Click here to load whole tree
NITAAI-Veda.nyf > All Scriptures By Acharyas > Baladeva Vidyabhushana > Vedanta Sutra > Chp 4

Chapter 4

 

Pada 1

 

 

Invocation

 

 

dattva vidyaushadham bhaktan

     niravadyan karoti yah

drik-patham bhajatu shriman

     prityatma sa harih svayam

 

 

     May Lord Hari, who is glorious, handsome, blissful, and filled with love, and who cures His devotees by giving them the medicine of transcendental knowledge, enter the pathway of my eyes.

 

 

Introduction by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     This chapter will consider the topic of the results obtained by one who has transcendental knowledge. Although some of the sutras discuss the methods by which transcendental knowledge is obtained, because most discuss the results obtained by transcendental knowledge, this chapter bears the title, “The Results of Transcendental Knowledge".

 

 

 

 

Adhikarana 1

One Should Always Engage in Devotional Service

 

 

Introduction by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     In the Brihad-aranyaka Upanishad (4.5.6) it is said:

 

 

atma va are drashtavyah

 

 

     "One should gaze on the Supreme Personality of Godhead."

 

     Samshaya (doubt): Must spiritual practices, such as hearing about the Lord's glories, be performed repeatedly, or is it acceptable they not be performed repeatedly (but only once)?

 

     Purvapaksha (the opponent speaks): As an agnishtoma-yajna and other yajnas need be performed only once in order to grant residence in Svargaloka, in the same way spiritual practices like hearing about the Lord's glories need be performed only once for the worshiper to directly see the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself.

 

     Siddhanta (conclusion): In the following words the author of the sutras gives His conclusion.

 

 

Sutra 1

 

 

avrittir asakrid upadeshat

 

     avrittih—repetition; asakrit—many times; upadeshat—because of the teaching.

 

 

     It is repeated many times, for that is the teaching.

 

Purport by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     The various activities of devotional service, which begin with hearing the glories of the Lord, should be repeated many times. Why is that? The sutra explains, "asakrit" (many times, for that is the teaching). In the Chandogya Upanishad (6.8.7) it is said:

 

 

sa ya esho 'nima. etad atmyam idam sarvam. tat satyam. sa atma. tat tvam asi.

 

 

     "He is the resting place. Everything comes from Him. He is the supreme reality. He is the supreme person. You are like unto Him."

     In these words Shvetaketu was instructed nine times. It is Ťillogical to say that if the scripture mentions an activity once then there is no need to perform that activity many times. This may apply to an activity where the result is not directly seen, but for an activity that has the direct perception of the Supreme Personality of Godhead as its result, a result that is clearly seen, the activity must be repeated until the result is obtained. This is like threshing rice, where the activity must be continued until the husk is removed. Therefore the devotional activities that begin with hearing the Lord's glories should be performed again and again until the result is obtained.

 

 

Sutra 2

 

 

lingac ca

 

     lingat—because of a sign; ca—also.

 

 

     Also because of a sign.

 

Purport by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     In Taittiriya Upanishad (3.2) Bhrigu Muni repeated a spiritual activity many times. By this sign (lingat) the importance of repetition is proved. It is understood that repetition is necessary for the conditioned souls, who have committed offenses.

 

 

 

 

Adhikarana 2

Meditation on the Supersoul

 

 

Introduction by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

 

     Now another topic will be considered.

 

     Samshaya (doubt): Should one meditate on the Lord as the supreme controller or as the all-pervading Supersoul?

 

     Purvapaksha (the opponent speaks): In the Shvetashvatara Upanishad (4.7) it is said:

 

 

jushtam yada pashyaty anyam isham

 

 

     "He sees the Lord as the supreme controller."

 

     Therefore one should meditate on the Lord as the supreme controller.

 

     Siddhanta (conclusion): In the following words the author of the sutras gives His conclusion.

 

 

Sutra 3

 

 

atmeti tupagacchanti grahayanti ca

 

     atma—the Supersoul; iti—thus; tu—indeed; upagacchanti—know; grahayanti—teach; ca—also.

 

 

     Indeed, they know and teach that He is the Supersoul.

 

Purport by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     The word "tu" (indeed) is used here for emphasis. The Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is both the supreme controller and the all-pervading Supersoul, should be worshiped. They who know the truth understand that the Supersoul is the first cause of all causes. In the Shruti-shastra it is said:

 

 

yesham no 'yam atmayam lokah

 

 

     "He is the Supersoul, present in everyone's heart."

 

     They also teach this truth to their disciples. In the Brihad-aranyaka Upanishad (1.4.7) it is said:

 

 

atmety evopasita

 

 

     "One should worship the Supersoul."

 

     The word "atma" here should be understood to mean, "the all-powerful Supreme Personality of Godhead, whose humanlike form is full of knowledge and bliss". Some claim that the word "atma" means, "He who gives Himself to create the living beings and who therefore is the person from whom the living beings are manifested". The word “atma" however does not mean that when he is freed from illusion the individual spirit soul becomes the Supreme. That is a false idea, as we have already explained.

 

 

 

 

Adhikarana 3

The Supreme Lord Is Not the Mind

 

 

Introduction by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     The worship of the Lord is described in the following words of Chandogya Upanishad (3.18.1):

 

 

mano brahmety upasita

 

 

     "One should worship the Supreme as the mind."

 

     Samshaya (doubt): Should one meditate on the mind as being identical with the Supreme Personality of Godhead?

 

     Purvapaksha (the opponent speaks): Because the scriptures affirm that the mind and the Supreme Personality of Godhead are not different, therefore this kind of meditation should be done.

 

     Siddhanta (conclusion): In the following words the author of the sutras gives His conclusion.

 

 

Sutra 4

 

 

na pratike na hi sah

 

     na—not; pratike—in the part; na—not; hi—indeed; sah—He.

 

 

     Not in the part. It is not He.

 

Purport by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     One should not think that the mind or other things that are only parts are identical with the Supreme Lord Himself. This is because the Supreme Lord is not identical with His parts. Rather, the Supreme Lord is the support and the resting place of the mind. In Shrimad-Bhagavatam (11.2.41) it is said:

 

 

kham vayum agnim salilam mahim ca

     jyotimshi sattvani disho drumadin

sarit-samudramsh ca hareh shariram

     yat kim ca bhutam pranamed ananyah

 

 

     "A devotee should not see anything as being separate from the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Krishna. Ether, fire, air, water, earth, the sun, and other luminaries, all living beings, the directions, trees and other plants, the rivers and oceans, and whatever a devotee experiences he should consider to be an expansion of Krishna. Thus seeing everything that exists within creation as the body of the Supreme Lord, Hari, the devotee should offer his sincere respects to the entire expansion of the ŤLord's body."***

 

     In this situation the nominative case should be understood to have the force of the locative. That is the conclusion here.

 

 

 

 

Adhikarana 4

The Impersonal Brahman

 

 

Introduction by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

 

     It has already been shown that one should think of the Supreme Personality of Godhead as the all-pervading Supersoul.

 

     Samshaya (doubt): Should one think of the Supreme Personality of Godhead as the impersonal Brahman, or should one not think of Him as the Brahman?

 

     Vishaya (the subject to be discussed): The descriptions of the impersonal Brahman are not like the descriptions of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

 

     Purvapaksha (the opponent speaks): The Supreme Personality of Godhead should not be considered identical with the impersonal Brahman, for it has already been confirmed that He is identical with the all-pervading Supersoul.

 

     Siddhanta (conclusion): In the following words the author of the sutras gives His conclusion.

 

 

Sutra 5

 

 

brahma-drishtir utkarshat

 

     brahma—of Brahman; drishtih—sight; utkarshat—because of being exalted.

 

 

     He is seen as impersonal Brahman, for He is most exalted.

 

Purport by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     As He is considered identical with the all-pervading Supersoul, so the Supreme Personality of Godhead should also be considered identical with the impersonal Brahman. Why is that? The sutra explains, "utkarshat" (for He is most exalted). This means "for He is the abode of limitless transcendental qualities". In the Brihad-aranyaka Upanishad (2.5.19) it is said:

 

 

ayam atma brahma sarvanubhutih

 

 

     "He is the all-knowing Supersoul and He is also the impersonal Brahman."

 

     This is also confirmed by the text that begins "atha kasmad ucyate brahma".

 

 

 

 

Adhikarana 5

The Creator of the Sun

 

 

Introduction by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     In the Purusha-sukta prayer (Rig Veda 10.90) it is said:

 

 

candrama manaso jatash

     cakshushah suryo 'jayata

shrotrad vayush ca pranash ca

     mukhad agnir ajayata

 

 

     "From His mind the moon was born. From His eye the sun was born. From His ear the wind and the life breath were born. From His mouth fire was born."

 

     Here the Supreme Lord's eyes and the other parts of His body are described as the causes of the sun and other parts of the world.

 

     Samshaya (doubt): Should they be thought of caused in this way or not?

 

     Purvapaksha (the opponent speaks): The Lord's eyes and the other parts of His body are said to be soft and delicate like lotus flowers and other soft things. That is why they cannot be the cause of things that are harsh, rough, and very powerful (like the sun).

 

     Siddhanta (conclusion): In the following words the author of the sutras gives His conclusion.

 

 

Sutra 6

 

 

adityadi-matayash canga upapatteh

 

     aditya—the sun; adi—beginning with; matayah—conception; ca—and; ange—in the limb; upapatteh—because of being reasonable.

 

 

     Also, the idea of the sun and other things is in the limb, for that is reasonable.

 

Purport by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     The word "ca" (also) is used here to begin the refutation of the opponent's argument. This kind of meditation on Lord Vishnu's eyes and the other parts of His body should be performed. Why is that? The sutra explains, "upapatteh" (for that is reasonable). This meditation is proper for it shows the Lord's greatness. It is by the Lord's greatness that His eyes Ťare the creator of the sun and the other parts of His body are the creators of other great things. In this way it the scriptures prove that the parts of the Lord's body are transcendental. They are not like anything in the material world.

 

 

 

 

Adhikarana 6

Asanas and Meditation

 

 

Introduction by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     In the Shvetashvatara Upanishad (2.8) it is said:

 

 

trir-unnatam sthapya samam shariram

     hridindriyani manasa sanniveshya

brahmodupena pratareta vidvan

     srotamsi sarvani bhayavahani

 

 

     "With the neck, head, and back straight, and with all powers of concentration, one should meditate on the Supreme Personality of Godhead staying in the heart as the Supersoul. Traveling in the boat of the Supreme Lord's mercy, the learned devotee crosses the raging fearful waters of the cycle of repeated birth and death."

 

     Samshaya (doubt): When meditating on the Lord is it compulsory that one adopt the asana (yoga sitting-posture) described here, or is it not compulsory?

