by demonic rulers who were actually only theives disguised as kings (tarana). He removes the devotee's fear of repeated birth, old-age, disease and death (tara). He is very powerful and heroic (shura) and He appeared in the dynasty of the great devotee and powerful King Devamida (shauri). He is the king that ruled over the citizens of Mathura, delighting them with great transcendental bliss, and He is also the supreme ruler of all living entities in both the spiritual and material worlds (janeshvara). He is the kind well-wisher of the residents of Mathura, and all other living entities also (anukula), and His transcendental opulence and prowess bewilder both the demons, headed by Kamsa, and also the devotees, headed by Narada (shatavarta).He playfully holds a lotus flower (padmi), His eyes are as beautiful as lotus flowers, and He resides in His eternal abode of Gokula, which appears like a great lotus flower (padma-nibhekshana).

 

 

†††† Note Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana explains that the name padmi has another menaing which is very confidential. Padmi may mean: "Lord Krishna who appears like a blue lotus flower and who is accompanied by Shrimati Radharani, who appears like a golden lotus flower which grows inthe waaters of pure love of Godhead. Those two lotus flowers are surrounded by innumerable other lotus flowers, which are the gopis, who are all expansions of Shrimati Radharani."

 

†††† The transcendental abode of Gokula (padma-nibhekshana) is described in the following verse from the Brahma-samhita (5.2):

 

 

sahasra-patram kamalam

†††† gokulakhyam mahat padam

tat-karnikaram tad dhama

†††† tad anantamsha-sambhavam

 

†††† "The superexcellent station of Krishna, which is known as Gokula, has thousands of petals and a corolla like that of a lotus sprouted from a part of His infinitary aspect, the whorl of the leaves being the actual abode of Krishna."*

 

Text 51

 

padma-nabho 'ravindakshah

†††† padma-garbhah sharira-bhrit

maharddhir riddho vriddhatma

†††† mahaksho garuda-dhvajah

 

 

†††† Lord Krishna's navel is like a lake from which has sprouted the lotus flower that is the place of Brahma's birth (padma-nabha). Lord Krishna's eyes are like fully-blossomed lotus flowers (aravindaksha). He always stands in the lotus-like hearts of the gopis and other intimate devotees (padma-garbha), and He always protects the devotees who meditate upon Him seated within their lotus-hearts (sharira-bhrit). He is full of all transcendental opulences (mahardhi), and He is

endowed with omniscience and other similar transcendental powers and qualities (riddha). He pervades the universes and enjoys innumerable transcendental pastimes (vriddhatma). His handsome eyes are very large, and His transcendental form cannot be understood with the limited material senses (mahaksha). He carries a flag marked with the emblem of Garuda (garuda-dhvaja).

 

 

†††† Note: Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana quotes Lord Krishna's own description of the name sharira-bhrit, found in the smriti-shastra:

 

 

darshana-dhyana-samsparshair

†††† matsya-kurma-vihangamah

svany apatyani pushnanti

†††† tathaham api padmaja

 

†††† "By vision, by meditation and by touch only do the fish, the tortoise and the birds maintain their offspring. Similarly do I also, O Padmaja."*

 

 

Text 52

 

atulah sharabho bhimah

†††† samayajno havir-harih

sarva-lakshana-lakshanyo

†††† lakshmivan samitinjayah

 

 

†††† Lord Krishna's transcendental form cannot be compared to anything else (atula). He is like a ferocious sharabha beast that destroys the demons (sharabha). Although His ferocity strikes fear into the demons' hearts, He nevertheless liberates those demons who have the good fortune to be killed by Him (bhima). Understanding the devotion borne for Him by His servants, at the appropriate time He gives them the transcendental result earned by their efforts (samayajna). Situated as the Supersoul within the hearts of His representatives, the demigods, He personally accepts the clarified butter offered to them in the performance of Vedic sacrifices (havir-hari). He is endowed with the 32 auspicious signs of a great personality, and all other auspicious characteristics as well (sarva-lakshana-lakshanya), and when he appears in His original form as Krishna in Gokula, He is endowed with all transcendental handsomeness and opulence (lakshmivan). He is always victorious in battle (samitinjaya).

 

 

†††† Note: Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana quotes the description of the name atula found in the shruti-mantra:

 

 

na tasya pratima

 

 

†††† "Nothing can compare with the transcendental form of the Supreme Personality of Godhead."

 

Text 53

 

viksharo rohito margo

†††† hetur damodarah sahah

mahi-dharo maha-bhago

†††† vegavan amitashanah

 

 

†††† Lord Krishna is always affectionate to those who take shelter of Him (vikshara), and He becomes angry at those who try to harm those who take shelter of Him (rohita). Inspired by His ever fresh transcendental qualities, the devotees always search for Him, and He also reveals the path of spiritual enlightment to His devotees (marga). He inspires great love in the hearts of His devotees, and He is also the origin of everything (hetu). He allowed His waist to be tied by Mother Yashod\a's rope (damodara), and He patiently tolerated Mother Yashoda's chastisement of Him, which was inspired by pure parental love (saha). His birthday occasioned a great celebration in Gokula, where His transcendental names, pastimes, and qualities were all glorified (mahi-dhara). Devotional service to Him is the best of all spiritual activites (maha-bhaga). He can run faster than anyone, and is thus always ahead of everyone else, and He also runs quickly as He enthusiastically plays with His friends, the sons of the cowherd men of Gokula (vegava n). He assumed a giant form and ate the innumerable cakes, condensed-milk products and other palatable foods offered to Govardhana Hill by the cowherd men (amitashana).

 

 

†††† Note: Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana quotes the following explanation of the name damodara, found in the smriti-shastra:

 

 

..... te naiva namnatra

†††† krishno vai dama-bandhanat

goshthe damodara iti

†††† gopibhih parigiyate

 

 

†††† "Instead of calling Yashoda's son Krishna, the gopis in Vraja have taken to calling Him Damodara, because His mother bound Him about the waist with a rope."

 

 

Text 54

 

uddhavah kshobhano devah

†††† shri-garbhah parameshvarah

karanam karanam karta

†††† vikarta gahano guhah

 

 

††††† Dragging the mortar between the two yamala-arjuna trees, Lord Krishna liberated the two sons of Kuvera (uddhava). Hearing about Lord Krishna's transcendental qualities, pastimes, and forms, the devotees become agitated with transcendental bliss (kshobhana). Lord Krishna enjoys transcendental pastimes (deva). He possesses all the opulences contained within the universe, and he revealed those opulences to mother Yashoda when she looked in His mouth to see if He had eaten clay (shri-garbha). He is the master of Shrimati Radharani, the supreme goddess of fortune (parameshvara), and the benefactor of His devotees, helping them attain perfection in bhakti (karanam). Using His three potencies He created the material world (karanam). He is the ultimate creator (karta). Situated in the heart of the secondary creator, Brahma, He is the actual creator of all planets and all living entities (vikarta). The activities of His intelligence are very subtle and can be understood only by the wise (gahana). He desires to enjoy confidential pastimes with the residents of Vrajabhumi (guha).

 

Text 55

 

vyavasayo vyavasthanah

†††† samsthanah sthanado dhruvah

pararddhih parama-spashtah

†††† tushtah pushtah shubhekshanah

 

†††† That Lord Krishna is the Supreme Personality of Godhead is the final conclusion of all Vedic literatures (vyavasaya), Lord Krishna is endowed with innumerable eternal transcendental attributes (vyavasthana). He is eternally youthful, and the entire cosmic manifestation enters into Him at the time of annihilation (samsthana). He gives to His devotees the most desirable station of eternal residence in the spiritual world (sthanada), and He even becomes the submissive follower of His pure devotee (dhruva). He is endowed with all transcendental opulences (pararddhi), and for this reason He is glorified in all Vedic literatures (parama-spashta). He is full of transcendental bliss (tushta). The devotees always try to please Him by offering fragrant incense, palatable foodstuffs, and other pleasing substances (pushta). His merciful glance is the beginning of all auspiciousness (shubhekshana).

 

 

†††† Note: Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana quotes the description of the name vyavasaya found in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (1.3.28):

 

 

krishnas tu bhagavan svayam

 

 

†††† "Krishna is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the source of all incarnations."*

 

†††† Lord Krishna has personally explained the meaning of the name dhruva in the smriti-shastra in the following way:

 

 

nirapeksham munim shantam

†††† nirvairam sama-darshanam

anuvrajamy aham nityam

†††† puyeyetyanghri-renubhih

 

 

†††† "Because my devotees are indifferent to the temporary happiness and distress of this world, they are always peaceful, and because they do not consider that anyone is their enemy, they see everyone with an equal eye. I continually follow these saintly devotees, so that I may become purified by the dust of their lotus feet."

 

 

Text 56

 

ramo viramo virajo-

†††† margo neyo nayo 'nayah

virah shaktimatam shreshtho

†††† dharmo dharmavid-uttamah

 

 

†††† Lord Krishna delights the hearts of the yogis and He enjoys transcendental pasitmes with Shrimati Radharani and the gopis of Vrindavana (rama). He is the ultimate boundary within which everything exists (virama). He is attained by following the supreme path of pure devotional service (virajo-marga), and He is submissive to the devotees who approach Him in friendship (neya). He carries out the orders of His pure devotees (naya), and they who ignore His orders cannot attain an auspicious destination (anaya). He is the unequalled hero who casually severed Shishupala's head and killed many other demons also (vira). He is the best of all powerful demigods and yogis (shaktimatam shreshtha), and He is the sustainer of all planets and all living entities (dharma). He is the maintainer of Manu and all others who know the truth of spiritual life (dharmavid-uttama).

 

 

†††† Note: Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana quotes the following explanation of the name dharma found in the smriti-shastra:

 

 

ye ca veda-vido vipra

†††† ye cadhyatma-vido janah

te vadanti mahatmanam

†††† krishnam dharmam sanatanam

 

 

†††† "Learned scholars who know the meaning of the Vedas and saints who know the truth of spiritual life all say that Lord Krishna is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who eternally maintains all living entities and the entire world."

 

Text 57

 

vaikunthah purushah pranah

†††† pranadah pranavah prithuh

hiranya-garbhah shatrughno

†††† vyapto vayur adhokshajah

 

 

†††† Lord Krishna appeared as the son of Vaikuntha-devi, the wife of Shubhra, (vaikuntha). He is the supreme person (purusha). He is dear as life for the devotees (prana), and He purifies the devotees' senses (pranada). He is eternally young, and He is worthy of receiving the respectful obeisances of all living entities (pranava). He generously considers His devotees equal to Himself (prithu). He is knowledge, He is the goal of knowledge, and He is approached by the cultivation of transcendental knowledge (hiranyagarbha). He kills lust, greed, and all other enemies of His devotees (shatrughna). Attracted by the love of His devotees, he always remains within their hearts (vyapta). Many times He defeated Jarasandha, the king of Magadha (vayu). He is beyond the reach of the blunt material senses and, as He rested beneath a cart, He killed the demon Shakatasura (adhokshaja).

 

 

†††† Note: Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana quotes the following explanation of the name pranava, found in the smriti-shastra:

 

 

pranamantiha yam vedas

†††† tasmat pranava ucyate

 

 

†††† "Supreme Personality of Godhead is known as pranava because all the personified Vedas offer respectful oveisances to Him."

 

†††† The name hiranyagarbha is explained in the following way in the Bhagavad-gita (13.18):

 

 

jnanam jneyam jnana-gamyam

 

 

†††† "The Supreme Personality of Godhead is knowledge, the object of knowledge, and the goal of knowledge."*

 

†††† In the name adhokshaja, adhah means beneath, aksha means the wheel of a cart, and ja means born. In this word, ja means "born for a second time: or "rescued". This use of the word ja is shown in the following quote from the smriti-shastra:

 

 

dadrishur nihatam tatra

†††† rakshasim vana-gocarah

punar-jato 'yam ity ahur

†††† uktas tasmad adhokshajah

 

 

†††† "When the inhabitants of Vrindavana saw the giant demoness Putana had been killed by Krshna, they cried out: "Krishna is safe. It is as if He has taken birth for a second time before our eyes." Because the vrajavasis called out in this way, Lord Krishna is known as Adhokshaja."

 

 

Text 58

 

rituh sudarshanah kalah

†††† parameshthi parigrahah

ugrah samvatsaro daksho

†††† vishramo vishva-dakshinah

 

 

†††† Lord Krishna, who is endowed with all wonderful transcendental attributes, enters the hearts of His pure devotees, who are all full of love for Him (ritu). He is supremely handsome (sudarshana), and he is also the time-factor, which destroys all things (kala). He removed the burden of the earth (parameshthi). It should be understood that the demigods are not supreme, but Krishna is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, (parigraha). He assumes a terrible feature to kill the demons (ugra), He always remains with His devotees (samvatsara), and His supreme handsomeness is revealed to the residents of Vrindavana (daksha). He removed the gopis' fatigue during the rasa dance, and He removes the fatigue of the devotees in general (vishrama). He will give the entire world, and even Himself, to His pure devotee (vishva-dakshina).

 

 

†††† Note: Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana quotes the following description of the name sudarshana, found in the Shrimad-Bhagavatam:

 

 

yad dharma-sunor bata rajasuye

†††† nirikshya drik-svastyayanam tri-lokah

kartsnyena cadyeha gatam vidhatur

†††† arvak-shritau kaushalam ity amanyata

 

 

†††† "All the demigods from the upper, lower, and middle universal planetary systems assembled at the altar of the rajasuya sacrifice performed by Maharaja Yudhishthira. After seeing the beautiful bodily features of Lord Krishna, they all contemplated that He was the ultimate dextrous creation of Brahma, the creator of human beings."*

 

†††† The name vishva-dakshina is explained in the following quote from the smriti-shastra:

 

 

dadaty atmanam apy ajah

 

†††† "The unborn Supreme Personality of Godhead is so kind that He gives Himself to His pure devotee."

 

Text 59

 

vistarah sthavarah sthanuh

†††† pramanam bijam avyayam

artho 'nartho maha-kosho

†††† maha-bhago maha-dhanah

 

 

†††† Lord Krishna engages in many different loving relationships with His devotees (vistara). Removing the burden of the unnecessary defense forces of many demonic kings, Lord Krishna restored the earth to a peaceful condition (sthavara). At the end of the Kali-yuga He will appear as Lord Kalki to re-establish the Vedic principles (sthanu). He always speaks the truth (pramanam), and He is the imperishable seed of all existance (bijam avyayam). The pure devotees free from material desires strive to attain Him (artha), and those filled with many desires cannot strive to attain Him, but prefer to worship the demigods to attain heavenly sense-gratifications in the svarga planets (anartha). He is the master of an unlimited treasury (maha-kosha), and He is full of all transcendental opulences (maha-bhaga). He is the master of all wealth (maha-dhana).

 

 

†††† Note: Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana quotes this description of the name sthanu, found in the smriti-shastra:

 

 

sthapayitva sva-maryadam

†††† svayam bhuvi hitam hitam

 

 

†††† "Descending to this world at the end of the kali-yuga, the Supreme Personality of Godhead will re-establish the principles of religion, and bring auspiciousness to the earth."

 

†††† The name artha and anartha are explained in the following verses from the smriti-shastra:

 

 

catur-vidha mama jana

†††† bhakta eva hi te smritah

esham ekantinah shreshthas

†††† te vai vanyad adevatah

 

aham eva gatis tesham

†††† nirashih sarva-karmanam

ye tu shishtas trayo bhaktah

†††† phala-kama hi te matah

 

 

†††† "Four kinds of persons become My devotees: the distressed, those in need of money, the curious, and those seeking transcendental knowledge. Of these four kinds of men, those seeking transcendental knowledge, who have Me as the only goal in their life are the best, and the others are considered more or lessmaterialistic. I am the only goal of the exalted soulswho have no desire to atain material benefit by performing various fruitive activites. The other three kinds of devotees are inferior because they strive to attain some material results for their endeavors."

 

†††† The name maha-dhana is explained in the following statement from the smriti-shastra:

 

 

 

kim alabhyam bhagavati

†††† prasanne shri-niketane

 

 

†††† "Lord Krishna is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, full of all opulence and all transcendental bliss, and He is the master of the goddess of fortune. No one can say that Krishna requires to obtain something, because He is already the master of everything in both the spiritual and material worlds."*

 

 

Text 60

 

anirvinnah sthavishtho bhur

†††† dharma-yupo maha-makhah

nakshatra-nemir nakshatri

†††† kshamah kshamah samihanah

 

 

†††† Lord Krishna is not discouraged by the rebelliousness of the conditioned souls, and He always acts for their welfare and protection (anirvinna). His form is larger than the cluster of stars known as the shishumara-cakra (sthavishtha) and He appears as the Dhruvaloka planet, about which the other planets revolve (bhu). He is the pillar upon which all religious principles rest (dharma-yupa), and all the great Vedic sacrifices are meant for His satisfaction (maha-makha). He causes the motion of all the planets (nakshatra-nemi), and He is the monarch who rules all planets and stars (nakshatri). He controls the movements of the planets (kshama), and He is situated within all the planets (kshama). Pious persons aspire to attain Him (samihana).

 

 

 

†††† Note: Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana quotes the following description of the name nakshatra-nemi found in the smriti-

shastra:

 

 

alata-cakravad yanti

†††† vata-cakreritani tu

yasmaj jyotihsi vahati

†††† pravahastena samsmritah

 

 

†††† "It is because of the order of the Supreme Personality of Godhead that the luminous planets and stars move about in their orbits, like sparks moving in the wind."

 

†††† It may be noted here that the names in this verse describe Lord Krishna's feature as the master of the planets and stars.

 

Text 61

 

yajna ijyo mahejyash ca

†††† kratuh satram satam gatih

sarva-darshi vimuktatma

†††† sarvajno jnanam uttamam

 

 

†††† Lord Krishna appeared as the avatara Yajna, the son of Prajapati Ruci and Akuti-devi (yajna), and He is the supreme object of worship (ijya). He should be worshiped with all grandeur and all royal paraphernalia (mahejya), and the ritualistic ceremonies prescribed in the Vedas are intended for His worship (kratu). He is the protector of the devotees, and He is valued by them as their only wealth (satram). Only the pure devotees are able to attain His association (satam gatih). He see everything, and He especially notices the activities of His devotees (sarva-darshi). He is free from any material contact (vimuktatma), and because He is the Supersoul in the hearts of all creatures, He knows everything (sarvajna). He is the supreme object of knowledge (jnanam uttamam).

 

 

 

†††† Note: Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana quotes the following explanation of the name sarva-darshi:

 

 

darshana-dhyana-samsparshair

†††† matsya-kurma-vihangamah

svany apatyani pushnanti

†††† tathaham api padmaja

 

 

†††† "By vision, by meditation, and by touch only do the fish, the tortoise and birds maintain their offspring. Similarly do I also, O Padmaja."*

 

†††† The shruti-shastra explains the meaning of the name jnanam uttamam:

 

 

satyam jnanam anantam brahma

 

 

†††† "The unlimited Personality of Godhead is the supreme truth and the supreme object of knowledge."

 

†††† The name yajna is described in the Shrimad-Bhagavatam (2.7.2):

 

 

jato rucer ajanayat suyaman suyajna

†††† akuti-sunur amaran atha dakshinayam

 

†††† "The Supreme Personality of Godhead appeared as Lord Yajna, the son of Prajapati Ruci and His wife Akuti."*

 

 

Text 62

suvratah sumukhah sukshmah

†††† sughoshah sukhadah suhrit

manoharo 'jita-krodho

†††† vira-bahur vidaranah

 

 

†††† Lord Krishna is pleased with the devotees who faithfully keep their vows to serve Him (suvrata). His smiling face reveals His bliss (sumukha). His spiritual form is eternal and full of knowledge and bliss (sukshma). By expertly playing the flute, He charms and pleases the minds of Brahma and all other living entities (sughosha), and delights everyone (sukhada). He is the well-wishing friend of the devotees (suhrit), and the handsomeness of His three-fold-bending form captures their minds (manohara). Even though ferociously attacked by the Kaliya serpent, Krishna did not become angry, but was merciful to His adversary (ajita-krodha). With His powerful arms, He can crush the greatest of heroes (vira-bahu). Even though Bakasura was big as a mountain, Lord Krishna easily split his beak as if it were a blade of grass (vidarana).

 

 

†††† Note: Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana comments on the name ajita-krodha by quoting the prayers of the wives of the Kaliya serpent:

 

 

krodho 'pi te 'nugraha eva sammatah

 

 

†††† "O Lord, even though this serpent is by nature very angry and envious to You, You are very kind, and You have forgiven him."*

 

Text 63

 

svapanah svavasho vyapi

†††† naikatma naika-karma-krit

vatsaro vatsalo vatsi

†††† ratna-garbho dhaneshvarah

 

 

†††† Full of fraternal love, devoted Lord Krishna massages the lotus feet of Lord Balarama, fatigued with the day's playing, and makes Him fall asleep (svapana). Krishna is supremely independent, and according to His own wish He convinced the residents of Vraja to worship Govardhana Hill instead of Indra (svavasha). At every moment He is present everywhere (vyapi), and He also expands His original form into innumerable vishnu-tattva forms (naikatma). He enjoys various wonderful transcendental pastimes to accomodate the varieties of spiritual love the different devotees bear for Him (naika-karma-krit). He personally calls each calf by its own name (vatsara), and He is also very affectionate to them (vatsala). He is the master of innumerable calves (vatsi). He is like a most precious jewel born from Yashoda-devi (ratna-garbha). He is the master

of numberless surabhi cows (dhaneshvara).

 

†††† Note: Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana quotes the description of the name svapana found in Shrimad-Bhagavatam:

 

 

svayam vishramayaty aryam

†††† pada-samvahanadibhih

 

 

†††† "Lord Krishna performed many services to please His elder brother, Balarama. Sometimes, when Lord Balarama felt fatigued, Krishna would massage His legs, and thus cause Balarama to fall into a pleasant sleep."*

 

†††† The name naikatma is described in the shruti-shastra:

 

 

ekatvam ajahad eva bahu-rupah

†††† eko 'pi san bahudha yo 'vabhati

 

†††† "Although the Supreme Personality is one, He has expanded into innumerable vishnu-tattva forms."

 

 

Text 64

 

dharma-gup dharma-krid dharmi

†††† sad asat ksharam aksharam

avijnata sahasramshur

†††† vidhata krita-lakshanah

 

 

†††† Lord Krishna protects the religious principles taught in the Vedas (dharma-gup). He teaches the principles of religion for the welfare of all living entities (dharma-krit). Strictly following religious principles, He sets the perfect example for everyone (dharmi). He exists eternally in past, present, and future (sat). and He is always free from lamentation and death (asat). His lotus feet are the supreme object of worship for all living entities, and He protects the devotees from the demons (ksharam). He is the sacred syllable om (aksharam). He excuses the offenses of those who take shelter of Him (avijnata). He is omniscient (sahasramshu). He forgives the offenses of the surrendered souls (vidhata), and He reveals His original form to the most exalted devotees (krita-lakshana).

 

†††† Note: Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana quotes the following scriptural explanations of some of the names in this verse.

 

 

†††† The name dharma-gup is explained by the Lord Himself in the Bhagavad-gita (4.8):

 

 

dharma-samsthapanarthaya

†††† sambhavami yuge yuge

 

 

†††† "In order to re-establish the principles of religion, I appear millenium after millenium."*

 

†††† The name dharma-krit is also explained in the Bhagavad-gita (3.22) in Lord Krishna's own words:

 

 

na me parthasti kartavyam

††††††† trishu lokeshu kincana

nanavaptam avaptavyam

†††† varta eva ca karmani

 

 

†††† "O son of Pritha, there is no work prescribed for Me within all the three planetary systems. Nor am I in want of anything, nor have I need to obtain anything-and yet I am engaged in work."*

 

The from the smriti-shastra explains the name sat:

 

 

†††† sad eva saumyah

 

 

†††† "The Supreme Personality of Godhead is eternal"

 

†††† The name aksharam is described in the shruti-shashtra:

 

 

om ity atmanam dhyayatha

 

 

†††† "Please meditate on the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is manifested in the sacred syllable om."

 

†††† The name avijnata is explained by Lord Krishna in the Bhagavad-gita (9.30):

 

 

api cet suduracaro

†††† bhajate mam ananya-bhak

sadhur eva sa mantavyah

†††† samyag vyavasito hi sah

 

 

†††† "Even if one commits the most abominable actions, if he is engaged in devotional service, he is to be considered saintly, because he is properly situated."*

 

†††† The name vidhata is explained in the Shrimad-Bhagavatam:

 

 

sva-pada-mulam bhajatah priyasya

†††† tyaktanya-bhavasya-harih pareshah

vikarma yac cotpatitam kathancid

†††† dhunoti sarvam hridi sannivishtah

 

 

†††† "Pure devotees give up everything to exclusively worship the lotus feet of the Lord, and thus they become very dear to Him. Lord Hari personally appears within the hearts of such devotees, and cleanses away all the reactions of fruitive activities for them."*

 

Text 65

 

gabhasti-nemih sattva-sthah

†††† simho bhuta-maheshvarah

adi-devo maha-devo

†††† devesho deva-bhrid guruh

 

 

†††† Lord Krishna holds the effulgent sudarshana-cakra to protect the devotees from the messengers of Yamaraja (gabhasti-nemi), and He remains always situated in the hearts of the pure devotees (sattvastha). He appears like a ferocious lion to protect the devotees from any Yamaduta who attempts to take them into custody (simha), and He is the absolute monarch who completely controls Yamaraja and his followers (bhuta-maheshvara). He is the original spiritual master, the teacher of Yamaraja and His followers (adi-deva). He relishes the pastimes He performs with His devotees, and He yearns to crush whoever would harm His devotees (mahadeva). He relishes the pastimes of childhood play performed with His cowherd-boy friends, and He forgives any offenses they may commit in the course of their playing (devesha). He is the teacher and maintainer of Brahma, Shiva and all the demigods (deva-bhrid guru).

 

†††† Note: Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana quotes the explanation of the name mahadeva found in the smriti-shastra:

 

 

balah kridanakair yavat

†††† kridate 'smabhir acyutah

 

 

†††† "The infalliable Personality of Godhead accepted the cowherd boys of Vraja as His playmates, and enjoyed His childhood pastimes in their company."

 

 

Text 66

 

uttaro gopatir gopta

†††† jnana-gamyah puratanah

sharira-bhuta-bhrid bhokta

†††† kapindro bhuri-dakshinah

 

 

†††† Because Lord Krishna possesses unlimited wonderful potencies, He is the best of persons (uttara). The sun-god Surya considers Lord Krishna His supreme master (gopati), Lord Krishna is the protector of all living entities (gopta), and He is understood by spiritual enlightenment (jnanagamya). He has expanded Himself as the Supersoul in the bodies of all conditioned souls, and He is the oldest persons (puratana). The transcendental abode of Vrindavana is a manifestation of His own transcendental form (sharira-bhuta-bhrit), and He eternally relishes transcendental pastimes in that land of Vrindavana (bhokta). He is the master of the monkeys of Vrindavana, who participate in His boyhood pastimes (kapindra). On the celebration of His birthday He gave abundant charity to the brahmanas (bhuri-dakshina).

 

 

†††† Note: Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana and Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura explain that the name jnana-gamya implies that merely by performing the pious fruitive activities enjoined in the Vedas for elevation to heavenly planets, one will never be able to understand the actual truth about Krishna.

 

†††† The name sharira-bhuta-bhrit is described by Lord Krishna in the smriti-shastra in the following way:

 

 

panca-yojanam evasti

†††† vanam me deha-rupakam

 

 

†††† "The land of Vrindavana, which extends for five yojanas, is a manifestation of My own transcendental form."

 

Text 67

 

 

somapo 'mritapah somah

†††† purujit puru-sattamah

vinayo jayah satya-sandho

†††† dasharhah savatam patih

 

 

†††† Lord Krishna protects the demigod Shiva (somapa), and He protects all the other demigods as well (amritapa). Lord Krishna is very famous and handsome, and He is like a transcendental moon shining over Gokula (soma). He is very powerful and defeats all His enemies (purujit). He is the best of all living entities (puru-sattama). He is respectfully served by the Yadus, and He responds by humbly rendering similar service to them (vinaya). Defeated by the affection the Yadus bear for Him, He has become controlled by them (jaya). He promises to always protect His devotees (satya-sandha). He is descended from King Dasharha, and He is the most valuable thing in existance (dasharha). He is the protector of the Yadus, and the lord and master of the great souls who preach the truth about Him for the benefit of the conditioned souls (satvatam patih).

 

†††† Note: Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana quotes the explanation of the name dasharha found in the from the smriti-shastra:

 

 

atah patratarah ko 'nyas

†††† trishu lokeshu vidyate

krishnat kamala-patrakshad

†††† devadevaj janardanat

 

 

†††† "Within the entire expanse of the three planetary systems, what treasure is more valuable than lotus-petal-eyed Lord Krishna, who is the master of the demigods and the protector of the devotees?

 

 

Text 68

 

jivo vinayita sakshi

†††† mukundo 'mita-vikramah

ambho-nidhir anantatma

†††† mahodadhi-shayo 'ntakah

 

 

†††† By giving them the nectar of His association, Lord Krishna brings to life the devotees distressed by His absence (jiva). He protects His devotees as if they were His own children (vinayita), and He is perfectly aware of How they are distressed by not being able to associate with Him directly (sakshi). His smiling face is as beautiful as a kunda flower (mukunda), and He uses His unlimited prowess to protect His devotees (amita-vikrama). From Him the Garbhodaka ocean has emanated (ambhonidhi), and He takes rest, recliningon a couch that is the serpent Anantadeva (anantatma). He peacefully reclines on Ananta-naga even when there is a great inundationat the time of universal destruction (mahodadhi-shaya), and evenat this time, He is splendidly handsome (antaka).

 

Text 69

 

ajo maharhah svabhavyo

†††† jitamitrah pramodanah

anando nandano nandah

†††† satya-dharma tri-vikramah

 

 

†††† Lord Krishna appears to take birth within this material world, although He is unborn (aja). He is the supreme object of worship (maharha), and the devotees meditate on Him as the Supreme Personality of Godhead (svabhavya). He easily defeats lust, anger and all other enemies of His devotees (jitamitra), and He makes His pure devotees jubilant, their eyes filled with tears of joy (pramodana, ananda, nandana, and nanda). His transcendental form is eternal (satya-dharma), and He is the supreme goal described in the three Vedas (tri-

vikrama).

 

†††† Note: Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana explains that the names in this verse refer to the Lord's incarnation as Kapila Muni, the son of Kardama and Devahuti.

 

 

Text 70

 

maharshih kapilacaryo

†††† kritajno medini-patih

tri-padas tri-dashadhyaksho

†††† maha-shrngah kritanta-krit

 

 

†††† Lord Krishna is the greatest philosopher, and the greatest scholar of Vedic knowledge (maharshi), and His complexion is sometimes manifest as reddish-brown (kapila). He is the original teacher of pure spiritual knowledge (acarya), and He was fully aware of the pious deeds performed by Maharaja Bhagiratha (kritajna). He is the Lord and maintainer of the earth-planet (medini-pati), and He is manifest as the sacred syllable om, which consists of the three letters a,u, and m (tri-pada). He is the friend of the demigods, and He rescues them in times of calamity (tridashadhyaksha). As Lord Varaha, He carries the earth on His great tusks (maha-shringa), and when He killed the demon Hiranyaksha He was formidable as eternal time (kritanta-krit).