 

     Purvapaksha (the opponent speaks): Meditation is performed in the mind. Therefore the adoption of a particular posture of the body is not compulsory.

 

     Siddhanta (conclusion): In the following words the author of the sutras gives His conclusion.

 

 

Sutra 7

 

 

asinah sambhavat

 

     asinah—sitting; sambhavat—because of possibility.

 

 

     Sitting, for then it is possible.

 

Purport by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     One should adopt an asana (yoga sitting-posture), and then meditate on the Lord. Why is that? The sutra explains, “sambhavat" (for then it is possible). When one is reclining, standing up, or walking, the mind is liable to be distracted and then meditation is not possible. In Shvetashvatara Upanishad (1.3) it is said:

 

 

te dhyana-yoganugata apashyan

 

 

     "Sitting in a yoga posture, and rapt in meditation, the sages gazed at the Supreme Personality of Godhead."

     In this way they who desire to meditate on the Lord are described. Therefore one should adopt the asana posture. Otherwise meditation is not possible.

 

 

Sutra 8

 

 

dhyanac ca

 

     dhyanat—because of meditation; ca—also.

 

 

     Also because of meditation.

 

Purport by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     Meditation is defined as thinking of one thing only and not thinking of anything else. This kind of thinking is not possible when one is reclining or in any posture but the yoga asana. Therefore one should sit in the yoga asana.

 

 

Sutra 9

 

 

acalatvam capekshya

 

     acalatvam—stillness; ca—and; apekshya—in relation to.

 

 

     Also because it is related to stillness.

 

Purport by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     The word "ca" (also) is used here for emphasis. In the Chandogya Upanishad the word "dhyana" (meditation) is used as a synonym of "stillness". There it is said (Chandogya Upanishad 7.6.1):

 

 

dhyayativa prithivi

 

 

     "The earth is still, as if it were rapt in meditation."

 

     This also hints that meditation should be performed when one is sitting in a yoga asana. Even in the mundane affairs of the world the word "dhyana" is used in this way, as in the sentence, "dhyayati kantam proshita-ramani" (the girl is still, rapt in meditation on her absent beloved).

 

 

Sutra 10

 

 

smaranti ca

 

     smaranti—the Smriti-shastra; ca—also.

 

 

     The Smriti-shastra also.

 

Purport by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

     In Bhagavad-gita (7.11-13), the Supreme Personality of Godhead explains:

 

 

shucau deshe pratishthapya

     sthiram asanam atmanah

naty-ucchritam nati-nicam

     cailajina-kushottaram

 

tatraikagram manah kritva

     yata-cittendriya-kriyah

upavishyasane yunjyat

     yogam atma-vishuddhaye

 

samam kaya-shiro-grivam

     dharayann acalam sthirah

samprekshya nasikagram svam

     dishash canavalokayan

 

 

     "To practice yoga, one should go to a secluded place and should lay kusha grass on the ground and then cover it with a deerskin and a soft cloth. The seat should be neither too high nor too low and should be situated in a sacred place. The yogi should then sit on it very firmly and practice yoga to purify the heart by controlling his mind, senses, and activities and fixing the mind on one point. One should hold one's body, head, and neck erect in a straight line and stare steadily at the tip of the nose."*

 

     In this way the Smriti-shastra explains that they who meditate should keep their bodies, senses, and minds still. Without adopting the yoga asana such stillness is not possible. Therefore a person engaged in meditation should adopt the yoga asana.

 

 

 

 

Adhikarana 7

The True Nature of Meditation

 

 

Introduction by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     Now another point will be considered in relation to Brihad-aranyaka Upanishad 4.5.6.

 

     Samshaya (doubt): In worshiping the Lord are there restrictions of direction, place, and time to be observed, or are there no such restrictions?

 

     Purvapaksha (the opponent speaks): In Vedic rituals there are such restrictions. Because worship of the Lord is also described in the Vedas, these restrictions must also apply to worship of the Lord.

 

     Siddhanta (conclusion): In the following words the author of the sutras gives His conclusion.

 

 

Sutra 11

 

 

yatraikagrata tatravisheshat

 

     yatra—where; ekagrata—single-pointed concentration; tatra—there; avisheshat—because of not being specific.

 

 

     Where is single-pointed concentration, there because nothing is specific.

 

Purport by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     This sutra means, "In whatever direction, place, or time (yatra) there is single-pointed concentration (ekagrata) of the mind, in that (tatra) direction, place, or time one should worship Lord Hari". The meaning here is that in the worship of the Lord there is no restriction of direction, place, or time. Why is that? The sutra explains, "avisheshat" (because there is nothing specific). This means, "because the scriptures give no specific instruction in this matter". In the Varaha Purana it is said:

 

 

tam eva desham seveta

     tam kalam tam avasthitim

tan eva bhogan seveta

     mano yatra prasidati

 

na hi deshadibhih kashcid

     visheshah samudiritah

manah-prasadanartham hi

     desha-kaladi-cintanam

 

     "One should seek a place, time, situation, and sensory environment where the mind becomes peaceful and cheerful. Other than that there is no specific instruction about place or environment. Place, time, situation, and sensory environment should be chosen to facilitate a peaceful and cheerful mind."

 

     Here someone may object: Is it not so that there are actually rules regarding the place of worship? For example, in the Shvetashvatara Upanishad (2.10) it is said:

 

 

same shucau sharkara-vahni-valuka-

     vivarjite shabda-jalashrayadibhih

mano-'nukule na tu cakshu-pidane

     guha-nivatashrayane niyojayet

 

 

     "One should practice yoga is a solitary place with level ground free from pebbles and stones, free from winds, clean and pure, pleasing to the mind, not unpleasing to the eyes, secluded, and far from noisy bathing places."

 

     Also, one should meditate in a holy place, for holy places bring liberation.

 

     If this is said, then I reply: Yes. It is true. Still, there may be an unfortunate situation where one is not able to take shelter of a holy place, although of course, if there is no such misfortune, one should stay in a holy place and worship the Lord there. Still, the final conclusion is given here in the words "mano-'nukule" (one should find a place that is pleasing to the mind).

 

 

 

 

Adhikarana 8

Devotional Service Continues After Liberation

 

 

Introduction by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     In the Prashna Upanishad (5.1) it is said:

 

 

sa yo haitad bhagavan manushyeshu prayanantam omkaram abhidhyayita

 

 

     "O master, what world is attained by a person who up to the end of his life continues to meditate on Om?"

 

     In the Nrisimha-tapani Upanishad (2.4) it is said:

 

 

yam sarve deva namanti mumukshavo brahma-vadinash ca

 

 

     "All who are demigods, all who are philosophers, and all who yearn to attain liberation worship the Supreme Personality of Godhead."

 

     In the Taittiriya Upanishad (3.10.5) it is said:

 

 

etat sama-gayann aste

 

 

     "They sit down and chant the Sama Veda to glorify Him."

 

     In the Rig Veda (1.22.20) it is said:

 

 

tad vishnoh paramam padam

     sada pashyanti surayah

 

 

     "The wise and learned devotees always see the supreme abode of Lord Vishnu."*

 

     In these verses it is said that devotional service both leads to liberation and also continues after liberation.

 

     Samshaya (doubt): Is devotional service performed only before liberation, or is it not?

 

     Purvapaksha (the opponent speaks): Because liberation is the goal to be attained by performing devotional service, therefore devotional service is performed only as long as one is not liberated.

 

     Siddhanta (conclusion): In the following words the author of the sutras gives His conclusion.

 

 

Sutra 12

 

aprayanat tatrapi hi drishtam

 

     a—until; prayanat—liberation; tatra—there; api—even; hi—indeed; drishtam—seen.

 

 

     Until liberation. Even there it is seen.

 

Purport by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     Devotional service should be performed both before and after liberation. Why is that? The sutra explains, "hi drishtam". That means, "because it is seen in the Shruti-shastra. In the Sauparna-shruti it is said:

 

 

sarvadainam upasita yavad vimuktih. mukta api hy enam upasate

 

 

     "Before attaining liberation the great souls always worship the Lord. After attaining liberation they continue to worship Him."

 

     In this way it is said that the Lord is worshiped in both circumstances.

 

     Here someone may object: The liberated souls do not worship the Lord. This is so because they have no goal to attain by such worship and because the scriptures do not order such worship.

 

     To this I reply: That is true. Still, even though there is no scriptural order to compel them, the liberated souls nevertheless worship the Lord because they are attracted by His  transcendental handsomeness. Also, a person who has jaundice eats sugar candy as medicine, but when he is cured he also continues to eat sugar. In the same way the liberated souls continue to worship the Lord. In this way it is proved that the great souls worship the Lord both before and after they attain liberation.

 

 

 

 

Adhikarana 9

Transcendental Knowledge Destroys Past Sins

 

 

Introduction by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     The way to attain transcendental knowledge having already been considered, now will be considered the results of that knowledge. In the Chandogya Upanishad (4.14.3) it is said:

 

 

yatha pushkara-palasha apo na shlishyante evam eva vidi papam karma na shlishyate

 

 

     "As water does not touch a lotus leaf, so sin does not touch a person situated in transcendental knowledge."

 

     In the Chandogya Upanishad (5.24.3) it is said:

 

 

tad yathaishika-tulam agnau protam praduyetaivam hasya sarve papmanah praduyante

 

 

     "As a blade if ishika grass is at once consumed by a fire, so are consumed the sins of a person situated in transcendental knowledge."

 

     Samshaya (doubt): Must one experience the results of past and present sinful deeds to become free from the karmic results, or are such results destroyed and non-existent for a person situated in transcendental knowledge?

 

     Purvapaksha (the opponent speaks): One cannot become free from karmic reactions in any way other than experiencing their results. This is described in the following words of the Smriti-shastra:

 

 

nabhuktam kshiyate karma

     kalpa-koti-shatair api

avashyam eva bhoktavyam

     kritam karma shubhashubham

 

 

     "Even after millions of kalpas one does not cannot become free from karmic reactions in any way other than experiencing their results. Therefore one must experience the results of good and evil deeds."

 

     This being so, all scriptural passages declaring otherwise should be understood to be merely empty flattery offered to they who are situated in transcendental knowledge.

 

     Siddhanta (conclusion): In the following words the author of the sutras gives His conclusion.

Sutra 13

 

 

tad-adhigama uttara-purvaghayor ashlesha-vinsashau tad-vyapadeshat

 

     tad-adhigame—in the knowldege of Him; uttara—after; purva—and before; aghayoh—of sins; ashlesha—not touching; vinsashau—destruction; tat—of that; vyapadeshat—because of the teaching.