 

 

†††† Note: Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana explains that the names of Lord Kapila end with krtajna, and the names of Lord Varaha begin with medini-pati.

 

Text 71

 

maha-varaho govindah

†††† sushenah kanakangadi

guhyo gabhiro gahano

†††† guptash cakra-gadadharah

 

 

†††† Lord Varaha manifested the form of a gigantic boar, as large as a great mountain (maha-varaha), and He found the Earth at the bottom of the rasatala ocean and rescued it (govinda). He is accompanied by a splendid and invincible army (sushena), and He is decorated with golden armlets, crown, and ornaments (kanakangadi). It is very difficult to know the truth of His eternal transcendental form (guhya), and He is very difficult to approach or understand (gabhira and gahana). He protects the devotees with His transcendental potencies (gupta), and He carries the sudarshana-cakra and kaumodaki club (cakra-

gadadhara).

 

 

†††† Note: The name Govinda may also be interpreted to mean "He who gives pleasure to the cows, land, and senses."

 

 

Text 72

 

vedhah svango 'jitah krishno

†††† dridhah sankarshano 'cyutah

varuno varuno vrikshah

†††† pushkaraksho maha-manah

 

 

†††† Lord Krishna appointed the various demigods and gave them their respective duties (vedhah), and He is the original teacher of Vedic knowledge (svanga). He is invincible (ajita), and His complexion is dark like a blue lotus flower (krishna). He is extremely powerful (dridha), and He defeated the demon Hiranyaksha (sankarshana). He is infallible (acyuta), and He may be attained only by those whom He chooses (varuna). He always remains near His devotees (varuna), He accepted the goddess Bhumi as His wife (vriksha), He entered the waters of the Garbhodaka Ocean to rescue the Earth, and He sees everything (pushkaraksha). He grants liberation to his devotees (maha-

manah).

 

 

†††† Note: Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana quotes the explanation of the name varuna found in the Upanishads:

 

 

yam evaisha vrinute tena labhyah

 

 

†††† "Supreme Personality of Godhead may be attained only by those whom He chooses."

 

Text 73

 

bhagavan bhagaha nandi

†††† vana-mali halayudhah

adityo jyotir-adityah

†††† sahishnur gati-sattamah

 

 

†††† Lord Krishna possesses all wealth, strength, fame, knowledge, beauty and renunciation (bhagavan), and He kills the sinful (bhagaha). He is the dear son of Nanda Maharaja (nandi), and He wears a garland of forest flowers given to Him by His friends (vana-mali). His immediate expansion is Lord Balarama, who holds a club (halayudha), and He also appeared as Lord Vamana, the son of Aditi (aditya). He is as splendid as the sun, they who remember Him become like demigods, and His splendor is brighter than thousands of demigods (jyotir-aditya). He is very tolerant, and forgives the offenses of they who take shelter of Him (sahishnu). He gives the most valuable spiritual destination to they who take shelter of Him (gati-sattama).

 

 

†††† Note: Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana quotes the following explanation of the name bhagavan, found in the Vishnu Purana (6.5.72--75,79):

 

 

shuddhe maha-vibhuty-akhye

†††† para-brahmani shabdate

maitreya bhagavac-chabdah

†††† sarva-karana-karane

 

 

†††† "O Maitreya, the word bhagavan may be defined as a name of the Supreme Brahman, who is pure, free from all material contamination, full of unlimited powers and opulences, and the original cause of all causes."

 

 

sambharteti tatha bharta

†††† bha-karartho dvayanvitah

neta gamayita srashta

†††† ga-kararthas tatha mune

 

 

†††† "O sage, in the word bhagavan, the syllable bha stands for the word bharta, which means the maintainer of everything, or the shelter upon whom everything rests, and the syllable ga stands for gamayita, the leader of everyone, or the creator and annihilator of the entire cosmic manifestation."

 

 

aishvaryasya samagrasya

†††† viryasya yashasah shriyah

jnana-vairagyayosh capi

†††† sanŽam bhaga itingana

 

 

†††† "The name bhagavan stands for that Supreme Person who is full in the six opulences (bhaga) of all wealth, strength, fame, beauty, knowledge and renunciation."*

 

 

vasanti tatra bhutani

†††† bhutatmany akhilatmani

sa ca bhuteshv ashesheshu

†††† va-kararthas tato 'vyayah

 

 

†††† "In the word bhagavan, the syllable va stands for the verb vas (to reside), because He is the Supreme Personality of Godhead in whom the entire creation rests, and also because He is the Supersoul, who remains in the hearts of all conditioned souls. The syllable va also stands for the word avyaya (unchanging), which indicates that the Supreme Person is eternally the same."

 

 

jnana-shakti-balaishvarya-

†††† virya-tejamsy asheshatah

bhagavac-chabda-vacyani

†††† vina heyair guŽadibhih

 

 

†††† "In this way the name bhagavan means that person who posesses all strength, knowledge, beauty, fame, wealth and renunciation, and all other auspicious qualities, and is also completely free from any fault or defect."

 

 

Text 74

 

sudhanva khaŽda-parashur

†††† daruŽo draviŽa-pradah

diva-sprik sarva-drig vyaso

††††† vacaspatir ayonijah

 

 

†††† Lord Parashurama carries a splendid bow (sudhanva), and an axe that he used to kill the kshatriyas (khaŽda-parashu). He was merciless to the kshatriyas (daruŽa), and after killing all the kshatriyas, he performed a sacrifice in which He gave the entire earth in charity to the brahmaŽas (draviŽa-prada). Lord KrishŽa also appeared as Vyasadeva, the great philosopher who explained the truth of the spiritual world (diva-sprik), and divided the single Veda into four (sarva-rig-vyasa). He is the eloquent author of the PuraŽas and Mahabhaata (vacaspati), and Sarasvati, the goddess of learning, personally appeared in His words (ayonija).

 

 

†††† Note: Shrila Baladeva VidyabhushaŽa observes that the names in the first part of this verse describe the Lord's incarnation as Parashurama and the names in the second half of the verse describe Lord Vyasadeva.

 

Text 75

 

trisama samagah sama

†††† nirvaŽam bheshajam bhishak

sannyasa-kric chamah shanto

†††† nishtha-shanti-parayaŽah

 

 

†††† Appearing as Lord Vyasadeva, Lord KrishŽa divided the Veda into three parts (trisama). Lord Vyasa took pleasure in singing the Vedic hymns (samaga), and He taught those hymns to His disciples (sama), freeing them from ignorance and liberating them from material bondage (nirvaŽam). In this way He became the physician (bhishak) that administered the medicine of Lord KrishŽa's devotional service, which freed them from the disease of material ignorance (bheshajam).In His pastimes as Lord Chaitanya, Lord KrishŽa accepts the sannyasa order (sannyasa-krit), and He is equipoised (sama) and peaceful (shanta). He is the highest abode of peace and devotion, for He silences the impersonalist non-devotees (nishtha-shanti-parayaŽa).

 

†††††††† Note: Lord Chaitanya accepted sannyasa, leaving aside His householder life, to preach His misssion. He has equanimity in different senses. First, He describes the confidential truth of the Personality of Godhead, and second, He satisfies everyone by knowledge and attachment to KrishŽa. He is peaceful because He renounces all topics not related to the service of KrishŽa.Shrila Baladeva VidyabhushaŽa has explained that the word nishtha indicates His being rigidly fixed in chanting the holy name of Shri KrishŽa. Lord Chaitanya subdued all disturbing opponents of devotional service, especially the monists, who are actually averse to the personal feature of the Supreme Lord.*

 

†††† Shrila Baladeva VidyabhushaŽa also quotes the prediction of Lord Chaitanya's appearance which is found in the Shrimad-

Bhagavatam (11.5.32):

 

 

krishŽa-varŽam tvishakrishŽam

††† sangopangastra-parshadam

yajnaih sankirtana-prayair

†††† yajanti hi su-medhasah

 

 

†††† "In the age of Kali, intelligent persons perform congregational chanting to worship the incarnation of Godhead who constantly sings the name of KrishŽa. Although His complexion is not blackish, He is KrishŽa Himself. He is accompanied by His associates, servants, weapons, and confidential companions."*

 

(The second part of this verse and the whole of the footnote, the part describing Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, is taken from His Divine Grace A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada's translation of Shri Chaitanya-caritamrita, Adi-lila, Chapter 3, verse 49.)

 

 

Text 76

 

shubhangah shantidah srashta

†††† kumudah kuvaleshayah

gohito gopatir gopta

†††† vrishabhaksho vrishapriyah

 

 

†††† The handsome features of Lord KrishŽa's transcendental body charm the minds of the residents of Vrindavana (shubhanga), and His gentle smile makes them very peaceful at heart and inspires in them great feelings of love for Him (shantida). He creates at every moment a treasure-house of transcendental bliss, which becomes the property of the residents of Vrindavana (srashta), and He also becomes happy enjoying pastimes with His brother, Balarama, in the land of Vrindavana (kumuda). He enchanted the residents of Vrindavana by causing them to continually drink the nectar of the sound of His flute (kuvaleshaya). He is the well-wisher and benefactor of the cows (gohita), their master and controller (gopati), and their protector as well (gopta). He killed the Arishtasura demon, who appeared in the form of a bull to kill the residents of Vrinavana (vrishabhaksha), and after the demon was killed, He carefully protected the bulls and cows of Vrindavana, who were all very dear to Him (vris apriya).

 

 

†††† Note: Shrila Baladeva VidyabhushaŽa quotes the explanation of the name kumuda found in the Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.11.36):

 

 

vrindavanam govardhanam

†††† yamuna-pulinani ca

vikshyasid uttama priti

†††† rama-madhavayor nripa

 

 

†††† "O King Parikshit, when Rama and KrishŽa saw Vrindavana, Govardhana, and the banks of the river Yamuna, They both enjoyed great pleasure."*

 

Text 77

 

anivarti nivrittatma

†††† sankshepta kshema-kric chivah

shrivatsa-vakshah shrivasahj

†††† shripatih shrimatambarah

 

 

†††† Lord KrishŽa bravely faced the demon Arishtasura and rebuked the fleeing cowherd men, calling them cowards (anivarti). Seeing that all the cowherd men had fled, He faced the demon alone (nivrittatma) and easily killed him, grasping the demon's horns with His hand (sankshepta). In this way He returned the land of Vrindavana to an auspicious condition (kshema-krit). When the gopis understood that KrishŽa had killed a demon that had taken the shape of a bull, they rejected His association, saying that He had become sinful by killing a bull. KrishŽa then called all sacred rivers to appear so He could bathe in them to become purified, and when they all appeared at once, He bathed in them, and the gopis became satisfied that KrishŽa had returned to a pure and auspicious condition (shiva). Lord KrishŽa's chest is decorated with the mark of shrivatsa (shrivatsa-vakshah), and He is very attached to His residence in the beautiful land of Vraja, at the foot of Govardhana Hill (shrivasa). He protected the gopis from the wrath of Indra (shri-pati), and He is the best of all eloquent orators and the best of the cowherd boys of Vraja (shrimatambara).

 

 

Text 78

 

shridah shrishah shrinivasah

†††† shrinidhih shrivibhavanah

shridharah shrikarah shreyah

†††† shriman lokatrayashrayah

 

 

†††† Lord KrishŽa generously gives opulent gifts to His friends and relatives (shrida), although He is also the controller of all opulence, who prevents His devotees from attaining those material opulences that might hinder their spiritual progress (shrisha). He always resides in the land of Gokula, which is full of unparalleled spiritual opulences (shrinivasa). All transcendental beauty and opulences are stored up within Him, just as jewels are stored up in a sapphire-box (shrinidhi). He manifests all beauty and opulence (shrivibhavana). He is supremely handsome and He maintains the gopis of Vraja and the goddesses of fortune (shridhara). All spiritual opulences reside within His lotus-hand (shrikara). He is very handsome and He always remains by the side of Shrimati RadharaŽi, His internal pleasure potency (shreyah). He is the master of the goddess of fortune (shriman) and the shelter of Gokula Vrindavana, and all the three planetary systems as well (lokatrayashraya).

 

 

†††† Note: Shrila Baladeva VidyabhushaŽa explains the name shriman by quoting from the Purusha-bodhini Upanishad:

 

 

dve parshve candravali radhikety uktva

†††† yasyamshena lakshmi-durgadika-shaktih

 

 

†††† "Two gopis, Candravali and RadharaŽi, always stay by Lord KrishŽa's side. Shrimati RadharaŽi is the original form of the goddess of fortune, and she has expanded Lakshmi-devi, Durga, and the other goddesses of fortune as her potencies."*

 

†††† The Gautamiya Tantra also explains:

 

 

devi krishŽamayi prokta

†††† radhika para-devata

sarva-lakshmimayi sarva-

†††† kantih sammohini para

 

 

†††† "The transcendental goddess Shrimati RadharaŽi is the direct counterpart of Lord Shri KrishŽa. She is the central figure for all the goddesses of fortune. She possesses all the attractiveness to attract the all-attractive Personality of Godhead. She is the primeval internal potency of the Lord."*

 

Text 79

 

svakshah svangah shatanando

†††† nandir jyotir-gaŽeshvarah

vijitatma vidheyatma

†††† satakirtish chinna-samshayah

 

 

†††† Lord KrishŽa is supremely charming, handsome, and gentle (svaksha), and his transcendental form is full of all opulences (svanga). He delights the 108 gopis (shatananda), and He also relishes transcendental bliss by enjoying pastimes in their association (nandi). Although He is the master of innumerable transcendental devotees who try to please Him in various ways by holding an umbrella, fanning Him with a camara wisk, and performing many similar services (jyotir-gangeshvara), He remains humble and submissive to His devotees (vijitatma and vidheyatma), and for this reason His transcendental good-character is eternally fomous (satkirti). He removes His devotee's doubts (chinna-samshaya).

 

†††† Note: Shrila Baladeva VidyabhushaŽa explains the name shatananda by quoting from the Brahma-samhita:

 

ciŽtamaŽi-prakara-sadmasu kalpavriksha-

†††† lakshavriteshu surabhir abhipalayantam

lakshmi-sahasra-shata-sambhrama-sevyamanam

†††† govindam adi-purusham tam aham bhajami

 

 

†††† "I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, the first progenitor, who is tending the cows, yielding all desires, in abodes built with spiritual gems, and surrounded by millions of purpose trees. He is always served with great reverence and affection by hundreds of thousands of goddesses of fortune."**

 

†††† The name chinna-samshaya is described by Arjuna in the Bhagavad-gita (6.39):

 

 

tvad-anyah samshayasyasya

†††† chetta na by upapadyate

 

 

†††† "O KrishŽa, but for Yourself, no one is to be found who can destroy my doubt."*

 

 

Text 80

 

udirŽah sarvatash-cakshur

†††† anishah shashvatah sthirah

bhushayo bhushaŽo bhutir

†††† ashokah shoka-nashanah

 

 

†††† Lord Krishna's transcendental glories are chanted in all the Vedic literatures (udirŽa), and He always affectionately observes all His devotees (sarvatash-cakshuh). He is completely submissive to His devotees (anisha), and He always remains with the devotees, never leaving their association (shashvata sthira). He takes a nap, resting in the transcendental forest of Vrindavana (bhushaya), and He is nicely decorated with flowers and other ornaments (bhushaŽa). He fulfills the desires of His devotees (bhuti), and when Akrura was about to take Him from Vrindavana to Mathura, He tried to console the lamenting gopis by vowing to quickly return to Vrindavana (ashoka). By sending His messenger Uddhava to Vrindavana, He relieved the sufferings of His father Nanda, His mother Yashoda, and the other vrajavais (shoka-nashana).

 

 

 

†††† Note: Shrila Baladeva VidyabhushaŽa explains the name bhushaya by quoting from the Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.15,16):

 

 

kvacit pallava-talpeshu†††††† niyuddha-shrama-karshitah

vriksha-mulashrayah shete

†††† gopotsangopabarhaŽah

 

 

†††† "When KrishŽa would feel tired and fatigued, He would sometimes take shelter of the root of a big tree, or the lap of a cowherd boy, and lie down, with the boy or root as His pillow."*

 

Text 81

 

arcishman arcitah kumbho

†††† vishuddhatma vishodhanah

aniruddho 'paratirathah

†††† pradyumno 'mita-vikramah

 

 

†††† Lord KrishŽa glowed with anger when He heard His father Vasudeva insulted by Kamsa (arcishman). He was worshiped and honored by the florist Sudama and the girl Kubja (arcita). Enchanted by KrishŽa's handsomeness, Kubja wanted to enjoy Him as her paramour, and she lustily clutched the edge of His garments (kumbha). When KrishŽa promised to visit her home He was mnot trying to trick or fool her (vishuddhatma). He killed the elephant Kuvalayapida, purifying it of all sins and granting it liberation (vishodhana), and therefore the elephant was unable to check KrishŽa from entering the arena of Kamsa (aniruddha). KrishŽa is always victorious in fighting (apratiratha). Because His strength is unlimited, he easily defeated CaŽura and the other wrestlers (pradyumna and amita-vikrama).

 

 

Text 82

 

kalanemi-niha virah

†††† shaurih shurajaneshvarah

trilokatma trilokeshah

†††† keshavah keshi-ha harih

 

 

†††† Lord KrishŽa Killed the demon Kamsa, who in his previous birth as the demon Kalanemi was also killed by Him (kalaneminiha). Displaying His prowess, KrishŽa dragged the dead Kamsa in the wrestling arena (vira). By killing powerful Kamsa in this way, the son of Vasudeva (shauri) proved Himself the best of heroes (shurajaneshvara), and made the three planetary systems jubilant (trilokatma). Lord KrishŽa is the controller of all the three worlds (trilokesha). He has handsome black hair, and He is the father of Brahma, Shiva and all the demigods (keshava). He killed the Keshi demon (keshiha), and thus delighted the minds of the cowherd residents of Vrindavana, the demigods, and the other devotees (hari).

 

 

†††† Note: Shrila Baladeva VidyabhushaŽa explains the name vira by quoting from the from the smriti-shastra:

 

 

harir yathebham vicakarsha so 'vyayah

 

 

†††† "Lord KrishŽa dragged Kamsa just as a lion drags an elephant after killing it."

 

†††† The name trilokatma may also be explained by quoting fromfrom the smriti-shastra:

 

 

hate kamse trayo lokah prapnur anirvrittim param

 

 

†††† "The three planetary systems became delighted when the demon Kamsa was killed."

 

†††† Lord KrishŽa personally explains the meaning of the name keshava in the following quote from the from the smriti-shastra:

 

 

suryasya tapaso lokan

†††† agneh somasya capy uta

amshavo ye prakashante

†††† mama te kesha-sangitah

sarvangah keshavam tasman

†††† mam ahur muni-sattamah

 

 

†††† "The sun-god, Surya, who shines on all the planets, the fire-

god, Agni, and the moon-god, Soma, as well as all the other demigods, who are all followers of Brahma and Shiva, are My parts and parcels and My children. For this reason the great sages call Me Keshava (the father of Brahma and Shiva)."

 

Text 83

 

kamadevah kamapalah

††††† kamikantah kritagamah

anirdeshya-vapur vishŽur

†††† viro 'nanto dhananjayah

 

 

†††† After killing the Keshi demon, KrishŽa was very splendid and handsome (kamadeva), and by killing the demon He satisfied all the desires of the residents of Vrindavana, and the demigods also (kamapala). By killing Keshi, He delighted the demigods, although at that time the desire to kill Kamsa began to arise within His mind (kamikanta). After killing the demon, He returned to the village of Vrajabhumi along with His friends (kritagama). It is not possible to describe His ultimate personal feature simply by dry philosophical speculation devoid of bhakti (anirdeshya-vapuh), although that speculative method will easily enable one to understand His feature as the impersonal effulgence that pervades the entire material cosmos (vishŽu). He eloquently expounds the perfect philosophy of spiritual life (vira), and He remains always far away from those who are impure at heart (ananta). After killing Kamsa, He took Kamsa's entire treasury and gave it to the pious king Ugrasena (dhananjaya).

 

 

†††† Note: Shrila Baladeva VidyabhushaŽa quotes an explanation of the name vishŽu, given in the Shrimad-Bhagavatam by the Lord Himself:

 

 

vyapta me rodasi partha

†††† kantish cabhyadhika mama

adhibhutani canteshu

†††† tad icchamsh casmi bharata

kramaŽac capy aham partha

††††† vishŽur ity abhisamjnitah

 

 

†††† "O Arjuna, My impersonal effulgence pervades both heaven and earth, and therefore I am known as vishŽu."

 

 

Text 84

 

brahmaŽyo brahma-krid brahma

†††† brahma brahma-vivardhanah

brahma-vid brahmaŽo brahmi

†††† brahmajno brahmaŽa-priyah

 

 

†††† Lord KrishŽa is the benefactor and well-wisher of Gargamuni and the entire community of brahmaŽas, and He devotedly engages in their service (brahmaŽya). He personally engages in the austerities and spiritual practicies enjoined for the brahmaŽas (brahma-krit), and He is also the origin of those spiritual duties (brahma). Lord KrishŽa is the unlimited Supreme Brahman, full of all transcendental qualities, the maintainer of all living entites, and the Absolute Truth knowable by the study of Vedanta philosophy and hidden from the view of the atheists (brahma). He encourages the brahmaŽas in their practice of austerity for the attainment of spiritual perfection (brahma-vivardhana), and he Himself was initiated by Gargamuni, and thus set the example of how to understand the Supreme Brahman by chanting the Gayatri-mantra (brahma-vit). He appeared many times, as Lord Dattatreya, and in many other forms, to preach the spiritual philosophy of the Vedas (brahmaŽa), and He is the supreme controller of the entire cosmic manifestation (brahmi). He learned the nature of the Absolute Truth by studying under His spiritual master Sandipani Muni (brahmajna). He greatly pleased His guru and became very dear to him by returning his dead sons (brahmaŽa-priya).

 

 

†††† Note: Shrila Baladeva VidyabhushaŽa quotes the following definition of the name brahma, found in the Vedic dictionary, the Nirukti:

 

 

†††† yato brahma samashti-vyashti-bhutan purushan brimhayati svayam ca nihshimatishaya-svarupa-guŽa-vibhutibhir brimhati ca

 

 

†††† "The word brahma means He who nourishes and maintains (brimhayati) the living entities, and who Himself possesses unlimited (brimhati) and ever-increasing transcendental forms, qualities, opulences and potencies."

 

†††† The same explanation is given by Lord Shiva in the smriti-shastra:

 

 

brimhatvad brimhanatvac ca

†††† tasmad brahmeti-shabditah

 

 

†††† "Because the Supreme Personality of Godhead is unlimited (brimha), and because He maintains and nourishes all living entities (brimhana), therefore, He is known as `brahma'".

 

†††† The name brahma-vit is explained in the Shrimad-Bhagavatam: (10.45.29):

 

 

gargad yadu-kulacaryad

†††† gayatrim vratam asthitau

 

 

†††† "KrishŽa and Balarama accepted Gargamuni, the acarya of the Yadu dynasty, as their spiritual master, and He initiated them in the chanting of the Gayatri mantra."*

 

†††† The name brahma-vivardhana describes The Lord as increasing the austerities of the brahmaŽas. In this connection Shrila Bhaktivinoda Thakura quotes the Vedic explanation of the actual nature of austerity:

 

 

tapah shri-hari-kirtanam

 

†††† "Austerity means to glorify Lord Hari."

 

Text 85

 

mahakramo mahakarma

†††† mahatejo mahoragah

mahakratur mahayajva

†††† mahayajno mahahavih

 

 

†††† By kicking the sleeping King Mucukunda, Lord KrishŽa cleverly killed the demon Kalayavana (mahakrama). KrishŽa's transcendental activities, such as the killing of Kalayavana, are glorious, praiseworthy, worshipable and wonderful (mahakarma), and His transcendental strength remains always undefeated (mahatejah). He remains always situated within the hearts of His pure devotees, such as King Mucukunda, although He sometimes also blesses those devotees by stepping out of the heart and appearing before them (mahoraga). If one offers a tulasi leaf with sincere devotion to Lord KrishŽa's lotus feet, that activity is the greatest worship, far better than performing numberless Vedic rituals, for KrishŽa becomes controlled by the devotees who worship Him in this way (mahakratu). Lord KrishŽa's devotees are the best of all performers of sacrifice (mahayajva), He personally prefers the chanting of His holy names as the best of sacrifices (mahayajna), and as far as oblations to be offered in sacrifice, He considers the offering of obeisances by bowing down with devotion to be the best of all oblations (mahahavi).

 

 

†††† Note: Shrila Baladeva VidyabhushaŽa quotes King Mucukunda's prayers to explain the name mahatejah (Bhag. 10.51.28)

 

 

kimsvit tejasvinam tejo

†††† bhagavan va vibhavasuh

 

 

†††† "My dear Lord, are You not therefore, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is the most powerful amongst the powerful?Are You not the original source of all illumination and fire?"*

 

†††† The name mahoraga describes the Lord's love for His devotees, and His personal association with them face-to-face. This is described in the following quote from the from the smriti-shastra:

 

 

†††† yato ramatvenavatare nishada-rajam guham alingya jatayusha urdhva-daihikam karma cakara. shabari-grihe tad-dattani phalany ati-pritya bubhuje.

 

 

†††† "When the Lord appeared as Ramacandra there was a great exchange of love between the Lord and His devotees. The Lord personally embraced His devotee Guha, the king of the Nishadas, and He personally performed the funeral ceremony of the great devotee Jatayu. When He visited the house of Shabari He ate with great relish the simple offering of forest-fruits presented before Him. In these ways the Lord appeared before His devotees, and showed His love for them."

 

†††† The name mahakratu is explained in the VishŽu-dharma:

 

 

tulasi-dala-matreŽa

†††† jalasya culukena ca

vikriŽite svam atmanam

†††† bhaktebhyo bhakta-vatsalah

 

 

†††† "Shri KrishŽa, who is very affectionate to His devotees, sells Himself to a devotee who offers merely a tulasi leaf and a palmful of water."

 

†††† The name mahayajna is explained in the following way in the Moksha-dharma:

 

 

yah kriyah samprayuktah syur

†††† ekanta-gata-buddhibhih

tah sarvah shirasa devah

†††† pratigrihŽati vai svayam

 

 

†††† "If, with undeviating concentration, one chants the holy names of the Lord and performs similar devotional activites, then Lord KrishŽa becomes greatly pleased. He respectfully accepts such services and places them upon His head."

 

 

japyenaiva ca samshuddhyed

†††† brahmaŽo natra samshayah

kuryad anyan na va kuryan

†††† maitro brahmaŽa ucyate

 

 

†††† "A brahmaŽa or VaishŽava should chant the holy names of Lord KrishŽa, and in this way become purified of all material contamination. One who enthusiastically accepts this process of chanting Lord KrishŽa's names, and rejects the fruitive rituals enjoined in the Vedas, is the best of all brahmaŽas."

 

†††† This is also explained in the Shrimad-Bhagavatam (12.3.51):

 

 

kirtanad eva krishŽasya

†††† mukta-sangah param vrajet

 

 

†††† "Simply by chanting the Hare KrishŽa maha-mantra, one can become so pure that one becomes free from all the contamination of the material world, and goes back home, back to Godhead."*

†††† The name mahahavi is explained in the Vedic literatures:

 

 

krishŽa-praŽami na punar-bhavaya

 

 

†††† "One who offers obeisances by bowing down before Lord KrishŽa becomes free from the entanglement of repeated birth and death."

 

 

Text 86

 

stavyah stava-priyah stotram

†††† stutih stota raŽa-priyah

purŽah purayita puŽyah

†††† puŽya-kirtir anamayah

 

 

†††† Because Lord KrishŽa possesses unlimited auspicious transcendental qualities, He should be continually glorified with eloquent prayers (stavya). He becomes greatly pleased when devotees sincerely describe His glories and chant His holy names (stava-priya). He personally empowers His devotees, such as Dhruva and others, to speak eloquent prayers (stotram), and they continually glorify His transcendental pastimes and qualities (stuti). He is inclined to praise the good qualities of His devotees (stota). He relishes fighting that gives Him an opportunity to kill a demon (raŽa-priya), and because He possesses all strength He can kill an unlimited number of demons single-handedly (purŽa). His devotees also sometimes kill the demons in this world (purayita), and Lord KrishŽa also purifies the universe by killing the atheists (puŽya). The chanting of His glories purifies all living entities (puŽya-kirti), and that glorification of Him acts as a medicine to cure the disease of repeated birth and death (anamayam).

 

 

†††† Note: Shrila Baladeva VidyabhushaŽa quotes the Vedic literature to explain the name stota:

 

 

vandito hi sa vandeta

†††† manito manayita ca

 

 

†††† "The devotees are eager to worship and glorify Lord KrishŽa, and the Lord is inclined to worship and glorify them."

 

Text 87

 

manojavas tirthakaro

†††† vasureta vasupradah

vasuprado vasudevo

†††† vasur vasumana havih

 

 

†††† Lord KrishŽa quickly rescues the surrendered devotees from the distresses of repeated birth and death (manojava), and He speaks the Bhagavad-gita and other Vedic literatures to teach

the living entities how to attain Him (tirthakara). He is the father of the cosmic manifestation (vasuretah), He protects the eight vasus, and He gives all opulences to His devotees (vasuprada). He is personally present when there is discussion of the actual truth of spiritual life (vasudeva), and He always remains in His eternal spiritual abode (vasu). Very satisfied with His devotee Bhishma, He always remembers him (vasumana), and when Bhishma called out for Him, Lord KrishŽa appeared (havi).

 

†††† Note: Shrila Baladeva VidyabhushaŽa quotes Lord Shiva's explanation of the name vasudeva:

 

 

vasanad eva vade ca

 

†††† vasudeveti-shabditah

 

 

†††† "The name vasudeva means: He who resides in the proper discussion of spiritual truth."

 

†††† The name vasumana is described in the following quote:

 

 

shara-talpo gato bhishmah

†††† shamyan nibahutasanah

mam dhyayati purusha-vyaghra

†††† tato me tad-gatam manah

 

 

†††† "Greatly afflicted, and lying on the bed of arrows, Bhishmadeva remembered Me at the last stage of his life. Because of his rememberance of Me, O best of men, I now always remember him."

 

 

Text 88

 

sadgatih satkritih satta

†††† sadbutih sat-parayaŽah

shuraseno yadu-shreshthah

†††† san-nivasah suyamunah

 

 

†††† Lord KrishŽa is attained only by Bhishmadeva and other pure devotees (sadgati). Out of friendship for His devotees, He helps them at the time of death (satkriti), and He is very eager to visit His devotees, such as the PaŽdavas and the residents of Vrajabhumi (satta). Full of love for his devotees (sat-parayaŽa), He is willing to become their messenger or gate-keeper, as He did for Yudhishthira, Ugrasena and Maharaja Bali (sadbhuti). He is the leader of the powerful Yadava army (shurasena), and He is the most exalted person in the Yadu dynasty (yadu-shreshtha). He resides in the splendid city of Dvaraka and other spiritual abodes (san-nivasa). He is splendidly handsome as He enjoys pastimes in the forest of Brihadvana near the bank of the Yamuna (suyamuna).