 

 

     When knowledge of Him is attained, then there is destruction and not touching of past and present sins, for that is the teaching.

 

Purport by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     The word "tad-adhigamah" here means, "knowledge of the Supreme Personality of Godhead". When such knowledge is present, then a person is no longer touched by sinful reactions to present deeds, and all accumulated past karma is destroyed. Why is that? The sutra explains, "tad-vyapadeshat" (for that is the teaching). This teaching has already been shown in the two passages of Chandogya Upanishad quoted in the introduction to this adhikarana. No one has the power to refute the clear meaning of these two passages of Shruti-shastra. The passage declaring that one does not become free from karmic reactions in any way other than experiencing their results is meant to refer only to persons not situated in transcendental knowledge.

 

 

 

 

Adhikarana 10

Transcendental Knowledge Destroys Past Pious Karmic Reactions

 

 

 

Introduction by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     In Brihad-aranyaka Upanishad (4.4.22) it is said:

 

 

ubhe u haivaisha ete taraty amritah sadhv-asadhuni

 

 

     "He crosses beyond all karmic reactions, both good and evil, and he becomes immortal."

 

     In this way it is said that he crosses beyond the karmic reactions to both sins and pious deeds.

 

     Samshaya (doubt): Do the reactions of past pious deeds meet the same fate as the reactions of past sins, that is, are the past pious deeds destroyed and the present pious deeds unable to touch the person performing them, or is this not so?

 

     Purvapaksha (the opponent speaks): This is not the fate of past and present pious deeds, for such deeds are not performed in disobedience to the teachings of the Vedas. Therefore one does not become free from karmic reactions to such deeds in any way other than by experiencing their results. Therefore it is not right to say that a person situated in transcendental knowledge can attain liberation as long as the obstacle of past good karma is still present.

 

     Siddhanta (conclusion): In the following words the author of the sutras gives His conclusion.

 

 

Sutra 14

 

 

itarasyapy evam ashleshah pate tu

 

     itarasya—of another; api—also; evam—thus; ashleshah—not touching; pate—in destruction; tu—indeed.

 

 

     Indeed, when it is destroyed the other ceases to touch.

 

Purport by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     This sutra means that when transcendental knowledge is present, then the other (itarasya), which here means the past and present karmic reactions of pious deeds, is destroyed and ceases to touch. Thus happens in the same way it happens to past and present sinful reactions. It is not that because they are prescribed by the Vedas, material pious deeds do not obstruct transcendental knowledge. The result brought by material pious deeds is an obstacle impeding the result brought by Ťtranscendental knowledge. In truth, material pious deeds are not pure and spiritual. In the Chandogya Upanishad (8.4.1) it is said:

 

 

sarve papmano 'to nivartante

 

 

     "All sins are then destroyed."

 

     In this context the word "sins" is used to include material pious deeds also. In Bhagavad-gta (4.37) the Supreme Personality of Godhead affirms:

 

 

yathaidhamsi samiddho 'gnih. . .

 

 

     "As a blazing fire turns firewood to ashes, O Arjuna, so does the fire of knowledge burn to ashes all reactions to material activities."*

 

     In this verse the destruction of karmic reactions is described. In these general worlds all karmic reactions, past and present, sinful and pious, are included. The author of the sutras describes this here in the words "pate tu" (indeed, when it is destroyed). The word "tu" (indeed) is used for emphasis. In this way there is nothing wrong with the statement that liberation is attained when one's karmic reactions are destroyed.

 

 

 

 

Adhikarana 11

Arabdha-phala and Anarabdha-phala Karmic Reactions

 

 

Introduction by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     Here someone may object: If transcendental knowledge causes the destruction of all past pious and sinful karmic reactions, then it would automatically bring with it (the liberation of the soul, and with that) the sudden death of the material body. This clearly does not happen, and therefore what has been said about transcendental knowledge cannot be true.

 

     The author of the sutras now begins this adhikarana to refute this objection. Past pious and sinful karmic reactions are of two kinds: 1. anarabdha-phala (where the reactions have not yet begun to manifest), and 2. arabdha-phala (where the reactions have begun to manifest).

 

     Samshaya (doubt): Does transcendental knowledge destroy both kinds of past karmic reactions, or does it destroy only the anarabdha-phala karmic reactions?

 

     Purvapaksha (the opponent speaks): In the passage from Brihad-aranyaka Upanishad (4.4.22) quoted in the beginning of adhikarana 10, it is clearly said that both kinds of karmic reactions are destroyed. In this way it is clear that transcendental knowledge completely destroys both kinds of karmic reactions.

 

     Siddhanta (conclusion): In the following words the author of the sutras gives His conclusion.

 

 

Sutra 15

 

 

anarabdha-karye eva tu purve tad avadheh

 

     anarabdha—not begun; karye—effect; eva—indeed; tu—but; purve—previous; tat—that; avadheh—of the duration of time.

 

 

     But only anarabdha-phala karmic reactions, for that is the time limit.

 

Purport by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     The word "tu" (but) is used here to dispel doubt. Only the anarabdha-phala past pious and sinful karmic reactions, reactions that have not yet begun to bear fruit, are destroyed by transcendental knowledge. The arabdha-phala karmic reactions, which have already begun to bear fruit, are not destroyed in that way. Why is that? The sutra explains, "tad-avadheh" (for that is the time limit). In Chandogya Upanishad (6.14.2) it is Ťsaid:

 

 

tasya tavad eva ciram yavan na vimokshye

 

 

     "One cannot attain liberation as long as his past karmic reactions persist."

 

     In Shrimad-Bhagavatam (10.87.40) the personified Vedas pray to the Supreme Personality of Godhead:

 

 

tvad-avagami na vetti bhavad-uttha-shubhashubhayoh

     guna-vigunanvayams tarhi deha-bhritam ca girah

 

 

     "When a person realizes You, he no longer cares about His good and bad fortune arising from past pious and sinful acts, since it is You alone who control this good and bad fortune. Such a realized devotee also disregards what ordinary living beings say about him."***

 

     In this way the scriptures explain that, by the Supreme Lord's will, the living entity remains in his material body until his arabdha-phala karmic reactions are destroyed. Transcendental knowledge is very powerful. It can at once burn away all past karmic reactions, leaving behind no remainder. In this it is like a blazing fire that at once burns up any kind of fuel that may be supplied.

     Although these statements of scripture should be accepted, still it is seen that many great sages, wise with transcendental knowledge, still remain living within material bodies. In that situation it should be accepted that, by the will of the Lord, these sages stay in this world, their arabdha-phala karmic reactions not yet exhausted, for the purpose of teaching the truth of spiritual life to the others. As a jewel or other impediment may stop the burning of a fire, so transcendental knowledge's power to burn away all karmic reactions may be stopped in certain circumstances like this.

 

     Here someone may object: Without taking shelter of a series of past karmic reactions, transcendental knowledge does not become manifested. Those karmic reactions may be compared to a potter's wheel. As, once begun to spin, the potter's wheel gradually stops of its own accord, so past karmic reactions gradually come to a stop.

 

     To this objection I reply: No. It is not so. Transcendental knowledge is very powerful. It can at once uproot all karmic reactions. It is only the will of the Supreme Lord that stops transcendental knowledge. When a heavier stone is placed on a spinning potters wheel, the wheel comes to an abrupt halt. (Transcendental knowledge stops all karmic reactions in a way like that.) Therefore what was said in the beginning about transcendental knowledge is right and true.

 

 

 

 

Adhikarana 12

Regular Duties and Karmic Reactions

 

 

Introduction by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     Here someone may say: It has been said that transcendental knowledge destroys all past pious karmic reactions. Therefore transcendental knowledge destroys all kamya-karma (reactions to pious deeds performed to attain specific desires) as well as all nitya-karmas (karmic reactions to regular pious duties).

 

     To refute this idea the present adhikarana is begun.

 

     Samshaya (doubt): Brihad-aranyaka Upanishad (4.4.22) explains that transcendental knowledge destroys all past pious and sinful karmic reactions. Does this mean that, as kamya-karma reactions are destroyed by transcendental knowledge, the reactions to nitya-karma activities, such as the performances of agnihotra-yajnas, are also destroyed in the same way, or are they not also destroyed?

 

     Purvapaksha (the opponent speaks): It is the nature of transcendental knowledge to destroy all karmic reactions. Because it cannot abandon its own nature, transcendental knowledge must destroy the reactions of nitya-karmas also.

 

     Siddhanta (conclusion): In the following words the author of the sutras gives His conclusion.

 

 

Sutra 16

 

 

agnihotradi tu tat karyayaiva tad-darshanat

 

     agnihotra—agnihotra-yajnas; adi—beginning with; tu—but; tat—that; karyaya—for an effect; eva—indeed; tat—that; darshanat—because of revelation.

 

 

     But agnihotra-yajnas and other rituals have that as their effect, for that is the revelation.

 

Purport by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     The word "tu" (but) is used here to dispel doubt. Performed before transcendental knowledge is manifested, the daily agnihotra-yajna and other nitya-karmas have the manifestation of transcendental as their karmic reaction. Why is that? The sutra explains, "tad-darshanat" (for that is the revelation). In the Brihad-aranyaka Upanishad (4.4.22) it is said:

 

 

tam etam vedanuvacanena

 

     "By studying the Vedas they come to understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead."

 

     This means that transcendental knowledge (is the karmic result of nitya-karmas, such as study of the Vedas). Transcendental knowledge, then, destroys all past pious karmic reactions except for those of nitya-karma duties, such as the performance of daily agnihotra-yajnas. That is the meaning of the sutra.

     Transcendental knowledge does not destroy the karmic reactions of nitya-karma duties for the attainment of transcendental knowledge is itself the karmic reaction these duties produce. When a house is set afire some seeds within it may become heated but not destroyed. Such grains can never be sown, for they will never sprout into plants. In the same way the reactions to nitya-karma activities are not destroyed (although they will not sprout into future material bondage). In the Brihad-aranyaka Upanishad it is said:

 

 

karmana pitrilokah

 

 

     "By performing nitya-karma duties one goes to Pitriloka."

 

     This shows that sometimes nitya-karma duties bring the attainment of Svargaloka as their karmic reaction. These reactions all become destroyed.

 

 

 

 

Adhikarana 13

Some Fine Points of Karmic Reactions

 

 

Introduction by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     It has been shown that by the Lord's will the arabdha-phala pious and sinful karmic reactions of they who are enlightened with transcendental knowledge remain and are not destroyed. The Lord does this so the enlightened souls may stay in the material world for some time and teach the spiritual truth to the people in general. Now it will be shown that for some nirapeksha devotees the Lord at once destroys their arabhda-phala karmic reactions. Thus these devotees do not have experience these karmic reactions. In the Kashitaki Upanishad (1.4) it is said:

 

 

tat-sukrita-dushkrite vidhunute tasya priya jnatayah sukritam upayanty apriya duskritam

 

 

     "His pious and sinful karmic reactions are removed. His pious reactions are given to his friends and kinsmen. His sinful reactions are given to his enemies."