 

 

†††† Note: Shrila Baladeva VidyabhushaŽa quotes the Varaha PuraŽa to explain the name satkriti:

 

 

yadi vatadi-dosheŽa

†††† mad-bhakto mam na ca smaret

aham smarami mad-bhaktam

†††† nayami paramam gatim

 

 

†††† "If My devotee is not able to remember Me at the time of death because of the great disturbances felt within the body at that time, then I shall remember My devotee and take him back to the spiritual world."

 

†††† The name satta may be described by quoting the words of the residents of Dvaraka in Shrimad-Bhagavatam (1.11.9):

 

 

yarhy ambujakshapasasara bho bhavan

†††† kurun madhun vatha suhrid-didrikshaya

 

 

†††† "O lotus-eyed Lord, You are very eager to go away to Mathura, Vrindavana of Hastinapura to meet Your friends and relatives."

 

†††† The name sat-parayaŽa may be described by quoting the following verse from Shrimad-Bhagavatam (9.4.68), where the Lord says:

 

 

sadhavo hridayam mahyam

†††† sadhunam hridayam tv aham

mad-anyat te na jananti

†††† naham tebhyo manag api

 

 

†††† "The pure devotee is always within the core of My heart, and I am always in the heart of the pure devotee. My devotees do not know anything else but me and I do not know anything else but them."*

Text 89

 

bhutavaso vasudevah

†††† sarvasu-nilayo 'nalah

darpaha darpado 'dripto

†††† durdharo 'thaparajitah

 

 

†††† All material elements and the entire cosmic manifestation rest within Lord KrishŽa, who appears before His devotees' eyes and upon their lotus-hearts (bhutavasa). Lord KrishŽa enjoys pastimes with the members of the Yadu dynasty (vasudeva), and He is their life-breath (sarvasu-nilaya). KrishŽa fulfills all the desires of the PaŽdavas and Yadus (anala). KrishŽa crushes to powder the false pride of the conditioned souls, as He strikingly did to Duryodhana during the rajasuya-yajna (darpaha). KrishŽa gives all honor to His devotees, as He strikingly did to Yudhishthira during the rajasuya-yajna (darpada). Although KrishŽa's powers and activities are extraordinary and unprecedented, He remains very humble and free from pride (adripta). He was unsucessful when sent as the PaŽdavas' messenger to dissuade ill-advised Duryodhana, who was intent on depriving the PaŽdavas of their claim to the throne, (durdhara). No one can defeat Him, and the Kurus became crushed when they tried to defeat Him (aparajita).

 

 

†††† Note: Shrila Baladeva VidyabhushaŽa quotes Lord Shiva's explanation of the name bhutavasa:

 

 

vasanti tvayi bhutani

†††† bhutavasas tato bhavan

 

 

†††† "O Lord, because all material elements and the entire cosmic manifestation reside within You, You are therefore known as `bhutavasa'."

 

†††† The name anala may also be interpreted in the following ways: 1. KrishŽa is very willing to forgive the offenses committed by His devotees 2. KrishŽa is like a fire that destroys those enimical to His devotees 3. KrishŽa places His devotees in positions of authority 4. KrishŽa gives the living entities the facility to become His devotees.

 

†††† To explain the name durdhara, the following verse may be quoted

 

 

imam hi pundarikaksham

†††† jighrikshanty alpa-medhasah

pathenagni-prajvalantam

†††† yatha bala yatha jadah

 

 

†††† "The members of the Kuru dynasty were defective in the matter of possessing intelligence, and when they read the letter PaŽdavas' letter, they burned with anger. In this condition they became so much like little children, and so much like fools, that they desired to seize the messenger KrishŽa, and make Him their captive in retaliation."

 

 

Text 90

 

vishva-murtir maha-murtir

†††† dipta-murtir amurtiman

aneka-murtir avyaktah

†††† shata-murtih shatananah

 

 

†††† The entire universe, consisting of all the demigods, Gandharvas, human beings, demons, and all living entities, is one of Lord KrishŽa's forms (vishva-murti). Nothing can compare with Lord KrishŽa's transcendental form (maha-murti). His form is more splendid and effulgent than numberless blazing fires (dipta-murti). Except for the universal form, all of Lord KrishŽa's forms are spiritual and eternal, and not made of material elements (amurtiman). He appears in many forms simultaneously, as He did by expanding into 16,108 forms to please the queens at Dvaraka (aneka-murti). When Narada saw that KrishŽa had expanded into 16,108 forms and was enjoying many different pastimes simultaneously, the sage became bewildered (avyakta). KrishŽa appears in hundreds of forms, which are all like auspicious nectar (shata-murti). His handsome face is as sweet as nectar (shatanana).

 

†††† Note: To explain the name avyakta, Shrila Baladeva VidyabhushaŽa quotes from the Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.69.2):

 

 

citram bataitad ekena

†††† vapusha yugapat prithak

griheshu dvy-ashta-sahasram

†††† striya eka udavahat

 

 

†††† "It is astounding that Lord Shri KrishŽa, who is one without a second, expanded Himself in sixteen thousand similar forms to marry sixteen thousand queens in their respective homes."*

 

Text 91

 

eko naikah savah kah kim

†††† yat-tat-padam anuttamam

loka-bandhur loka-natho

†††† madhavo bhakta-vatsalah

 

 

†††† Although to enjoy His pastimes Lord KrishŽa appears in many vishŽu-tattva forms (naika), He remains one person (eka). He is always different from the individual living entities (sava), and He is splendid and effulgent (ka). He is the supreme goal of the quest for knowledge (kim) and the supreme shelter of all living entities (yat-tat-padam anuttamam). He strongly binds the devotees with the rope of pure love He bears for them (loka-bandhu), and He is the master of all living entities (loka-natha). By speaking the Bhagavad-gita He removed the conditioned souls' illusions (madhava). He always desires His devotees' welfare (bhakta-vatsala).

 

†††† Note: To explain the name kim, Shrila Baladeva VidyabhushaŽa quotes the shruti-mantra:

 

 

sa vijijnasitavyah

 

 

†††† "The Supreme Personality of Godhead is the ultimate goal of the quest for knowledge."

 

†††† To explain the name loka-natha, the Svetashvatara Upanishad (6.7) says:

 

 

tam ishvaraŽam paramam maheshvaram

†††† tam devatanam paramam ca daivatam

 

 

†††† "The Supreme Lord is the controller of all other controllers, and He is the greatest of all the diverse planetary leaders."*

 

 

Text 92

 

suvarŽa-varŽo hemango

†††† varangash candanangadi

viraha vishamah shunyo

††† dhritashir acalash calah

††

†††† Lord KrishŽa appears as Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, and in His early pastimes He appears as a householder with a golden complexion (suvarŽa-varŽa and hemanga). His limbs are beautiful (varanga), and His body, smeared with the pulp of sandalwood, seems like molten gold (candanangadi). Lord KrishŽa kills lust, greed, and all other enemies of His devotees (viraha). No one is equal to or greater than Lord KrishŽa, who protects the devotees and kills the demons (vishama). Lord KrishŽa is free from all material defects, and He made the entire world inauspicious for the demons and atheists (shunya). He grants all auspiciousness to His devotees (dhritashih). He was unmoving in His determination to protect the PaŽdavas from all dangers (acala). In order to keep the promise of His devotee Bhishma, He broke His own promise not to take up any weapon in the Kurukshetra war (cala).

 

 

†††† Note: Shrila Baladeva VidyabhushaŽa asserts that Lord Chaitanya is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, according to the evidence of the Upanishads. He explains that suvarŽa-varŽa means a golden complexion. He also quotes the Vedic injunction:

 

 

yada pashya pashyate rukma-varŽam

†††† kartaram isham purusham brahma-yonim

 

 

†††† "Rukma-varŽam kartaram isham" refers to the Supreme Personality of Godhead as having a complexion the color of molten gold. Purusham means the Supreme Lord, and brahma-yonim indicates that He is also the Supreme Brahman. This evidence proves that Lord Chaitanya is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, KrishŽa. Another meaning of the description of the Lord as having a golden hue is that Lord Chaitanya's personality is as fascinating as gold is attractive. Shrila Baladeva VidyabhushaŽa has explained that the word varanga means "exquisitely beautiful".

 

†††† Shrila Baladeva VidyabhushaŽa explains the name vishama by quoting from the Svetashvatara Upanishad:

 

 

na tat samash cabhyadhikash ca drishyate

 

 

†††† "No one is equal to or greater than the Supreme Personality of Godhead."

 

†††† The name shunya is defined in the following verse from the from the smriti-shastra:

 

 

shamunam kurute vishŽur

†††† adrishyah san parah svayam

tasmac chunya iti proktas††††† todanat tuccha ucyate

 

 

†††† "Remaining invisible, Lord VishŽu imperceptively removes all auspiciousness from the demons, and therefore He is known as shunya."

 

(The first part of this verse and footnote, the part describing Lord Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, is taken from His Divine Grace A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada's translation of Shri Chaitanya-caritamrita, Adi-lila, Chapter 3, verse 49.)

 

Text 93

 

amani manado manyo

†††† loka-svami triloka-dhrik

sumedha medhajo dhanyah

†††† satya-medha dharadharah

 

 

†††† Although He is the controller of everything, and although He makes His devotees successful, Lord KrishŽa remains very humble at heart (amani), and desires to give all credit and honor to His devotees (manada). He crushes they who become His devotees' enemies (manya). He is the controller of all the universes (loka-svami) and the maintainer and protector of the three planetary systems (triloka-dhrik). Although He is the master of everything, and although He is the most intelligent of persons, He becomes controlled by His pure devotees, meditates on their good qualities, and aspires to attain their association (sumedhah). In order to attain their association, He appears amongst the devotees (medhaja). He considers Himself wealthy when He has attained the association of pure devotees who consider Him their only wealth (dhanya). Not destroyed when the universe is annihilated, Lord KrishŽa exists externally, although the cowherd people of Vrindavana, unaware that He is the Supreme, think of Him as their son, friend, or relative, (satya-medhah). He lifted Govardhana Hill (dharadhara).

 

 

†††† Note: Shrila Baladeva VidyabhushaŽa explains the name dhanya by quoting from the Shrimad-Bhagavatam (1.8.27):

 

 

namo 'kincana-vittaya

 

 

†††† "O Lord KrishŽa, my obeisances are unto You, who are the property of the materially impoverished."*

 

†††† Seeing His extraordinary powers, the residents of Vrindavana thought KrishŽa might be the Supreme Personality of Godhead. KrishŽa then spoke to them the following words, which illustrate the name satya-

medhah:

 

 

yadi vo 'sti mayi pritih

††† shlaghyo 'ham bhavatam yadi

tad atma-bandhu-sadrishi

†††† buddhir vah kriyatam mayi

 

naham evo na gandharvo

†††† na yaksho na ca rakshasah

aham vo bandhavo jato

†††† natash cintyam ato 'nyatha

 

 

†††† "My dear friends, if you have any love for me, or if You think I am glorious or praiseworthy, then please know it that I am your friend and relative. I am not a demigod or Gandharva descended to this earth, and neither am I a Yaksha or a demon with mystic powers. I am simply your relative, born in your family and community. Please do not think of Me in any other way."

 

 

Text 94

 

tejo-vrisho dyuti-dharah

†††† sarva-shastra-bhritambarah

pragraho nigraho vyagro

†††† naika-shringo gadagrajah

 

 

†††† He protected His friends, the cowherd people of Vraja, from Indra's devestating rainfall (tejo-vrisha), and as He protected them, He was handsome and splendid (dyuti-dhara). He killed Jarasandha, Shalva, and many other demons wielding dangerous weapons (sarva-shastra-bhritambara). Out of friendship He accepted the role of Arjuna's chariot-driver (pragraha). By glancing on Arjuna's enemies He ordained their destruction (nigraha), which was quickly accomplished (vyagra). He used many strategies to defeat the PaŽdava's enemies (naika-shringa). He is also the elder brother of Gada (gadagraja).

 

Text 95

 

caturmurtish caturbahush

†††† caturvyuhash caturgatih

chaturatma caturbhavash

†††† caturveda-vid ekapat

 

 

†††† Lord KrishŽa appeared as Nara, NarayaŽa, Hari, and KrishŽa, who were the four sons of Dharma (caturmurti). Bhima, Arjuna, Satyaki, and Uddhava were like His four arms (caturbahu). He is the Supreme Personality of Godhead described in the four Vedas (caturvyuha). Four kinds of faithful persons: the distressed, those in need of money, the curious, and those inquisitive to know the absolute truth, surrender unto KrishŽa (caturgati). Lord KrishŽa grants economic development, piety, sense-gratification and liberation to the living entities in general (chaturatma) and the devotees in particular (caturbhava). He teaches the actual message of the Vedas to the devotees (caturveda-vit). The countless material universes are a tiny fragment of His actual opulence and power (eka-pat).

 

 

Note: Shrila Baladeva VidyabhushaŽa explains that the name caturgati may also be interpreted to mean: 1. Lord KrishŽa enjoys pastimes in four transcendental abodes: Goloka Vrindavana, Gokula Vrindavana, Mathura, and Navadvipa, or 2. Lord KrishŽa's walking may be compared to the strides of a lion, tiger, elephant, or bull.

 

†††† The name eka-pat is described in the purusha-sukta prayers:

 

 

pado 'sya vishva bhutani

 

 

†††† "The material world is only a small part of the Supreme Personality of Godhead's opulence."

 

 

Text 96

 

samavartto nivrttatma

†††† durjayo duratikramah

durlabho durgamo durgo

†††† duravaso durariha

 

 

†††† Lord KrishŽa repeatedly creates (samavartta) and destroys(nivrittatma) the material universes. Heisinvincible andis only defeatedbypuredevotionalservice (durjaya).Noonecan ignore Hisorder(duratikrama).Heis attainedonly by the most difficult to practice puredevotional service (durlabha). He is understood by the difficult path of studying the Upanishads and Vedanta (durgama), and He is glorified by the hymns of the Sama Veda,which difficult to sing (durga). When one follows the difficult path ofcompletely surrendering to Him, He becomes willing toreside in one's heart (duravasa). Although to serve Him is difficult, He helps the devotees by crushing their formidable enemies, who have lust as their general (durariha).

 

 

†††† Note: Shrila Baladeva VidyabhushaŽa quotes the explanation of the name nivrittatma found in the smriti-shastra:

 

 

sva-shrishtam idam apiya

†††† shayanam saha shaktibhih

 

 

†† ††"When the Supreme Personality of Godhead manifests His potencies, the entire cosmic manifestation enters within His body and becomes unmanifest."

 

†††† The following description of the name durlabha is found in the smriti-shastra:

 

 

janmantara-sahasreshu

†††† tapo-dana-samadibhih

naraŽam kshina-papanam

†††† krishŽe bhaktih prajayate

 

†††† "After performing severe austerities, giving abundant charity, and engaging in constant meditation for thousands of births, a living entity may become free from sinful reactions and eligible to attain pure devotional service to Lord KrishŽa."

Text 97

 

shubhango loka-sarangah

†††† sutantus tantu-vardhanah indrakarma mahakarma

†††† kritakarma kritagamah

 

 

†††† Lord KrishŽa grants auspiciousness to and fulfills the desires of the sincere devotees who have firm faith in the instructions of the spiritual master and the scriptures (shubhanga). Lord KrishŽa glorifies the good qualities of the devotees (loka-saranga), Lord KrishŽa's transcendental attributes and pastimes are like a great net that traps the minds of the devotees (sutantu). and grows larger and more entangling as the Lord appears in innumerable incarnations and displays His transcendental pastimes (tantu-vardhana). He acts for the protection and well-being of His devotee Indra (indrakarma), and after killing the demon Narakasura, He returned to their rightful owners the earrings of Aditi and other articles stolen by the demon (mahakarma). He performed many wonderful pastimes and heroic deeds, such as wedding 16,108 princesses simultaneously, defeating all the demigods and forcibly taking the parijata tree from the heavenly planets, defeating Shiva in the battle with BaŽasura, cutting off BaŽasura's thousand arms, and rescuing Usha and Aniruddha (kritakarma). After manifesting these astonshing pastimes, He returned again to His capitol city of Dvaraka (kritagama).

 

 

Text 98

 

uddhavah sundarah sundo

†††† ratnanabhah sulocanah

arko rajasanah shringi

†††† jayantah sarva-vijjayi

 

 

†††† Lord KrishŽa became famous for the previously described pastimes (uddhava).All the limbs of Lord KrishŽa's transcendental form are exquisitely handsome (sundara). By showering His causeless mercy on them, He delights the devotees that have taken shelter of Him (sunda). His reddish, handsome navel is like a glittering ruby (ratnanabha), and His long eyes, reddish at the corners, are handsome (sulocana). All the pure devotees ofer prayers glorifying Him (arka). He provides food for all living entities in the universe (rajasana). In His original form as a cowherd boy He carries a buffalo-horn bugle (shringi). He is victorious in the sports of arm wrestling and joking verbal-duels with His cowherd friends (jayanta). In debate He can defeat even the omniscient sages, such as Vasishtha and Vamadeva (sarvavijayi).

 

 

†††† Note: Shrila Baladeva VidyabhushaŽa explains that teh nameuddhava may also be interpreted to mean "Lord KrishŽa, who married 16,108 princesses and forcibly captured the parijata tree from Indra.

 

The name rajasana is explained in the shruti-shastra:

 

 

annado vasudanah

 

 

†††† "The Supreme Personality of Godhead provides food for all living entities, and he provides their various opulences and good-fortunes as well."

 

†††† Lord KrishŽa's buffalo-horn bugle is mentioned in the Shrimad-Bhagavatam:

 

prabodhayan shringa-ravena

 

 

†††† "KrishŽa called His friends by sounding the buffalo-horn bugle."

 

Text 99

 

 

suvarŽa-bindur akshobhyah

†††† sarva-vag ishvareshvarah

mahahrado mahagarto

†††† mahabhuto mahanidhih

 

 

†††† Lord KrishŽa's transcendental form is handsome and His forehead is decorated with a golden tilaka marking (suvarŽa-bindu). He remains unmoved by an artificial show of love by the cold-hearted (akshobhya). He is the most expert knower of the Vedas (sarvavak). He is the master and controller of Brahma, Shiva, and all the demigods (ishvareshvara), and he is like a great lake that gives relief to they who yearn to be free from the burning sufferings of repeated birth and death (mahahrada). Millions of universes rest in a tiny pore of His transcendental body (mahagarta), material sound, touch, and the other features of the cosmic manifestation have emanated from Him (mahabhuta). The devotees consider Him their great and only wealth (mahanidhi).

 

 

†††† Note: Shrila Baladeva VidyabhushaŽa quotes an explanation of the name akshobhya found in the Shrimad-

Bhagavatam:

 

 

yasyendriyam vimathitum kuhair na shekuh

 

 

†††† "The Supreme Personality of Godhead is not moved by a false show of devotion carefully staged by those who are actually materialists at heart."

 

†††† The name ishvareshvara is described in the Shvetashvatara Upanishad (6.6):

 

 

tam ishvaraŽam paramam maheshvaram

 

 

†††† "The Supreme Lord is the controller of all other controllers, and He is the greatest of all the diverse planetary leaders."*

 

†††† A further description is found in the smriti-

shastra:

 

 

svayam tv asamyatishayas tryadhishah

 

 

†††† "No one is equal to or greater than the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the controller of the three planetary systems."

 

†††† The name mahagarta is described by Lord KrishŽa Himself in the Bhagavad-gita (11.7):

 

 

ihaikastham jagat kritsnam

†††† pashyadya sacaracaram

mama dehe gudakesha

†††† yac canyad drashtum icchasi

 

 

†††† "O Arjuna, whatever you wish to see, behold at once in this body of Mine! This universal form can show you whatever you now desire to see and whatever you may want to see in the future. Everything-moving and nonmovingtPRis here completely, in one place."

 

†††† The name mahanidhi is described in the following verse from the smriti-shastra:

 

 

vishrijati hridayam na yasya sakshad

†††† dharir avashabhihito 'py aghaugha-nashah

praŽaya-rasanaya dhritanghri-padmah

†††† sa bhavati bhagavata-pradhana uktah

 

 

†††† "Hari, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who destroys everything inauspicious for His devotees, does not leave the hearts of His devotees, even if they remember Him and chant about Him inattentively. This is because the rope of love always binds the Lord within the devotees' hearts. Such devotees should be accepted as most elevated."

 

 

Text 100

 

kumudah kundarah kundah

†††† parjanyah pavano 'nilah

amritasho 'mritavapuh

†††† sarvajnah sarvatomukhah

 

 

†††† Lord KrishŽa wears a lotus garland (kumuda). He gives the treasures of Kuvera to those hwo hanker after them (kundara). He is decorated with a jasmine garland. (kunda). In the hearts of His pure devotees He rains the nectar of direct perception of His transcendental form (parjanya). He purifies the devotees' hearts of the dirt of previous sinful deeds (pavana). He takes away all those sins (nila). After killing Kamsa, He gave the entire earth in charity to King Ugrasena (anila). He brings His devotees to the eternal spiritual world, where existance is like nectar (amritasha). His transcendental form is eternal, and is not destroyed at the time of universal anihillation (amritavapuh). He is aware of everything experienced by His devotees and all other living entities (sarvaj{.sy 241}a). His devotees see His smiling face everywhere (sarvatomukha).

 

 

†††† Note: Shrila Baladeva VidyabhushaŽa quotes the following verse from Shrimad-Bhagavatam to explain the name kunda:

 

 

kunda-dama-krita-kaustubha-veshah

 

 

†††† "Lord KrishŽa is decorated with the kaustubha jewel and a garland of kunda flowers."

 

†††† The name kunda may also be interpreted "He places transcendental knowledge in the hearts of His pure devotees." This second interpretation is described by Lord KrishŽa Himself in Bhagavad-gita (10.10):

 

 

dadami buddhi-yogam tam

†††† yena mam upayanti te

 

 

†††† "To whose who are constantly devoted to serving Me with love, I give the understandig by which they can come to Me."*

 

†††† The name pavana is described in the following verse from the Shrimad-Bhagavatam (11.5.42)

 

 

svapada-mulam bhajatah priyasya

†††† tyaktanya-bhavasya harih pareshah

vikarma yac cotpatitam kathancit

†††† dhunoti sarvam hridi sannivishtah

 

 

†††† "One who has given up everything, and taken full shelter at the lotus feet of Hari, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is very dear to KrishŽa. If he is involved in some sinful activity by accident, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is seated within everyone's heart, removes his sins without difficulty."*

 

†††† The name anila may also be interpreted to mean "Thinking of the good qualities of Princess RukmiŽi, and planning how to kidnap her, KrishŽa could not sleep at night."

 

†††† This second interpretation of the name anila is mentioned by Lord KrishŽa Himself in the Shrimad-bhagavatam:

 

 

tathaham api tac-citto

†††† nidram ca na labhe nishi

 

 

†††† "Continually thinking of Princess RukmiŽi, I am not able to sleep at night."*

 

†††† The name sarvajna, which describes how KrishŽa protects His devotees by being always aware of their condition of life, is described in the following verse:

 

 

darshana-dhyana-samsparshair

†††† matsya-kurma-vihangamah

svany apatayani pushŽanti

†††† tathaham api padmaja

 

 

††† "By vision, by meditation, and by touch only do the fish, the tortoise and the birds maintain their offspring. similarly do I also, O Padmaja."*

 

Text 101

 

sulabhah suvratah siddhah

†††† shatrujic chatrutapahah

nyagrodhodumbaro 'shvatthas

†††† caŽurandhra-nisudanah

 

 

†††† Lord KrishŽa personally visited the homes of both the brahmaŽa Shrutadeva, and Bahulashva, the king of Mithila (sulabha). Controlled by the pure love of Shrutadeva and Bahulashva, KrishŽa was unable to return to Dvaraka, but stayed in Mithila to satisfyHis devotees (suvrata). KrishŽa did not return toDvaraka immediately, but stayed and gave His audience to Shrutadeva and Bahulashva (siddha). He vanquished lust and the other enemies in Shrutadeva's heart, (shatrujit), and He distressed the political enemies of His devotee King Bahulashva (shatru-tapana). He stops His devotees' enemies and forces them into a hellish condition of life (nyagrodha). His eternal spiritual abode is far beyond the limited sphere of material existance (udumbara). He is the supreme controller of all universes (ashvattha). He killed the wrestler CaŽura (caŽurandhra-nisudana).

 

.††††† Note: Shrila Baladeva VidyabhushaŽa explains that the name suvrata may also be interpreted to mean: "Lord KrishŽa, who is glorified by the celebration of various festivals and the execution of various vows, such as the observance of Janmashtami and Karttika-vrata."

 

 

Text 102

 

sahasrarcih sapta-jihvah

†††† saptaidhah sapta-vahanah

amurtir anagho 'cintyo

†††† bhaya-krid bhaya-nashanah

 

 

†††† Lord KrishŽa is the original source of the sun's effulgence (sahasrarci), and the seven kinds of fire are His tongue (saptajihva). In His form as Lord SankarshaŽa, He burns the seven planetary systems to ashes at the time of annihilation (saptaidhah), and in His form as Lord VishŽu, He maintains and protects the seven planetary systems (saptavahana). His eternal spiritual form is non-different from His self (amurti), and He is the supreme purity (anagha). He can be understood only by studying the description of Him in the revealed scriptures, and He cannot be known at all by the process of philosophical speculation (acintya). He curses the atheist and impersonalist speculators to take the forms of jackals in their next births (bhayakrit), and He removes the fearful condition created by such speculators (bhayanashana).

 

 

†††† Note: Shrila Baladeva VidyabhushaŽa quotes the description of the name sahasrarci found in the shruti-shastra:

 

 

yena suryas tapati tejaseddah

 

 

†††† "Empowered by the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the sun distributes heat and light."

 

In Bhagavad-gita (15.12), Lord KrishŽa personally explains:

 

 

yad aditya-gatam tejo

†††† jagad bhasayate 'khilam

yac candramasi yac cagnau

†††† tat tejo viddhi mamakam

 

 

†††† "The splendor of the sun, which dissipates the darkness of this whole world, comes from Me. And the splendor of the moon and the splendor of fire are also from Me."*

 

The name saptaidhah is described in the smriti-shastra:

 

 

patala-talam arabhya

†††† sankarshaŽa-mukhanalah

dahann urdhva-shikho visvag

†††† vardhate vayuneritah

 

 

†††† "At the time of annihilation a great fire emanates from Lord SankarshaŽa's mouth and begins to burn the Patala and Tala planetary systems. Carried by a great wind, that fire increases and spreads throughout the entire universe, reaching even the higher planets."

 

The name amurti is described in the shruti-shastra:

 

 

atmetyevopasita

 

 

†††† "The the Supreme Personality of Godhead is not different from His eternal spiritual form ."

 

The smriti-shastra further explains:

 

 

satya-jnananantaŽanda-

†††† matraika-rasa-murtayah

 

 

†††† "The Supreme Personality of Godhead is not different from His eternal, omniscient, unlimited, and blissful forms. He does not possess an external body different from Himself."

 

†††† The name anagha is described in the following way in the Vedic literatures:

 

 

pavitraŽam pavitram yah

 

 

†††† "The Supreme Personality of Godhead is the purest of the pure, and the most effective in purifying the impure."

 

†††† The name acintya is described in the following way in the shruti-shastra:

 

 

naisha tarkeŽa matir apaneya

 

 

†††† "No one can understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead by the process of philosophical speculation and logic."

 

The Vedanta-sutra further explains:

 

 

tarkapratishthanat

 

 

†††† "One cannot understand the Supreme by logic and speculation."

 

†††† Lord KrishŽa personally explains the name bhayakrit in the following verse from the Vedic literature:

 

 

anvikshikim tarka-vidyam

†††† anurakto nirarthikam

tasyaiva phala-nirvrittih

†††† shrigalatvam vane mama

 

 

†††† "They who become enamoured of the useless game of mental speculation and logic earn, as the just fruit of their labors, a new birth as a jackal in the jungle."

 

Text 103

 

aŽur brihat krishah sthulo

†††† guŽabhrin nirguŽo mahan

adhritah svadhritah svasyah

†††† pragvamsho vamshavardhanah

 

 

†††† Appearing as the Supersoul in the hearts of all living entities, Lord KrishŽa is smaller than the smallest (aŽu). He also can became larger than the largest, so that even the universe appears small in comparison to Him (brihat). He can become so tiny that He can enter a stone (krisha), and He can become so large that millions of universes can fit within His body (sthula). although the three modes of goodness, passion and ignorance are maintained by Him (guŽabhrit), He remains always allof from them (nirguŽa). He is the Supreme Person, the proper object of everyone's worship (mahan), and He cannot be captured or grasped by anyone, except His devotees (adhrita). he is always situated in His own transcendental glory (svadhrita), and His face is more beautiful than the moon or the lotus flower (shvasya). The members of Lord KrishŽa's family, such as Pradyumna and others, are eternally liberated souls, never conditioned by material illusion (pragvamsha). Lord KrishŽa greatly expanded the glory of the Yadu dynasty (vamshavardhana).

 

Note: Shrila Baladeva VidyabhushaŽa quotes the explanation of the name brhat found in the Purusha-sukta prayers:

 

 

sabhumim sarvato vritva

†††† atyatishthad dashangulam

 

†††† "Expanding to a gigantic form, the Supreme Personality of Godhead exceeded the dimensions of the Universe."

 

†††† The following description of the name nirguŽa is fund in the Shrimad Bhagavatam (†††† ):

 

 

etad ishanam ishasya

†††† prakritistho 'pi tad-guŽaih

na yujyate sadatmasthair

†††† yatha buddhis tad-ashrayah

 

†††† "This is the divinity of the Personality of Godhead:He is not affected by the qualities of material nature, even though He is in contact with them. Similarly, the devotees who have taken shelter of the Lord do not become influenced by the material qualities."

 

†††† The name adhrita is explained by Lord KrishŽa in the Bhagavad-gita (9.4):

 

 

mat-sthani sarva-bhutani

†††† na caham teshv avasthitah

 

†††† "All beings are in Me, but I am not in them>"

 

†††† The name svadhrita is described in following quotations from the shruti-shastra:

 

sabhagah kasmin pratishthitah

 

†††† "The Supreme Personality of Godhead is eternal existing with innumerable transcendental opulences."

 

sve mahimni

 

†††† "The Supreme Person is always situated in His own transcendental glory."