 

     In the Shatyayani-shastra it is said:

 

 

tasya putra dayam upayanti suhridah sadhu-krityam dvishantah papa-krityam.

 

 

     "His children claim their inheritance, and his friends claim the reactions of his pious deeds. His enemies must take the reactions of his sins."

 

     Samshaya (doubt): Are the arabdha-phala karmic reactions sometimes destroyed without the person having to experience their results, or is this never so?

 

     Purvapaksha (the opponent speaks): Without experiencing them, arabdha-phala karmic reactions are never destroyed.

 

     Siddhanta (conclusion): In the following words the author of the sutras gives His conclusion.

 

 

Sutra 17

 

 

ato 'nyapi hy ekesham ubhayoh

 

     atah—then; anya—another; api—also; hi—indeed; ekesham—of some; ubhayoh—of both.

 

 

     Therefore there is another also. Of some there is both.

 

Purport by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

     For some nirapeksha devotees who are very ardently devoted to the Lord, their pious and sinful arabdha-phala karmic reactions are removed without their having to experience the results. The reason for this is given in the word "anya" (there is another also). This means, "there is another scriptural quote, a quote revealing that by the Supreme Lord's will arabdha-phala karmic reactions are sometimes also destroyed". The other scriptural quote is the passage from Kaushitiki Upanishad previously quoted, and the passage from the Shatyayana-shastra also.

     This is the meaning: In one place the scriptures say that arabdha-phala karmic reactions are destroyed only when the person experiences them, and in another place the scriptures say that transcendental knowledge can destroy arabdha-phala karmic reactions. If these two statements are not to be thought of as contradicting each other, they must be considered to apply to different circumstances. These scriptural statements do not apply to kamya-karma activities, for sutras 13 and 14 stated that all pious and sinful karmic reactions are destroyed, and because sins are by definition not kamya-karma activities.

     Therefore, for some very dear devotees, who ardently yearn to see the Lord and who are no longer able to bear separation from Him, the Supreme Lord takes away their arabdha-phala karmic reactions, and distributes them to those persons who are close to those devotees. This will be further described in another adhikarana. Thus the devotee's arabdha-phala karmic reactions are experience by these people. In this way the rule the Lord has decreed for arabdha-phala karmic reactions is maintained.

 

     Here someone may object: Karmic reactions are formless, and therefore it is not logical to say that they can be given to others as if they were tangible objects.

 

     If this is said, then I reply: That is not true. Because He is all-powerful, the Supreme Lord can do anything He wishes, even if what He does is different from what you think is logical. Therefore the Supreme Personality of Godhead can remove the arabdha-phala karmic reactions of some great devotees who ardently yearn to see Him.

     In the next sutra the author refutes the claim that the karmic reactions of one person cannot be given to another.

 

 

Sutra 18

 

 

yad eva vidyayeti hi

 

     yad eva vidyaya iti—Chandogya Upanishad 1.1.10; hi—because.

 

 

     Because of Chandogya Upanishad 1.1.10.

Purport by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     Chandogya Upanishad 1.1.10 shows the power of transcendental knowledge, even when it is only knowledge of the individual spirit soul. The word "hi" in this sutra means "because". This means that because transcendental knowledge cannot be stopped by any obstacle, and because the Supreme Personality of Godhead in these circumstances gives His own mercy, sometimes the living entity does not have to experience his arabdha-phala karmic reactions. No one should be surprised at this.

 

     What happens then? The author of the sutras gives the following explanation.

 

 

Sutra 19

 

 

bhogena tv itare kshapayitvatha sampadyate

 

     bhogena—by enjoyment; tu—indeed; itare—the other; kshapayitva—leaving; atha—then; sampadyate—obtains.

 

 

     Renouncing the two others, he enjoys.

 

Purport by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     This sutra means, "leaving behind the gross and subtle material bodies (the two others), and attaining the body of a personal associate of the Lord, the liberated devotee enjoys transcendental bliss". This is described in the following words of Taittiriya Upanishad (2.1.1):

 

 

so 'shnute sarvan kaman

 

 

     "Then he enjoys the fulfillment of all his desires."

 

     That is the meaning of the sutra's word “sampadyate" (he enjoys transcendental bliss).

 

 

 

 

Pada 2

 

 

Invocation

 

 

mantrad yasya para bhutah

     para bhutadayo grahah

nashyanti sva-lasat-trishnah

     sa krishnah sharanam mama

 

 

     May Lord Krishna, who is radiant with the thirst to be re-united with His devotees, and whose mantras exorcise the ghosts and demons of repeated birth in the material world of five elements, be my shelter.

 

 

Adhikarana 1

The Time of Death

 

 

Introduction by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     In the next pada will be described the way the soul travels to the world of the demigods. In this pada will be described the way a person enlightened with transcendental knowledge leaves his material body. In the Chandogya Upanishad (6.8.6) it is said:

 

 

asya saumya-purushasya prayato van-manasi sampadyate manah prane pranas tejasi tejah parasyam devatayam

 

 

     "When a good person leaves his material body, the voice enters the mind, the mind enters the life-air, the life-air enters the element fire, and the element fire enters the Supreme Personality of Godhead."

 

     Samshaya (doubt): Does the voice itself enter, or do only the activities of the voice enter?

 

     Purvapaksha (the opponent speaks): Because the nature of the mind is not like the nature of the voice, and because the voice and other parts of the body are subordinate to the mind, therefore it is only the activities of the voice that enter.

 

     Siddhanta (conclusion): In the following words the author of the sutras gives His conclusion.

 

 

Sutra 1

 

 

van manasi darshanac chabdac ca

 

     vak—voice; manasi—in the mind; darshanat—because of sight; shabdat—because of sound; ca—also.

 

 

     Because of what is seen and heard, voice enters mind.

 

Purport by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     Voice itself enters the mind. Why is that? The sutra explains, "darshanat" (because of what is seen). This means that even when the external voice is silent, it is seen that the voice is still active in the mind. The sutra also explains, "shabdat" (because of what is heard). In the scriptures (Chandogya Upanishad) it is heard:

 

 

van manasi sampadyate

 

 

     "The voice enters the mind."

 

     Any other interpretation would do violence to the clear meaning of this quote. No evidence actually supports the idea that only the activity of the voice enters the mind.

 

     Here someone may object: Because mind does not possess the nature of the voice, voice itself cannot have entered the mind. It is only the activities of one thing that can enter another thing dissimilar in nature. An example of this is the activities of fire, which can thus enter water. This is so, for it is clearly seen.

 

     If this is said, then I reply: Voice and mind meet. They do not join together and become one. The meaning is that even though their natures are different, the two of them actually do meet.

 

 

Sutra 2

 

 

ata eva sarvany anu

 

     atah eva—therefore; sarvani—all; anu—following.

 

 

     Therefore they all follow.

 

Purport by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     Here someone may object: The voice may enter the mind, but the mind does not enter the element fire.

 

     If this objection is raised, the sutra gives the following reply, "sarvani" (all). This means, "the sense of hearing and all the other senses also enter". The word “anu" here means, "they all enter, following behind the voice". In the Prashna Upanishad (3.9) it is said:

 

 

tasmad upashanta-tejah punar-bhavam indriyair manasi sampadyamanair yac cittas tenaisha prana ayati

 

 

     "When the fire of life is extinguished, the senses enter the mind, and the soul again takes birth. Accompanied by that mind, the soul is born again."

 

     In the Prashna Upanishad (4.2) it is said:

 

 

yatha gargya maricayo 'stam gacchato 'rkasya sarva etasmims tejo-mandale eki-bhavati tah punar udayatah pracaranty evam ha vai tat sarvam pare deve manasy eki-bhavati

 

 

     "O Gargya, as the rays of sunlight enter the setting sun only again to emerge from the rising sun, in the same way the senses enter their deity, the mind."

 

 

 

 

Adhikarana 2

The Mind Enters the Breath

 

 

Introduction by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     Now the passage of Chandogya Upanishad (6.8.6) quoted in the beginning of adhikarana 1 will be again considered.

 

     Samshaya (doubt): Does this passage mean to say that the mind enters the life-breath, or that it enters the realm of the moon?

 

     Purvapaksha (the opponent speaks): Brihad-aranyaka Upanishad (3.2.13) declares:

 

 

manash candram

 

 

     "The mind enters the moon."

 

     Therefore the mind enters the moon.

 

     Siddhanta (conclusion): in the following words the author of the sutras gives His conclusion.

 

 

Sutra 3

 

 

tan manah prana uttarat

 

     tat—that; manah—mind; prane—in the life-breath; uttarat—then.

 

 

     Then the mind enters the life-breath, because of what follows.

 

Purport by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     The words "tan manah prane" mean, “accompanied by all the senses, the mind enters the life-breath". Why is that? Because of the statement that follows (uttarat).

 

     Here someone may object: This cannot be, for Brihad-aranyaka Upanishad 3.2.13 affirms that the mind enters the moon.

 

     The author of the sutras replies to this objection in sutra 3.1.4.

 

 

 

 

Adhikarana 3

The Life-Breath Enters the Individual Soul

 

 

Introduction by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     Now will be considered the following words of Chandogya Upanishad (6.6.1):

 

 

pranas tejasi

 

 

     "The life-breath enters fire."

 

     Samshaya (doubt): Does the life-breath, which is by then accompanied by the mind and the senses, enter the element fire, or does it enter the individual spirit soul (jiva)?

 

     Purvapaksha (the opponent speaks): Chandogya Upanishad (6.6.1) says that the life breath enters the element fire, therefore the life-breath enters the element fire.

 

     Siddhanta (conclusion): In the following words the author of the sutras gives His conclusion.

 

 

Sutra 4

 

 

so 'dhyakshe tad-upagamadibhyah

 

     sah—it; adhyakshe—to the master; tat—that; upagama—approaching; adibhyah—beginning with.

 

 

     That in the master because of the scriptural statements that begin with the descriptions of approaching it.

 

Purport by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     The word "sah" (that) here means "the life-breath", and the word adhyakshe" (in the master) here means, "in the individual spirit soul, who is the master of the body and senses". Thus the life breath enters the individual spirit soul. Why is that? The sutra explains, "tad-upagamadibhyah" (because of the scriptural statements that begin with the descriptions of approaching it). In the Brihad-aranyaka Upanishad (4.3.38) it is said:

 

 

tad yatha rajanam prayiyasantam ugrah praty enasah suta gramanya upasamiyanty evam haivam vidam sarve prana upasamiyanti. yatraitad urdhvocchvasi bhavati.

 

 

     "As bodyguards. warriors, charioteers, and generals gather around a king who is about to depart on a great march, so do all the senses and life-breaths gather around the soul who is Ťabout to leave its material body."

 

     In this way the Shruti-shastra explains that the life-breath and the senses enters the individual spirit soul. This statement does not contradict the other statement of the Shruti-shastra that the life-breath enters the element fire, for it may be said that after the life-breath enters the soul the two of them proceed to enter the element fire. This is like saying that the Yamuna, joining with the Ganges, proceeds to enter the ocean.

 

 

 

 

Adhikarana 4

The Individual Spirit Soul Enters the Combined Elements

 

 

Introduction by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     Now will be considered the statement that the individual spirit soul enters the element fire.

 

     Samshaya (doubt): Do the individual spirit soul and the life-breath enter the element fire, or do they enter all the elements combined?

 

     Purvapaksha (the opponent speaks): The Shruti-shastra says that the life-breath enters the element fire, therefore the life-breath enters the element fire.

 

     Siddhanta (conclusion): In the following words the author of the sutras gives His conclusion.

 

 

Sutra 5

 

 

bhuteshu tac chruteh

 

     bhuteshu—in all the elements; tat—that; shruteh—because of the Shruti-shastra.

 

 

     In all the elements, because of the Shruti-shastra.

 

Purport by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     The individual spirit soul enters all the five elements. It does not enter the fire element only. Why is that? In Brihad-aranyaka Upanishad (4.4.5) it is said:

 

 

jivasyakashamayo vayumayas tejomaya apomayah prithivimayah

 

 

     "The individual spirit soul enters the elements ether, air, fire, water, and earth."

 

     In this way the Shruti-shastra affirms that the individual spirit soul enters all the material elements. A further explanation is given in the next sutra.

 

 

Sutra 6

 

 

naikasmin darshayato hi

 

     na—not; ekasmin—in one; darshayatah—they both reveal; hi—because.

 

 

     Because they both say it is not in one.

 

Purport by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     It should not be considered that the individual spirit soul enters into one element, into fire. The word "hi" here means "because". This means, "because this was described in the questions and answers in Chandogya Upanishad Chapter 5, Parts 3-10.

    

 

 

 

Adhikarana 5

The Departure of the Enlightened Soul

 

 

Introduction by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     Now will be considered a doubt that may arise concerning Chandogya Upanishad 6.8.6.

 

     Samshaya (doubt): Does this passage describe the departure from the material body of the soul enlightened with transcendental knowledge, or the soul that is not enlightened?

 

     Purvapaksha (the opponent speaks): In Brihad-aranyaka Upanishad (4.4.7) it is said:

 

 

yada sarve pramucyante

     kama ye 'sya hridi sthitah

atha martyo 'mrito bhavaty

     atra brahma samashnute

 

 

     "When his heart is free of all material desires, the mortal becomes immortal. Then he enjoys spiritual life, even in this world."

 

     There word "atra" (here in this world) means that the enlightened soul need not leave the material world. Even in this world he enjoys the bliss of spiritual life.

 

     Siddhanta (conclusion): In the following words the author of the sutras gives His conclusion.

 

 

Sutra 7

 

 

samana cashrity-upakramad amritatvam canuposhya

 

     samana—equal; ca—also; ashriti-upakramat—at the beginning; amritatvam—immortality; ca—and; anuposhya—not burning.

 

 

     Indeed, in the beginning they are the same. Also, immortality is without burning.

 

Purport by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     The first "ca" means "indeed". In the beginning, the enlightened soul and the unenlightened soul depart from the material body in the4 sa,e way. However, when they reach the nadis (subtle pathways emanating from the heart), their paths diverge. The enlightened soul passes through one of the hundred nadis, but the enlightened soul passes through a different nadi. This is described in Chandogya Upanishad (8.6.6):

 

shatam caika ca hridayasya nadyas tasam murdhanam abhinihshritaika. tayordhvam ayann amritatvam eti vishvag anya utkramane bhavanti.

 

 

     "101 nadis lead away from the heart. One passes through the head and leads to immortality. They others lead to a variety of destinations."

 

     This is also described in Brihad-aranyaka Upanishad (4.4.2). The soul endowed with transcendental knowledge departs from the material body through the passage passing through the top of the head. The unenlightened souls depart through the other passages. The scriptural statement (Brihad-aranyaka Upanishad 4.4.7) explaining that the enlightened soul enjoys spiritual life even in this world means that such a soul no longer produces any karmic reactions even though his connection with the material body is not yet burned away.

 

 

Sutra 8

 

 

tad apiteh samsara-vyapadeshat

 

     tat—that; apiteh—until; samsara—of the world of birth and death; vyapadeshat—because of the teaching.

 

 

     That is so, for it is taught that until then there is the world of birth and death.

 

Purport by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     This describes the immortality of an enlightened soul who is free from sin even though his connection to a material body is not yet burned away. How is that? The sutra explains, "apiteh" (until then). Until he attains the direct association of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the individual spirit soul still has a relationship with a material body, and thus he remains in the world of repeated birth and death. The direction association of the Supreme Personality of Godhead is attained when the soul travels to the world of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. That is the conclusion of the Vedas.

 

 

Sutra 9

 

 

sukshma-pramanatash ca tathopalabdheh

 

     sukshma—subtle; pramanatah—from the source of knowledge; ca—also; tatha—so; upalabdheh—because of being seen.

 

 

     The subtle, because of authority and direct perception.

 

Purport by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     In this contact the relationship of the enlightened soul with the material body is not yet burned away. This is because the subtle (sukshma) material body still persists. How is that Ťknown? The sutra explains, "pramanatah" (because of authority). Even when he travels to the worlds of the demigods, the enlightened soul retains relationship with a subtle material body, as is seen in the words of the moon-god in Kaushitaki Upanishad (1.3). Therefore in the previous passage of Brihad-aranyaka Upanishad (4.4.7) the "immortality" described is one where the relationship between the soul and the material body is not yet burned away.

 

 

Sutra 10

 

 

nopamardenatah

 

     na—not; upamardena—by destruction; atah—therefore.

 

 

     Therefore it is not by destruction.

 

Purport by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     Brihad-aranyaka Upanishad 4.4.7 does not describe the kind of immortality where the relationship of the individual spirit soul and the material body is destroyed.

 

 

Sutra 11

 

 

tasyaiva copapatter ushma

 

     tasya—of that; eva—indeed; ca—also; upapatteh—because of being possible; ushma—heat.

 

 

     It has warmth, for that is reasonable.

 

Purport by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     The warmth that touches the gross material body while it is alive is manifested from the subtle material body, not the gross body. Why is that? The sutra explains, "upapatteh" (for that is reasonable). When it is alive the gross body is warm, and when it is dead, the gross body is not warm. From this it can be seen that the warmth in the gross body comes from the subtle body.

     The word "ca" (also) here shows another reason also. When he leaves the gross body, the enlightened soul also takes the heat-producing subtle body with him.

 

     Next, fearing that another doubt will be raised, the author of the sutras speaks the following words:

 

 

Sutra 12

 

 

pratishedhad iti cen na sharirat

 

     pratishedhat—because of denial; iti—thus; cet—if; na—not; sharirat—from the resident of the body.

 

     If someone says that it is denied, then I reply: No. It is not so. Because of the resident of the body.

 

Purport by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     Here someone may object: The enlightened soul does not leave the gross material body. This is corroborated by the following words of Brihad-aranyaka Upanishad (4.4.6):

 

 

athakamayamano yo 'kamo nishkama apta-kamo na tasya prana utkramanti brahmaiva san brahmatyeti

 

 

     "One who does not desire, who has no material desires, and whose desires are all fulfilled, his life-breaths do not leave. He is spirit. He goes to the spirit."

 

     In this way the scriptures deny (pratishedhat) that the enlightened soul leaves his material body.

 

     If (cet) this objection is raised, then the author of the sutras replies, "No" (na). This means that the text of the Upanishad does not specifically say that the life-breath leaves the body. The meaning of this text is that the life-breath does not leave the individual spirit soul. After all, it is clearly seen that even enlightened souls leave their material bodies.

 

 

Sutra 13

 

 

spashto hy ekesham

 

     spashtah—clear; hi—because; ekesham—of some.

 

 

     Because it is clear in some.

 

Purport by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     In this passage of Brihad-aranyaka Upanishad (4.4.6) there is no room for controversy. This is so because (hi) in some (ekesham) recensions of the Vedas, namely the Madhyandina recension, is seen a clear (spashtah) denial of the idea that the life-breath does not leave the material body. This same passage in the Madhyandina recension reads:

 

 

na tasmat prana utkramanti. atravaiva samavaliyante brahmaiva san brahmatyeti.

 

 

     "The life-breaths do not leave him (the soul). They enter there. He is spirit. He goes to the spirit."

 

     The word "atra" (there) clearly shows that the life-breaths enter the spirit soul.

 

     To this the objector may reply: In the Kanva recension, in ŤYajnavalkya's answer to Artabhaga's question, it is clearly seen that the life-breaths of the soul enlightened with transcendental knowledge do not leave the material body.

 

     To this objection I reply: This passage describes a special case, where the enlightened soul is very distressed in separation from the Supreme Lord.

 

     The impersonalists claim that this passage describes a person who thinks he is one with the impersonal Brahman. They say that for him the life-breaths do not leave the material body.

 

     To this I reply: This is fool's idea. No words in the text support this interpretation. At any rate, the impersonalist idea has already been clearly refuted.

 

 

Sutra 14

 

 

smaryate ca

 

     smaryate—in the Smriti-shastras; ca—also.

 

 

     In the Smriti-shastras also.

 

Purport by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     In the Yajnavalkya-smriti (3.167) it is said:

 

 

urdhvam ekah sthitas tesham

     yo bhittva surya-mandalam

brahmalokam atikramya

     tena yati param gatim

 

 

     "Among all of them, one great soul travels upward. He breaks through the circle of the sun. He passes beyond the planet of Brahma. He enters the supreme destination."

 

     In the Shruti-shastra also it is said that the enlightened soul passes through the nadi at the top of the head and thus leaves the material body. In this way it is proved that the enlightened soul certainly does leave his material body.

 

 

 

 

Adhikarana 6

The Senses Enter the Supreme

 

 

Introduction by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     That the individual spirit soul, accompanied by the life-breath and the senses, enters the element fire and the other subtle elements at the time of death has already been proved, and the fallacious idea that the soul enlightened with transcendental knowledge does not also depart from his body in this same way has been dispelled. Now the following will be considered.