 

 

Text 104

 

bharabhut kathito yogi

†††† yogishah sarvakamadah

ashramah shriamaŽah kshamah

†††† suparŽo vayuvahanah

 

 

††††† Lord KrishŽa maintains and protects His devotees (bharabhut), and those who are learned say that by His glance, touch, or rememberance, the entire world become auspicious (kathita). Simply by His wish, unlimited millions of devotees are maintained (yogi), He is the mster of the four Kumaras, and all other yogis, and He grants the spiritual attainments for which they aspire (yogisha). To those who take up the pat of yogi, but later fall down because of materialism, He grants residence in the upper planetary systems, where the fallen yotis can enjoy the sense-gratification for which they aspired (sarvakamada). After enjoying for some time on the heavenly planets, such fallen yotis take birth in family of devotees who follwo the varŽashrama system and in this way, Lord KrishŽa gives these yogis a chance to make further advancement in spiritual life (ashrama), Lord KrishŽa arranges that such fallen yogis become again attracted to the principles of spiritual life (shramaŽa). Lord KrishŽa thus helps such fallen yogis to attain spiritual perfection (kshama). He prefers the decoration of a tulasileaf to many valuable golden ornaments (suparŽa), and He is carried by Garuda at a speed faster than the wind (vayuvahana).

 

Note: Shrila Baladeva VidyabhushaŽa quotes Lord KrishŽa's description fo the fallen yogi's fate (Bhagavad-gita 6.40-44):

 

 

prapya puŽya-kritan lokan

†††† ushitva shashvatih samah

shucinam shrimatam gehe

†††† yoga-bhrashto 'bhijayate

 

athava yoginam eva

†††† kule bhavati dhimat\am

 

†††† "The unsuccessful yogi, after many, many years of enjoyment on the planets of the pious living entities, is born into a family of righteous people, or into a family of rich aristocracy. Or he takes his birth in a family of transcendentalists who are surely great in wisdom."

 

 

tatra tam buddhi-samyogam

†††† labhate paurva-dehikam

 

†††† "On taking such a birth, he again revives the divine consciousness of his previous life."

 

na hi kaly\aŽa-krit kashcid

†††† durgatim t\ata gacchati

 

†††† "O Son of Prith\a, a transcendentalist engaged in auspicious activities does not meet with destruction either in this world or the spiritual world; one who does good, My friend, is never overcome by evil."

 

Text 105

 

dhanurdharo dhanurvedo

†††† daŽdo damayit\adamah

apar\ajitah sarvasaho

†††† niyant\aniyamo yamah

 

 

†††† Entering the svayamvara assembly of LakshmaŽ\a-devi, He carried a bow (dhanurdhara), He is the most expert archer (dhanurveda), With Arjuna's help He easily subdued all the princes who tried to prevent Him from taking the hand of LakshmaŽ\a (daŽda). In another svayamvara contest, Lord KrishŽa subdued seven very fierce bulls (damayit\a), In this way He tamed the bulls which no one had formerly been able to control (adama). When Rukmi and His army tried to defeat KrishŽa , they became spectacularly unsuccessful (apar\ajita). Lord KrishŽa tolerantly excused all the blasphemous insults spoken by His brother-in-Law Rukmi (sarvasaha), although He soon retaliated by binding Rukmi with ropes, and humiliating him by partly shaving his head, leaving some patches of hair here and there (niyant\a). Lord KrishŽa defeated Jambav\an (niyama), and thus won both Jambavati and the Syamantaka gem (yama).

 

Note: Shrila Baladeva Vidy\abhushaŽa quotes the following description of the name dhanurveda found in the Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.††† ):

 

 

p\artho yatto 'shrijad b\aŽam

†††† nacchinat pasprishe param bhagav\an dhanura \ad\aya

†††† sajji-kritya ca lilay\a

 

tasmin sandh\aya vishikham

†††† matsyam vikshya sakrij jale

chitveshun\apatayat tam

†††† muhurte'bhijit sthite

 

†††† "At Lakshman\a's svayamvara, the contestants had to pierce with an arrow, a concealed fish, which was only visible in it's reflection in a pot of water. With great caution, arjuna traced out the location of the fish and shot an arrow, but he did not pierce the fish in the right spot. At last Lord KrishŽa took up the bow, and was able to tie the bowstring very easily, just as a child plays with a toy. He placed the arrow, and looking only once at the reflection of the fish in the water, He shot the arrow, and the pierced fish immediatly fell down. This victory of Lord KrishŽa was accomplished at noon, during the moment called aghijit, which is astronomically calculated as auspicious."

 

 

Text 106

 

sattvav\an s\attvikah satyah

†††† satyadharma-par\ayaŽah

abhipr\ayah priy\arho 'rhah

†††† priyakrit pritivardhanah

 

 

†††† Lord KrishŽa is submissive to His wife Satyabh\am\a (sattav\aŽ), and His physical and intellectual strength is unsurpassed (s\attvika). He is the dear husband of satyabhama (satya), He is the shelter of the truthful devotees, and the devoted Husband of satyabhama (satyadharma-parayaŽa). The devotees attain Him by developing pure love for Him (abhipraya), He is the benefactor of the pure devotees, who know His actual eternal personal nature, who are full of love for Him, and disregard the petty opulences of material existance (priyarha). He is worshipped by the pure devotees who have given up everything for His sake (arha), and he accepts such devotees as His personal associates (priyakrit). He is most pleased by those devotees who approach Him out of love, and not to attain some petty material benediction (pritivardhana).

 

Note: Shrila Baladeva VidyabhushaŽa quotes Lord KrishŽa's own explanation (Bhagavad-gita 7.16-17) of the name pritivardhana:

 

 

caturvidha bhajante mam

†††† janah sukritino 'rjuna arto jijnasur artharthi

†††† jnani ca bharatarshabha

 

tesham jnani nitya-yukta

†††† ekabhaktir vishishyate

priyo hi jnanino 'tyartham

†††† aham sa ca mama priyah

 

†††† "O best among the Bharatas (Arjuna), four kinds of pious men render devotional service unto Me---the distressed, the desirer of wealth, the inquisitive, and he who is searching for knowledge of the Absolute. Of these, the wise one, who is in full knowledge in union with Me through pure devotional servie is the best. For I am very dear to him, and he is dear to Me."

 

 

 

Text 107

 

vihayasagatir jyotir

†††† surucir hutabhug-vibhuh

ravir virocanah suryah

†††† savita ravi-locanah

 

 

†††† Lord KrishŽa enables His devotees to enter the eternal spiritual world (vihayasagati), and those who leave the body in a condition of spiritual enlightment attain his association in the spiritual realm (jyoti). by His mercy it is light in the daytime (suruci), and He is like a splendid full moon which dospells all the darkness within the devotees' hearts (butabhug-

vibhu). By His mercy the sun moves in the north (ravi) and by His mercy the sun travels in its orbit every year (virocana). By His mercy the sun travels in the wind (surya), and by His order the sun-god Aditya directs the sun-planet'smovement (savita)By His mercy, the sun and the moon travel in their orbits (ravi-

locana).

 

 

Text 108

 

ananto hutabhug-bhokta

†††† sukhado naikado 'grajah

anirviŽŽah sadamarshi

†††† lokadhishthanam adbhutam

 

 

†††† By Lord KrishŽa's mercy, the devotees become free from the bondage of repeated material existance, and enter the eternal spiritual world (ananta). He protects the devotees (hutabhug-

bhokta), and He delights them by freeing them from the subtle body of mind intelligence and false-ego, which is the cause of repeated acceptance of gross material bodies in the cycle of birth and death and granting them eternal spiritual forms of His associates in the spiritual world (sukhada). He does not give onlyone or two gifts to His devotee, but He showers them with innumerable benedictions, and He even gives Himself to His devotee to become the devotee's property (naikada). All beauty and opulence emanates from Him and cannot be separated from Him at any time (agraja). His devotees endeavor with great earnestness to attain His lotus feet, and they are never lazy in this regard (anirviŽŽa and sadamarshi). He gives shelter to the devotees who approach Him (lokadhishthanam), and He astonishes the devotees by showing His wonderful, and ever-fresh beautiful form, qualities and pastimes (adbhutam).

 

Note: Shrila Baladeva VidyabhushaŽa quotes Lord KrishŽa'sdescription of the name huta bhug-bhokta (Bhagavad-gita 12.7):

 

 

tesham aham samuddharta

†††† mrityu-samsara-sagarat

 

†††† "I swiftly deliver the devotees from the ocean of birth and death."

 

†††† The name sukhada is explained by the Lord Himself in the following quote from the Varaha PuraŽa:

 

 

nayami paramam sthanam

†††† arcir adigatam vina

garuda-skandham aropya

†††† yatheccham anivaritah

 

†††† "Riding on Garuda's shoulder, I carry my devotee back to the spiritual world, and nothing will hinder or stop Me from this, for I wish to rescue My devotees."

 

 

Text 109

 

sanat sanatanatamah

†††† kapilah kapir avyayah

svastidah svastikrit svasti

†††† svastibhuk svastidakshiŽah

 

 

†††† Lord KrishŽa relishes the foodstuffs, incense and other substances offered to Him by His devotees (sanat). Manifesting His eternal ever-fresh transcendental form, He eternally attracts the eternally liberated souls (sanatanatama), and all their desires become fulfilled in Him (kapila). he supplies the water and other paraphernalia the devotees use to worship Him, and He also gives the transcendental happiness the devotees experience by engaging in His service (kapi). He eternally remains in the assembly of devotees, and never leaves them (avyaya). He grants all auspiciousness to the devotees (svastida), and he removes all aupsiciousness from the atheists and non-devotees (svastikrit). He is the supreme auspiciousness (svasti), He protects the auspicious condition of the devotees who continuyally remember Him, and He Himself enjoys the greates auspiciousness as He performs transcendental pastimes in the spiritual worls (svastibhuk). he gives entrance into His spiritual realm, and well as many other aupicious gifts to those who become the performers of the Vedic sacrifice which is His devotional service (svastidakshiŽa).

 

 

Text 110

 

araudrah kuŽdali cakri

†††† vikramy urjita-shashanah

shabdatigah shabdasahah

†††† shishirah sharvarikarah

 

 

†††† Because Lord KrishŽa is always full of transcendental bliss, He never becomes angry, but is always, gentle and beneficent (araudra). He is decorated with shark-shaped earrings, a crown, necklaces, and many other ornaments (kuŽdali). He is the general of a limitless army which can never be defeated (cakri), and his immeasurable strength can destroy any number of the most powerful demons (vikrami). Brahma, Shiva and all the demigods never transgress His orders (urjita-shasana), and neither the thousand-headed Lord Anantadeva, nor Sarasvati-devi, the goddess of learning, can fully describe His unlimited glories (shabdatiga). Lord KrishŽa felt compassionate upon the PaŽdavas when He heard Draupadi's appeal for protection from the possibe wrath of Durvasa (sabdasaha). He protected the PaŽdavas from repeated calamity (shishira), and by taking in His hand a little vegetabe from Draupadi's pot, He mercifully protected the PaŽdavas (sharvarikara).

 

Note: Shrila Baladeva VidyabhushaŽa quotes the explanation of the name araudra found in the from the smriti-shastra:

 

 

aroshaŽo hy asau devah

 

†††† "The Supreme Personality of Godhead is very gentle, and not inclined to become angry or violent."

 

Text 111

 

akrurah peshalo daksho

††††† dakshiŽah kshamiŽambarah

vidvattamo vitabhayah

†††† puŽya-shravaŽa-kirtanah

 

 

†††† Because Lord KrishŽa is always very much inclined towards the brahmaŽas, he did not violently stop Durvasa from the possible harm He would have committed to the PaŽdavas, (akrura). He expertly protected the PaŽdavas by allaying the hunger of Durvasa and his disciples (peshala), and He immediately apeared before Draupadi as soon as He heard her appeal for protection (daksha). He expertly thwarted all the attempts of Duryodhana (dakshiŽa), and He mercifullly forgave Durvasa from the offense he was about to commit towards the PaŽdavas (kshamiŽambara). He expertly protected the surrendered devotee Gajendra from an impending catastrophe (vidvattama), and He removed all of Gajendra's fears (vitabhaya). Simply by hearing and chanting His glories, Gajendra and many others also, became free from all sins (puŽya-shravaŽa-kirtana).

 

Note: Shrila Baladeva VidyabhushaŽa quotes the description of the name vitabhaya found in the from the smriti-shastra:

 

 

 

graha-grastam gajendram ca

†††† tam graham ca jalashayat

ujjaharaprameyatma

†††† tarasa madhusudanah

 

†††† "Lord Madhusudana, the unlimited Personality of Godhead, quickly rescued Ganjendra who was attacked by a crocodile within the water."

 

The following explanation of the name puŽy-shravaŽa-kirtana is found in the from the smriti-shastra:

 

 

 

shrutenahi kurushreshtha

†††† smritena kathitena va

gajendra-mokshaŽanenaiva

†††† sadyah papat pramucyate

 

†††† "O best of the Kurus, simply by hearing, remembering, or describing the story of Gajendra's deliverance, one becomes immediately freed fromall sins."

 

 

Text 112

 

uttaraŽo dushkritiha

†††† puŽyo duhshvapa-nashanah

viraha rakshaŽah santo

†††† jivanah paryavasthitah

 

†††† Lord KrishŽa rescued Gajendra by lifting him out of the lake where he was trapped by the crocodile (uttaraŽa), and he killed the crocodile to protect His devotee (dushkritiha), He purifies all who hear the account of Gajendra's deliverance (puŽya), and He rescues from bad dreams those who remember the story of Gajendra (duhshvapa-nashana). He killed the powerful crocodile (viraha), and by touching Gajendra delivered Him from the imprisonment in the body of an elephant (rakshaŽa). In this way He granted auspiciousness to Gajendra (santa). and He also brought the Gandharva Huhu back to life, freeing him from the body of a crocodile which had been imposed upon him by the curse of Devala Muni (jivana). After hearing Gajendra's prayers, the Lord became greatly pleased and full of love for His devotee (paryavasthita).

 

††††† Note: Shrila Baladeva VidyabhushaŽa quotes the explanation of the name dushkritiha found in the from the smriti-shastra:

 

sthalastham darayam asa

†††† graham cakreŽa madhavah

mocayam asa nagendram

†††† pashebhah sharaŽagatam

 

 

†††† "Using His sudarshana-cakra, Lord Madhava killed the crocodile and rescued Gajendra, who had fully taken shelter of the Lord.

 

†††† The name duhsvapa-nashana is described in the following verses from from the smriti-shastra:

 

 

tad aham shrotum icchami

†††† nriŽam duhsvapa-nashanam

 

†††† "I wish to hear how one may become free from bad dreams."

 

 

duhsvapna-darshanam ghoram

†††† avekshya bharatarshabha

prayatah kim japej japyam

††††††††† vibudhah kim anusmaret

 

†††† "O best of the Bharatas, what mantra should one chant, or whom should one meditate upon and remember to become free from bad dreams?"

 

†††† Lord NarayaŽa answered this question in the following words:

 

 

ye mam tvam ca sarash caiva

†††† grahasya ca vimokshaŽam

 

ye smarishyanti manujah

†††† prayatah sthira-buddhayah

duhsvapno nashyate tesham

†††† susvapnash ca bhavishyati

 

†††† "Those sincere devotees who attentively remember the history of how I delivered Gajendra from the crocodile, will become free from the influence of bad dreams. Their dreams at night will always be peaceful and auspicious."

 

†††† The following verse from the from the smriti-shastra describes the name rakshaŽa:

 

 

evam uktva maharaja

†††† gajendram madhusudanah

sparshayam asa hastena

†††† gajam gandharvam eva ca

 

†††† "O King, after speaking these words, Lord Madhusudana touched both Gajendra and the crocodile with his lotus-hand."

 

This verse from the from the smriti-shastra describes the jivana:

 

 

sa hi devala-shapena

†††† huhur gandharva-sattamah

grahatvam agamat krishŽad

†††† vadham prapya divam gatah

 

†††† "Because the crocodile was killed by the Lord, he became free from Devala Muni's curse. He regained his original form as the Gandharva Huhu, and returned to his home on the heavenly planets."