 

     Samshaya (doubt): Do the enlightened soul's voice and other working senses, life-breath, and elements of the gross and subtle material bodies enter into the material features that are their direct causes, or do they enter into the Supreme Personality of Godhead?

 

     Purvapaksha (the opponent speaks): They enter into their direct causes. This is described in Brihad-aranyaka Upanishad 3.2.13.

 

     Siddhanta (conclusion): In the following words the author of the sutras gives His conclusion.

 

 

Sutra 15

 

 

tani pare tatha hy aha

 

     tani—they; pare—in the Supreme; tatha—so; hi—because; aha—says.

 

 

     They in the Supreme, for thus it says.

 

Purport by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     In the Chandogya Upanishad (6.8.6) it is said:

 

 

tejah parasyam

 

 

     "Fire enters the Supreme."

 

     In this way it is established that the "tejah", which here includes the voice and other senses, the life-breath, and the bodily elements, enters the Supreme Personality of Godhead. This is so because the Supreme is the cause and the resting-place of all. Why is that? The sutra explains, “tatha hy aha", which means "because the Shruti-shastra affirms that it is so". This is confirmed in the Chandogya Upanishad (6.8.6):

 

tejah parasyam devatayam

 

 

     "Fire enters the Supreme Personality of Godhead."

 

     Brihad-aranyaka Upanishad 3.2.3 should be interpreted metaphorically. This has already been explained (in sutra 3.1.4).

 

 

 

 

Adhikarana 7

The Nature of the Senses' Entrance in the Supreme

 

 

Introduction by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     Now another consideration will be examined.

 

     Samshaya (doubt): When the enlightened soul's life-breath, voice, mind, and other senses enter the Supreme Personality of Godhead do they merely enter or do they become one with Supreme Personality of Godhead, as is explained in Mundaka Upanishad 3.2.8)?

 

     Purvapaksha (the opponent speaks): Because of the previous statements and because there is no specific statement otherwise, it should be held that they merely enter.

 

     Siddhanta (conclusion): In the following words the author of the sutras gives His conclusion.

 

 

Sutra 16

 

 

avibhago vacanat

 

     avibhagah—not divided; vacanat—because of the statement.

 

 

     There is no division, for that is said.

 

Purport by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     The life-breath and other features of the material body merge into and become one with the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the master of inconceivable potencies. Why is that? The sutra explains, "vacanat" (for that is said). In the Prashna Upanishad (6.5) it is said:

 

 

evam evasya paridrashtur imah shodasha-kalah purushayanah purusham prapyas tam gacchanti

 

 

     "As rivers merge into the ocean, so do the sixteen elements of the material body merge into the Supreme Personality of Godhead."

 

     After thus explaining that the life-breath and the other elements of the material body merge into the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the Upanishad continues:

 

 

bhidyete casam nama-rupe purusha ity evam procyate sa esho 'mrito bhavati

 

 

     "The elements of the body then lose their names and Ťforms. They are said to become one with the Supreme. When this happens to the elements of his material body, the individual spirit soul becomes immortal."

 

     Thus the elements of the material body lose their names and forms. This is the meaning: When he leaves the gross material body, the soul enlightened with transcendental knowledge is followed by the now greatly weakened subtle material body. When the soul finally leaves the egg of the material universe behind, the subtle body merges into the eighth covering of the universal shell. Now completely pure and free from any touch of matter, the soul attains a spiritual body and then gains the association of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

 

 

 

 

Adhikarana 8

The Hundred-and-first Nadi

 

 

Introduction by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     Now will begin a discussion to show one specific aspect of the enlightened soul's departure from the material body. In Chandogya Upanishad (8.6.6) as well as in Katha Upanishad (7.6) it is said that the unenlightened souls depart from the material body by the path of the hundred nadis and the enlightened soul departs by another nadi.

 

     Samshaya (doubt): Is this description correct or is it not?

 

     Purvapaksha (the opponent speaks): Because the nadis are both very numerous and very fine it is not possible for the spirit soul to distinguish them one from another. Therefore this description is not correct. The scriptures explain:

 

 

tayordhvam ayann amritatvam eti

 

 

     "Going upwards, he attains immortality."

 

     Therefore (going upwards is the important factor) and it is not important which nadi the soul enters at the moment of leaving the material body.

 

     Siddhanta (conclusion): In the following words the author of the sutras gives His conclusion.

 

 

Sutra 17

 

 

tad-oko-'gra-jvalanam tat-prakashita-dvaro vidya-samarthyat tac-chesha-gaty-anusmriti-yogac ca hardanugrihitah shatadhikaya

 

     tat—of him; okah—the home; agra—the point; jvalanam—illumination; tat—by Him; prakashita—revealed; dvarah—the door; vidya—of transcendental knowledge; samarthyat—by the power; tat—that; shesha—remainder; gati—path; anusmriti—memory; yogat—by the touch; ca—and; harda—He who resides in the heart; anugrihitah—being the object of mercy; shatadhikaya—by the hundred-and-first.

 

 

     Then the top of his home is illumined and the door is revealed by Him. By the power of transcendental knowledge, by the memory of the path it brings, he attains the mercy of He who resides in the heart. By the hundred-and-first.

 

Purport by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

     The enlightened soul departs by the path of the hundred-and-first nadi, which is called Sushumna. It is not that the enlightened soul cannot discern where is this nadi. Because of the two causes that begin with the power of transcendental knowledge, the soul attains the mercy of He who resides in the heart. This is possible by the power of transcendental knowledge. The effect of transcendental knowledge is that it enables the soul to remember the correct path to take in departing from the body. This soul also obtains the mercy of Lord Hari, who resides in a palace in the heart (harda). That is the meaning here.

     When, accompanied by the voice and the other senses and elements of the material body, the enlightened soul is about to depart, the top portion (agra) of the heart, which is his home (okah), becomes illuminated (jvalanam). The door (dvarah) there is not illuminated by the individual spirit soul. It is Lord Hari, who resides in the heart (harda) who illuminates and reveals (prakashita) that door. In this way the soul becomes aware of the entrance to the hundred-and-first nadi. In this way the enlightened soul departs.

 

 

 

 

Adhikarana 9

The Path of the Sun's Rays

 

 

Introduction by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     In the Chandogya Upanishad (8.6.5) it is said:

 

 

atha yatraitasmat sharirad utkramaty etair eva rashmibhir urdhvam akramate. sa om iti va hodva miyate sa yavat kshipyen manas tavad adityam gacchaty etad vai khalu loka-dvaram vidusham prapadanam nirodho 'vidusham tad esha shlokah. shatam caika ca. . .

 

 

     "After he departs from the body, the soul travels on the sun's rays. Casting off the material mind, and meditating on the sacred syllable Om, the soul travels to the sun, which is the doorway to the worlds. They who are enlightened with transcendental knowledge may enter that doorway, but they who are not enlightened are stopped from entering. The following verse describes this: There are a hundred and one nadis. . . ."

 

     This means that after he passes through the nadi on the top of the head, the enlightened soul travels on the path of the sun's rays.

 

     Samshaya (doubt): Must the soul depart from the body during the daytime, or may he also depart during the night (and still attain liberation)?

 

     Purvapaksha (the opponent speaks): Because during the night the rays of the sun do not shine, the enlightened soul must depart from the material body only during the daytime.

 

     Siddhanta (conclusion): In the following words the author of the sutras gives His conclusion.

 

 

Sutra 18

 

 

rashmy-anusari

 

     rashmi—rays; anusari—following.

 

 

     He follows the rays.

 

Purport by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     Whenever he dies, the enlightened soul is able to follow the rays of the sun. This is so because the Shruti-shastra gives no specific instruction in this regard.

 

 

Sutra 19

 

nishi neti cen na sambandhasya yavad deha-bhavitvad darshayati ca

 

     nishi—during the night; na—not; iti—thus; cet—if; na—not; sambandhasya—of the relationship; yavat—as long as; deha-bhavitvat—because of the existence of the body; darshayati—reveals; ca—also.

 

 

     If someone says that it is not during the night, then I reply: No. Because the relationship exists as long as the body is present. It also reveals it.

 

Purport by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     Here someone may object: is it not so that because at night the rays of the sun are not present, the soul departing from his body cannot follow them at that time?

 

     If (cet) this is said, then the sutra replies, "No" (na). Why is that? The sutra explains, "sambandhasya" (because of the relationship). This means that as long as the material body is present there is a relationship with the sun's rays. Therefore the soul may depart at any time of the day or night and still travel by the path of the sun's rays.

     It is clearly seen that the body remains warm in both the hottest of days and the coldest of nights. If the body had not relationship with the sun this would not be possible.

     The scriptures also give further proof of the body's unchanging relationship with the sun. In the Chandogya Upanishad (7.6.2) it is said:

 

 

amushmad adityat prayante tathasu nadishu shripta abhyo nadibhyah prayante te amusminn aditye shriptah

 

 

     "The path of the sun's rays begins at the sun and ends at the nadis. It also begins at the nadis and ends at the sun."

 

     In another place in the Shruti-shastra it is also said:

 

 

samshrishta va ete rashmayash ca nadyash ca naisham vibhago yavad idam shariram atah etaih pashyaty etair utkramate etaih pravartate

 

 

     "The sun's rays are connected to the nadis, and that connection is never broken as long as the material body is alive. By the sun's rays the soul sees. By them he departs. By them he performs actions."

 

     In this way it is proved that the soul enlightened with transcendental knowledge is always able to travel by the path of the sun's rays.

 

 

 

 

Adhikarana 10

The Soul's Departure During the Different Seasons

 

 

Introduction by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     Now the following will be considered.

 

     Samshaya (doubt): If he dies during the six months when the sun travels in the south, does the enlightened soul still attain the benefit of his knowledge, or does he not?

 

     Purvapaksha (the opponent speaks): Both Shruti-shastra and Smriti-sashtra affirm that in order to attain the spiritual world one must die during the six months when the sun travels in the north. Also, it is seen that Bhishmadeva and other great souls refused to die until that auspicious time had arrived.

 

     Siddhanta (conclusion): In the following words the author of the sutras gives His conclusion.

 

 

Sutra 20

 

 

atash cayane 'pi dakshine

 

     atah—therefore; ca—also; ayane—in ther passing; api—also; dakshine—in the south.

 

 

     Therefore it is also during the passing in the south.

 

Purport by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     Because transcendental knowledge does not bring only a partial result, and also because it removes all obstacles in its path, the enlightened soul attains the fruit of his knowledge even if he dies during the six months when the sun passes in the south. The argument of our opponent is very foolish and slow-witted. As will be explained in the future, the word “uttarayana" here does not mean "the six months when the sun passes in the south", but rather it means "the ativahika-devatas, or the demigods that carry the soul to the higher worlds".