 

†††† The from the smriti-shastra explains the name paryavasthita:

 

 

bhaktim tasya tu sancintya

†††† nagasyamogha-samstavat

pritiman bhagavan rajan

†††† shrutva cakra-gadadharam

 

aruhya garudam vishŽur

††††† ajagama surottamah

sannidhyam kalpayam asa

†††† tasmin sarasi loka-dhrik

 

†††† "O King, when Lord NarayaŽa heard the pure and perfect prayers of Gajendra, He could understand how advanced Gajendra was in the path of pure devotional service, and He became greatly pleased and full of love for His devotee. In this way Lord VishŽu the master of the demigods and maintainer of all the planets, travelled to this lake, carried by Garuda, and gave His audience to the elephant Gajendra."

Text 113

 

anantarupo 'nantashrir

†††† jitamanyur bhayapahah

chaturasro gabhiratma-

†††† vidisho vyadisho' dishah

 

 

†††† When Brahma stole the calves and cowherd boys, Lord KrishŽa expanded Himself into innumerable forms just like those of the stolen calves and boys. (anantarupa), and thus manifested His unlimited power and opulence (anantashrih). Even though Brahma tried to create mischief by stealing KrishŽa's associates, magnanimous KrishŽa did not become angry with him (jitamanyu), and when frightened Brahma begged for forgiveness, Lord KrishŽa removed all his fears (bhayapaha). When Lord KrishŽa expanded into many forms to replace His stolen friends, He immediately accepted each of the elderly gopis as His mother (chaturasra), Lord KrishŽa's thoughts and intentions are so unlimitedly profound and inscrutable, that even Lord Brahma, after offering prayers and apologies, could not unerstand whether KrishŽa had accepted his apologies, or remained dissatisfied with him (gabhiratma). Because Brahma had interrupted KrishŽa's pastimes with His friends, KrishŽa became displeased with him and asked him to leave the area of Gokula, so the activities of Vrajabhumi could continue undisturbed (avidisha). On many different occasions Lord KrishŽa entrusted Brahma with various responsibilities in the management of the universe, and gave him specific instructions in this regard (vyadisha). Because Lord KrishŽa is the Supreme Personality of Godhead and ultimate controller if everything, He does not have to follow anyone's order (adisha).

 

Note: Shrila Baladeva VidyabhushaŽa quotes the explanation of the name anantarupa found in the Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.13.19):

 

 

yavad vatsaka-vatsapalaka-vapur yavat karanghry-adikam

†††† yavad yashti-vishaŽa-veŽu-dala-shg yavad vibhushambaram

yavac chila-guŽa-guŽabhidha-kriti-vayo yavad viharadikam

†††† sarvam vishŽumayam girongavad ajah sarva-svarupo babau

 

†††† "By His Vasudeva feature, KrishŽa simultaneously expanded Himself into the exact number of missing cowherd boys and calves, with their exact bodily features, their particular types of hands, legs and other limbs, their sticks, bugles, and flutes, their lunch bags, their particular types of dress and ornaments, placed in various ways, their names, ages and forms, and their special activities and characteristics. By expanding Himself in this way, beautiful KrishŽa proved the statement samagram jagad vishŽumayam:Lord VishŽu is all-pervading."

 

†††The name adisha is described in the Svetashvatara Upanishad (6.7):

 

 

tam ishvaraŽam paramam maheshvaram

†††† tam devatanam paramam ca daivatam

patim patinam paramam parastad

†††† vidama devam bhuvanesham idyam

 

†††† "The Supreme Lord is the controller of all other controllers, and he is the greatest of all the diverse planetary leaders. Everyone is under His control. All entities are delegated with particular power only by the Supreme Lord:they are not supreme themselves. He is also worshippable by all the demigods and is the supreme director of all directors. therefore, He is transcendental to all kinds of material leaders and controllers, and is worshipable by all. there is no one greater than Him, and He is the supreme cause of all causes."

 

†††† The Shrimad-Bhagavatam (3.2.21) further explains:

 

 

svayam tv asamyatishayas tryadhishah

†††† svarajya-lakshmyapta-samasta-kamah

balim haradbhish cira-lokapalaih

†††† kirita-kotidita-pada-pithah

 

†††† "Lord Shri KrishŽa is the Lord of all kinds of threes, and is independantly supreme by acheivement of all kinds of fortune. He is worshiped by the eternal maintainers of the creation, who offer Him the paraphernalia of worship by touching their millions of helmets to His feet."

 

 

Text 114

 

anadir bhur bhuvo-lakshnih

†††† suviro rucirangadah

janano 'jana-janmadir

†††† bhimo bhima-parakramah

 

 

†††† Lord KrishŽa is independent, and He does not need to follow the instructions of Brahma or anyone else (anadi). He was merciful to Brahma and forgave his offenses (bhuh), and He was the transcendental ornament which decorated the land of Vrajabhumi (bhuvo-lakshmih). He is a great hero, and fully competant to wrestle with Shridama and the other cowherd boys as their equal (suvira), and he also embraced His friends with His splendid transcendental arms (rucirangada). In the company of Lord Balarama and the gopis, He performed the springtime rasa-dance near the slope of Govardhana Hill (janana). He is free from the material defects of birth, death, old-age and disease (ajana-janmadi). He appeared very ferocius and terrifying to Shankhacuda who committed an offense to the gopis (bhima), and leaving Lord Balarama to protect the gopis powerful KrishŽa chased Shankhacuda, caught him, killed him and took away the syamantaka jewel he wore in his crown (bhima-

parakrama).

 

Note: Shrila Baladeva VidyabhushaŽa explains that although KrishŽa is never actually born as a condition soul is, He appears within this world in His original transcendental form, and appears to be born as an ordinary human being, although He is always free fromthe cycle of repeated birth and death. This is confirmed in the Vedas:

 

 

eko devo nitya-lilanurakto

†††† bhakta-vyapi bhakta-hridy antaratma

 

†††† "The one Supreme Personality of Godhead is eternally engaged in many, many, transcendental forms in relationships with His unalloyed devotees."

 

Lord Krishna also explains in the Bhagavad-gita (4.):

 

 

janma karma ca me divyam

 

†††† "My birth and activities are all transcendental."

 

Text 115

 

adharanilayo dhata

†††† pusshpahasah prajagarah

urdhvagah satpathacarah

†††† praŽadah praŽavah praŽah

 

 

†††† Lord KrishŽa is the shelter of the gopis who are very beautiful, gentle, charming, expert in singing, dancing and speaking clever words, and full of all good qualities, and Lord KrishŽa by playing His flute, attracted these gopis to Vrndavanaforest to perform the rasa-dance on the full-moon night of the shara-season (adharanilaya). Alone with the gopis in the forest, Lord KrishŽa caused them to drink the nectar of His charming clever words, His sweet, gentle smiles, and His sidelong glances (dhata). Joking with the gopis, Lord KrishŽa's smile appeared as charming as a flower (pushpahasa). Lord KrishŽa stayed awake for an entire night of Brahma, performing His pastime of dancing with the gopis (prajagara). Performing the rasa pastime with the beautiful and wonderfully qualified gopis, Lord KrishŽa was so splendidly handsome that He appeared to be chastising cupid as an incompetent buffoon (urdhvaga). The gopis love Him with pure hearts, completely free from any material motive (satpathacara). Lord KrishŽa is the life of all living entities, and He tried to reward the gopis (who had given up everything for His sake), by giving everything, even Himself, to them (praŽada). In this way He demonstrated that pure unalloyed love for Him is the most valuable and praiseworthy quality that anyone can attain (praŽava). In this way, KrshŽa, who knows the actual value of everything, gave the greatest value to the gopis' pure love for Him (praŽa).

 

Note: Shrila Baladeva VidyabhushaŽa quotes the explanation of the name puspahasa found in the Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.29.43):

 

 

udara-hasa-dvija-kunda-didhiti

†††† vyarocatainanka ivodubhir vritah

 

†††† "Lord KrishŽa smiled and His teeth appeared as beautiful as white kunda flowers. In the midst of the gopis, He appeared just like the full moon surrounded by millions of shining stars."

 

†††† The name prajagara is also explained in the Shrimad-

Bhagavatam (10.†††† ):

 

 

brahma-ratra upavrittah

 

†††† "During the rasa-dance, the night turned into the night of Brahma, lasting for millions of years."

 

†††† The Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.32.14) explains the name urdhvaga in

the following way:

 

 

cakasa gopi-parishad-gato 'rcitas

†††† trailokya-lakshmyaika-padam vapur dadhat

 

†††† "When Lord KrishŽa finally reappeared and assembled with the gopis, He looked very beautiful, just befitting a person with all kinds of opulences. "

 

†††† The names describing the gopis pure love of KrishŽa are described in the Lord's own words to the gopis (Shrimad Bhagavatam 10.32.22):

 

 

na paraye 'ham niravadya-samyujam

†††† sva-sadhu-krityam vibudhayushapi vah

ya mabhajan durjara-geha-shrinkhalah

†††† samvrishcya tad vah pratiyatu sadhuna

 

†††† "O gopis, your relationship with Me is completely transcendental, and it is not possible for Me to offer anything in exchange for your love, even after many births. You have been able to give up all attachment for material enjoyment, and you have searched after Me. Since I am unable to repay your love, you have to be pleased with your own activities."

 

 

Text 116

 

pramaŽam praŽanilayah

†††† praŽabhrit pranajivanah

tattvam tattvavid ekatma

†††† janma-mrityu-jaratigah

 

†††† By speaking to the gopis in this way, Lord KrishŽa proved that pure unalloyed love for Him is the supreme goal of life (pramaŽam), Immersed in the nectar of pure love of Krishna, the gopis appeared to merge into Him, although they kept their seperate identities, just as a bird enters its nest, and appears to disappear within it, although the bird actually keeps its individuality all along (praŽa-nilaya). By giving the gopis the nectar of blissful personal exhange with Him, KrishŽa maintained their lives (praŽabhrit). The gopis considered KrishŽa more dear than life (praŽa-jivanam). KrishŽa's dealings with the pastimes with the gopis were not all material, but completely on the spiritual platform (tattvam). He continually relishes such spiritual exchanges (tattvavit), and He is the only Supreme Personality of Godhead (ekatma), completely beyond the birth, death, old-age, disease, hunger, thirst, and other defects of material existance (janma-mrityu-jaratiga).

 

Text 117

 

bhur-bhuvah-svas-tarus tarah

†††† sa pita prapitamahah

uajno yajnapatir yajva

†††† yajnango yajnavahanah

 

†††† Lord KrishŽa is like a great tree which shades the upper, middle, and lower planetary systems, and provides all necessities to all living entities, who are compared to the birds who have taken shelter of that tree (bhur-bhuvah-svas-taru). That metaphorical tree of KrishŽa appears as splendid and beautiful as a pearl (tara), and its fame is spread everywhere (sa). Lord KrishŽa is the father (pita) and maintainer (prapitamaha) of the residents of the three planetary systems. He provides the ingredients which the devotees use for His worship (yajna), and He is the protector of the process of devotional service (yajnapati). He forbids the living entities to follow the so-called spiritual paths proposed by so many cheaters and speculators, and advises them to take up His pure devotional service, to the exclusion of everything else (yajva), and He accepts as His devotees those who have faith in the principles of bhakti (yajna-vahana).

 

 

Text 118

 

yajnabhrid yajnakrid yajni

†††† uajnabhug yajnasadhanah

yajnantakrid yajnaguhyam

†††† annam annada eva ca

 

 

†††† Lord KrishŽa purifies any defects that may mar the devotees service to Him, and He makes their service successful (yajnabhrit). To teach the conditioned souls the importance of bhakti, He personally engages in devotional service (yajnakrit), and He also teaches how to engage in devotional service (yajni). He is the enjoyer of the fruits of devotional service (hajnabhuk), and by giving them transcendental knowledge, He is the benefactor of those who engage in His devotional service (yajna-sadhana). He gives the transcendental result of engaging in devotional service (yajnantakrit), and all Vedic sacrifices have Him as their ultimate object (yajna-guhyam). In the spiritual world He may manifest Himself as the incense and other paraphernalia used in His worship (anna), and He also enjoys these different articles meant for His enjoyment (annanda).

 

 

Text 119

 

atmayonih svayamjato

†††† vaikhanah samagayanah

devakinandanah srashta

†††† kshitishah papa-nashanah

 

 

†††† Lord KrishŽa enjoys the company of His devotees (atmayoni), and He is never forced to appear in this material world, but only comes here, full with all transcendental opulences, and accompanied by His expansions and associates, if He wishes, and not otherwise (svayamjata). He kills the demons (vikhana), and the hymns of the Sama Veda chant His glories (sama-gayan). He appeared as the son of Devaki, and He also became the son of Yashoda (devakinandana). He protected Devaki and Yashoda from all dangers (srashta), and He destroyed the demoniac kings, who had become a great burden for the earth (kshitisha). He removes the sins of those who take to hearing and chanting His pastimes and glories, and He also removes the sins of those demons who are fortunate enough to be killed by Him, and granted liberation (papa-nashana).

 

Note: Shrila Baladeva VidyabhushaŽa quotes the explanation of the names svayamjata and vaikhana, found in the Shrimad-Bhagavatam (3.2.15):

 

 

sva-shanta-rupeshv itaraih sva-rupair

†††† abhyardyamaneshv anukampitatma

paravaresho mahad-amsha-yukto

†††† vy ajo 'pi jato bhagavan yathagnih

 

†††† "The Personality of Godhead, the all-compassionate controller of both the spiritual and material creations, is unborn, but when there is friction between the peaceful devotees and persons who are in the material modes of nature, He takes birth just like fire, accompanied by the mahat-tattva."

 

†††† That devakinandana can also mean "the son of Yashoda" is described in the following quote from the PuraŽas:

 

 

dev namni nanda-bharyayam yashoda devaki

 

†††† "Nanda Maharaja's wife is known by two names: Yashoda and Devaki."

 

†††† Lord KrishŽa's appearance as the son of Devaki is described in the Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.3.8):

 

 

nishithe tamau udbhute

†††† jayamane janardane

devakyam deva-rupiŽyam

†††† vishŽuh sarva-guha-shayah

avirasid yatha pracyam

†††† dishindur iva pushkalah

 

†††† "Then the Supreme Personality of Godhead, VishŽu, who is seated in the core of everyone's heart, appeared from the heart of Devaki in the dense darkness of night, like the full moon rising on the eastern horizon, because Devaki was of the same category as Shri KrishŽa."

 

†††† Yashoda was unable to understand the krishŽa had been substituted for daughter, Yogamaya. This is described in the Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.3.53):

 

 

yashoda nanda-patni ca

†††† jatam param abudhyata

na tal-lingam parishranta

†††† nidrayapagata-smritih

 

†††† "Exhausted by the labor of childbirth, Yashoda was overwhelmed with sleep and unable to understand what kind of child had been born to her."

 

 

Text 120

 

shankhabhrin nandaki cakri

†††† sarngadhanva gadadharah

ratnangapaŽir akshobhyah

†††† sarva-praharaŽayudhah

 

 

 

†††† Lord KrishŽa holds the pancajanya conch-shell (shankhabhrit), and the nandaki sword, which is a manifestation of transcendental knowledge (nandaki, the sudarshana-cakra (cakri), the sharnga bow (sharngadhanva, and the kaumodaki club (gada dhara). In order to protect Bhishma's promise, He took up the chariot-wheel as His weapon (ratnangapaŽi). he remains always unagitated, even if rendered weaponless in the fight (akshobhya). He is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the Supersoul in the hearts of all living entities, and from Him all weapons derive their effectivenesss (sarva-praharaŽayudha).

 

Note: Shrila Baladeva VidyabhushaŽa quotes the Vedic explanation that Lord KrishŽa resides in the hearts of all living entities:

 

sarvantaryami

 

†††† "The Supreme Personality of Godhead resides in everyone's heart."