     Blessed by his father, Bhishmadeva had the power to choose the time of his death. It is either to demonstrate that power, or to show the example of a saintly person that he acted in that way. Therefore there is no disadvantage in dying during the six months when the sun passes in the south.

 

     Here someone may object: The Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself affirms in Bhagavad-gita (8.23-26):

 

 

yatra kale tv anavrittim

     avrittim caiva yoginah

prayata yanti tam kalam

     vakshyami bharatarshabha. . .

 

. . . shukla-krishne gati hy ete

     jagatah shashvate mate

ekaya yaty anavrittim

     anyayavartate punah

 

 

     "O best of the Bharatas, I shall now explain to you the different times at which, passing away from this world, the yogi does or does not come back.*

     "Those who know the Supreme Brahman attain the Supreme by passing away from the world during the influence of the fiery god, in the light, at an auspicious moment of the day, during the fortnight of the waxing moon, or during the six months when the sun travels in the north.*

     "The mystic who passes away from this world during the smoke, the night, the fortnight of the waning moon, or the six months when the sun passes to the south reaches the moon planet but again comes back.*

     "According to Vedic opinion, there are two ways of passing from this world, one in light and one is darkness. When one passes in light, he does not come back. But when one passes in darkness, he returns."*

 

     In this passage word "day" and other words denoting time are prominent, and therefore it is clearly shown that time is and important factor for the attainment of liberation. It is also shown that one who dies during the night or during the six months when the sun passes in the south does not attain liberation.

 

     The author of the sutras speaks the following words to refute this objection.

 

 

Sutra 21

 

 

yoginah prati smaryate smarte caite

 

     yoginah—the yogis; prati—to; smaryate—is remembered; smarte—the two that are remembered; ca—and; ete—they.

 

 

     It is remembered of the yogis. Also, two are remembered.

 

Purport by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     The yogis, that is they who are devoted to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, do not take these descriptions of the passing of the moon, the light, and other points in time very seriously. They merely make a mental note of them (smaryate). The sutra explains, "ete smarte" (they are remembered). The Supreme Lord explains in Bhagavad-gita (8.27):

 

 

naite shriti partha janan

     yogi muhyate kashcana

 

     "Although the devotees know these two paths, O Arjuna, they are never bewildered."*

 

     The conclusion is that a person situated in transcendental knowledge need not be concerned about the specific time of his death. The mention of specific times is not prominent in this passage from Bhagavad-gita (8.23-26). The passage begins with the mention of fire, which has nothing to do with time. In fact, the different factors mentioned in this passage are all ativahika-devatas (demigods that carry the soul from the body). The author of the sutras will explain this in sutra 4.3.2. It is also said:

 

 

diva ca shukla-pakshash ca

     uttarayanam eva ca

mumurshatam prasastani

     viparitam tu garhitam

 

 

     "The best times for they who are about to die are the daytime, the bright fortnight, and the six months when the sun travels in the north. The other times are not good."

 

     This verse describes the condition of the souls not enlightened with transcendental knowledge. They who are enlightened with transcendental knowledge always attain Lord Hari. The time when they leave their material bodies is not relevant.

 

 

 

 

Pada 3

 

 

Invocation

 

 

yah sva-prapti-patham devah

     sevanabhasato 'dishat

prapyam ca sva-padam preyan

     mamasau shyamasundarah

 

 

     I love handsome and dark Lord Krishna, who shows, even to they who have only the dim reflection of devotional service, the path that leads to Him.

 

 

Adhikarana 1

Many Paths or One?

 

 

Introduction by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     In this pada will be described the nature of the Supreme Personality of Godhead and the path that leads to the realm of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. In the Chandogya Upanishad (4.15.5-6) it is said:

 

 

atha yad u caivasmin shavyam kurvanti yadi ca narcisham evabhisambhavaty arcisho 'har aha apuryamanam apuryamana-pakshad yan sad-udaddeti masan tan samebhyah samvatsaram samvatsarad adtityam adityac candramasam candramaso vidyutam tat purusho 'manavah. sa etan brahma gamayaty esha deva-patho brahma-patha etena pratipadyamana imam manavam avartam navartante.

 

 

     "Whether his final rites are performed or not, the yogi goes to the light. From the light he goes to the day. From the day he goes to bright fortnight. From the bright fortnight he goes to the six months when the sun travels in the north. From the six months when the sun travels in the north he goes to year. From the year he goes to the sun. From the sun he goes to the moon. From the moon he goes to lightning. From there a divine person leads him to Brahman. This is the path to the Lord, the path to the Supreme Personality of Godhead. They who travel this path do not return to the world of human beings."

 

     In this passage light is the first stage on this path. However, in the Kaushitaki Upanishad (1.3) it is said:

 

 

sa etam deva-yanam panthanam apadyagnilokam agacchati sa vayulokam sa varunalokam sa indralokam sa prajapatilokam sa brahmalokam

 

 

     "He travels on the path of the heavenly planets. He goes to Agniloka. He goes to Vayuloka. He goes to Varunaloka. ŤHe goes to Indraloka. He goes to Prajapatiloka. He goes to Brahmaloka."

 

     Here Agniloka is the first stage. In the Brihad-aranyaka Upanishad (5.10) it is said:

 

 

yada ha vai purusho 'smat lokat praiti sa vayum agacchati tasmai sa tatra vijihite yatha ratha-cakrasya kham tena urdhva akramate sa adityam agacchati

 

 

     "Leaving this world, the soul goes to Vayuloka. There he passes through the opening of a chariot-wheel. Then the soul ascends to the sun."

 

     Here Vayuloka is the first stage on the path. In the Mundaka Upanishad (2.11) it is said:

 

 

surya-dvarena virajah prayanti

 

 

     "Passing through the doorway of the sun, the soul is cleansed of all impurities."

 

     Here the sun is the first stage on the path. In other scriptures other accounts are also seen.

 

     Samshaya (doubt): Is only one path to the world of the Supreme described here, or are many different paths, beginning with the path that begins with light, described here in these passages of the Upanishads?

 

     Purvapaksha (the opponent speaks): Because these paths are all different there must be many different paths.

 

     Siddhanta (conclusion): In the following words the author of the sutras gives His conclusion.

 

 

Sutra 1

 

 

arcir-adina tat prathiteh

 

     arcih—light; adina—beginning with; tat—that; prathiteh—because of being well known.

 

 

     It begins with light, for that is well known.

 

Purport by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     The enlightened souls travels to the world of the Supreme Personality of Godhead on a path that begins with light. Why is that? The sutra explains, "tat prathiteh" (for that is well known). In the Chandogya Upanishad (5.10.1) it is said:

 

 

tad ya ittham vidur ye ceme 'ranye shraddham tapa ity upasate te arcisham

 

     "This they know: They who perform austerities and worship the Lord with faith travel on the path that begins with light."

 

     This passage is taken from the chapter describing the knowledge of the five fires (pancagni-vidya). Therefore the path that begins with light is traveled even by they who study the fire and other vidyas. In the Brahma-tarka it is said:

 

 

dvav eva margau prathitav

     arcir-adir vipashcitam

dhumadih karminam caiva

     sarva-veda-vinirnayat

 

 

     "Two paths are famous. The path beginning with light is traveled by they who are enlightened with transcendental knowledge, and the path beginning with smoke is traveled by they who perform Vedic rituals. That is the conclusion of all the Vedas."

 

     This being so, it is understood that the scriptures describe a single path for the enlightened souls, and therefore the differences in the descriptions should be reconciled in the same was they were in the case of the attributes of the Lord. This is so because the knowledge to be described here is one, even though the scriptural texts seem to give different explanations. The conclusion, then, is that the path begins with light. Any other interpretation breaks the real meaning of the Vedic texts.

 

 

 

 

Adhikarana 2

Vayuloka

 

 

Introduction by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     Now is begun a new discussion to show that Vayuloka and other places should be added to the sequence that begins with light. In the previously quoted passage from Kaushitaki Upanishad (1.3) it was said:

 

 

sa etam deva-yanam panthanam apadyagnilokam agacchati sa vayulokam

 

 

     "He travels on the path of the heavenly planets. First he goes to Agniloka and then to Vayuloka."

 

     Samshaya (doubt): Should Vayuloka be added to the path that begins with light, or should it not?

 

     Purvapaksha (the opponent speaks): It should not, for the Shruti-shastra describes these stages in a specific sequence, and because that sequence cannot be changed by someone's whim.   

 

     Siddhanta (conclusion): In the following words the author of the sutras gives His conclusion.

 

 

Sutra 2

 

 

vayum abdad avishesha-visheshabhyam

 

     vayum—Vayu; abdat—from the year; avishesha—because of not being specific; visheshabhyam—and because of being specific.

 

 

     Vayu comes after the year, for it both specific and not specific.

 

Purport by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     In the path beginning with light, the stage of Vayuloka should be placed after the year and before the sun. Why is that? The sutra explains, "avisheshat" (for it is not specific). This means that in the passage from Kaushitaki Upanishad (1.3) it was not specifically stated where Vayuloka comes in the sequence. However, in the passage from Brihad-aranyaka Upanishad (5.10) there is a specific statement that Vayuloka comes before the sun in this sequence. Also, in Brihad-aranyaka Upanishad (6.2.15) it is said that after the months, and after Devaloka, the soul comes to the sun. The Devaloka here should be understood to be Vayuloka. In the scriptures it is said:

 

yo 'yam pavana esha eva devanam grihah

 

 

     "Vayuloka is the home of the devas."

 

     Therefore, because it is the home of the devas, Vayuloka is also called Devaloka. Some say that there is a specific planet, Devaloka, which is part of this sequence. (If this interpretation is accepted, then Devaloka) should be placed after the year and before Vayuloka. It should not be placed between the months and the year, for that stage in the sequence is well known. Therefore Devaloka and Vayuloka should both be placed between the year and the sun.

 

 

 

 

Adhikarana 3

Varunaloka

 

 

Introduction by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     In the Kaushitaki Upanishad (1.3) it is said:

 

 

sa varunalokam sa indralokam sa prajapatilokam

 

 

     "He goes to Varunaloka. He goes to Indraloka. He goes to Prajapatiloka."

 

     Samshaya (doubt): Is Varunaloka one of the stages in the path beginning with light?

 

     Purvapaksha (the opponent speaks): Because there is no place for it in this path, as there was a place for Vayuloka, Varunaloka is not a stage in this path.

 

     Siddhanta (conclusion): In the following words the author of the sutras gives His conclusion.

 

 

Sutra 3

 

 

tadito 'dhi varunah sambandhat

 

     taditah—lightning; adhi—above; varunah—Varuna; sambandhat—because of the relationship.

 

 

     Varunaloka comes after lightning, for that is their relationship.

 

Purport by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     In the Chandogya Upanishad (4.15.5) it is said:

 

 

candramaso vidyutam

 

 

     "He leaves the moon and goes to lightning."

 

     It is seen that the soul travels from lightning to Varunaloka. Why is that? The sutra explains, “sambandhat", which means "for that is the relationship between lighting and Varunaloka". First lightning is manifested, and then comes rain. In the Shruti-shastra it is said:

 

 

yatha hi vishala vidyutas tivra-stanita-nirghosha jimutodare nrityanty athapah prapatanti vidyotate stanayati varshayati vai

 

 

     "When brilliant lightning and heavy thunder play Ťamong the clouds, water will fall. Lightning, thunder, and rain follow in that sequence."

 

     Because the rain has a close connection with Varuna, there is also a close relation between Varunaloka and the realm of lightning. After Varunaloka come Indraloka and Prajapatiloka. Varunaloka should e placed there because there is not other place for it and because it is reasonable to place it there. In this way the path to the spiritual world, a path that begins with the realm of light and proceeds to Prajapatiloka, has either twelve or thirteen stages.

 

 

 

 

Adhikarana 4

The Ativahika-devata Demigods

 

 

Introduction by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     Now a certain aspect of the path that begins with light will be considered.

 

     Samshaya (doubt): Are the light and other things landmarks on the path, or are they persons carrying the enlightened soul?

 

     Purvapaksha (the opponent speaks): They are landmarks, for the text describes them in that way. They are like landmarks people may indicate, just as one may say, "Go to the river. Then there will be a hill, and after that will be a village." Or they may be persons, for the words could be interpreted in that way.

 

     Siddhanta (conclusion): In the following words the author of the sutras gives His conclusion.

 

 

Sutra 4

 

 

ativahikas tal-lingat

 

     ativahikah—Ativahika demigods; tat—of that; lingat—because of the symptoms.

 

 

     They are ativahika demigods, because of their characteristics.

 

Purport by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     The things beginning with light are demigods appointed by the Supreme Personality of Godhead to carry the soul. They are neither landmarks nor ordinary persons. Why is that? The sutra explains, "tal-lingat" (because of their characteristics). This means that they have the characteristics of they who carry others. In the Chandogya Upanishad it is said:

 

 

tat-purusho 'manavah sa etan brahma gamayati

 

 

     "He is a divine person. He brings them to the Supreme Personality of Godhead."

 

     The divine person described here brings the soul to the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The light and other things are his assistants. That is the meaning.

 

     That they are neither landmarks nor ordinary persons is corroborated in the following sutra.

 

Sutra 5

 

 

ubhaya-vyamohat tat siddheh

 

     ubhaya—both; vyamohat—because of bewilderment; tat—that; siddheh—because of proof.

 

 

     It is proved because the other two are untenable.

 

Purport by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     Because they who die during the night do not have contact with the daytime and thus cannot have contact with the light and other things on the path, these things cannot be landmarks. Because ordinary persons are not very powerful and therefore cannot carry the soul in this way, they cannot be ordinary persons either. In this way the Shruti-shastra shows that they can be neither landmarks nor ordinary persons. Therefore they must be ativahika demigods. That is the meaning.

 

 

 

 

Adhikarana 5

The Divine Person

 

 

Introduction by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     Samshaya (doubt): Does the divine person sent by the Supreme Personality of Godhead descend to the plane of light, or does he descend only to the plane of lightning?

 

     Purvapaksha (the opponent speaks): Because the Supreme Personality of Godhead sends His messengers even to the earth to carry back Ajamila and others, therefore this divine person must descend to the plane of light.

 

     Siddhanta (conclusion): In the following words the author of the sutras gives His conclusion.

 

 

Sutra 6

 

 

vaidyutenaiva tatas tac chruteh

 

     vaidyutena—by the person situated in light; eva—indeed; tatah—then; tat—that; shruteh—from the sruti-sastra.

 

 

     Then by the person in light. This is because of the Shruti-shastra.

 

Purport by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     When he comes to the plane of lightning, the enlightened soul  by a messenger sent by the Lord Himself. How is that known? the sutra explains, "tac chruteh" (because of the Shruti-shastra). In Chandogya Upanishad (4.15.5) it is said:

 

 

candramaso vidyutam tat-purusho 'manavah sa etan brahma gamayati

 

 

     "From the moon he goes to the lightning. There a divine person takes him to the Supreme."

 

     In this way it is shown the Varunaloka and the others are the assistants of that divine person. The case of Ajamila is extraordinary. It is not typical.

 

 

 

 

Adhikarana 6

Badari Muni's Opinion

 

 

Introduction by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     Having thus described the path by which the goal is reached, now the author describes the goal itself.

 

     Vishaya (the topic to be discussed): The topic here is Chandogya Upanishad 4.15.5), which says:

 

 

sa etan gamayati

 

 

     "There a divine person takes him to the Brahman."

 

     In the following section the opinion of Badari Muni is given first.

 

     Samshaya (doubt): here it is said that a divine person brings the soul to "brahma". Is this "brahma" the Supreme Personality of Godhead, or is it the demigod Brahma, who has four faces?

 

     Purvapaksha (the opponent speaks): The word “brahma" here must refer to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, for in this passages explains that the soul attains immortality.

 

     Siddhanta (conclusion): In the following words Badari Muni gives his opinion.

 

 

Sutra 7

 

 

karyam badarir asya gaty-upapatteh

 

     karyam—the created being; badarih—Badari Muni; asya—of of him; gati—attainment; upapatteh—because of being possible.

 

 

     Badari Muni says it is the created one, for that is the only possible goal.

 

Purport by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     Badari Muni thinks that the divine person takes the soul to the demigod Brahma. Why is that? The sutra explains, “asya gaty-upapatteh" (for that is the only possible goal). The demigod Brahma is situated in a single place, and therefore the soul can go from one place to another in order to meet Him. The Supreme Personality of Godhead, however, is all-pervading, always present everywhere. Therefore it is not possible for the soul to go from one place to another in order to meet Him. That Ťis the meaning.

 

 

Sutra 8

 

 

visheshitatvac ca

 

     visheshitatvat—because of being specified; ca—also.

 

 

     Also because it is specifically stated.

 

Purport by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     In Chandogya Upanishad (7.14.1) it is said:

 

 

prajapateh sabham veshma prapadye

 

 

     "He attains the home of Prajapati."

 

     In this way it is specifically stated that he attains the demigod Brahma.

 

 

Sutra 9

 

 

samipyat tu tad vyapadeshah

 

     samipyat—because of nearness; tu—but; tat—that; vyapadeshah—designation.

 

 

     But that designation is because of nearness.

 

Purport by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     In the Brihad-aranyaka Upanishad (4.2.15) it is said:

 

 

sa etya brahmalokan gamayati tu teshu brahmalokeshu parah paravanto vasanti. tesham iha na punar avrittir asti.

 

 

     "Then he takes them to Brahmaloka. In Brahmaloka they stay for many ages. They do not return."

 

     Here the explanation (vyapadeshah) is that they do not return. This means that because they are near (samipyat) to liberation, they will be liberated in the future. This means that the enlightened souls attain the world of the demigod Brahma. They thus attain liberation along with the demigod Brahma. In this way they do not return.

 

     When does this occur? The next sutra explains.

 

 

Sutra 10

 

 

karyatyaye tad-adhyakshena sahatah param abhidhanat

 

     karya—of the creation; atyaye—at the end; tat—of that; adhyakshena—the ruler; saha—with; atah—then; param—the Supreme; Ťabhidhanat—because of the explanation.

 

 

     With its ruler to the Supreme when the creation is annihilated because of the explanation.

 

Purport by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     When the material creation up to the world of four-faced Brahma is destroyed, they go with the ruler of the material world, the four-faced Brahma, from that created world to the Supreme Brahman, who is different from the four-faced Brahma. The reason for this is given by the sutra, "abhidhanat" (because of the explanation). In the Taittiriya Upanishad (3.1.1) it is said:

 

 

brahma-vid apnoti param

 

 

     "He who knows Brahman attains the Supreme."

 

     It is also said there:

 

 

so 'shnute sarvan kaman saha brahmana

 

 

     "There, in the company of Brahman, he enjoys the fulfillment of all his desires."

 

     The phrase "with Brahman" here means, "with the demigod Brahma, who has four faces." That is the meaning.

 

 

Sutra 11

 

 

smritesh ca

 

     smriteh—from the Smriti-shastra; ca—also.

 

 

     From the Smriti-shastra also.

 

Purport by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     In the Smriti-shastra it is said:

 

 

brahmana saha te sarve

     samprapte pratisancare

parasyante kritatmanah

     pravishanti param padam

 

 

     "When the material universe is destroyed, they whose hearts are devoted to the Supreme Lord, enter the supreme abode along with the demigod Brahma."

 

     In this way the sanishtha devotees travel on the path beginning with light, a path that brings them to the demigod Brahma. That is the opinion of Badari Muni.

 

     In the next sutra Jaimini Muni gives his opinion.

 

 

 

Adhikarana 7

Jaimini Muni's Opinion

 

 

Sutra 12

 

 

param jaiminir mukhyatvat

 

     param—the Supreme; jaiminih—Jaimini; mukhyatvat—because of being primary.

 

 

     Jaimini thinks it is the Supreme, for that is the primary meaning.

 

Purport by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     Jaimini Muni thinks the soul is taken to the Supreme. Why is that? The sutra explains, "mukhyatvat", which means "for that is the primary meaning of the word Brahman". Also, it is not correct to say that it is not possible to attain the Supreme (for He is all-pervading). When the devotees become free from all material designations then they can attain the Supreme Lord, which means then they can perceive His presence.

 

 

Sutra 13

 

 

darshanac ca

 

     darshanat—because of the sight; ca—also.

 

 

     Also because it is seen.

 

Purport by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     In the Dahara-vidya chapter of Chandogya Upanishad (8.12.3) the goal is clearly described as the Supreme Brahman. This is so because the attributes of immortality are ascribed to this Brahman and also because the soul who travels to this Brahman manifests his own original spiritual form. All these explanations would not be appropriate if the Brahman here were the demigod Brahma. Indeed, this chapter of the Upanishad is not about the demigod Brahma. It is clearly about the Supreme Brahman, the Supreme Lord.

     In the Katha Upanishad, in the passage beginning “shatam ca", the Supreme Brahman is clearly described as the goal of this path. In another place in the Shruti-shastra, in the passage beginning with the word "dharmat", the goal also must be the Supreme Brahman, for he is described there as immortal. It is also said:

 

 

Sutra 14

 

 

na ca karye pratipatty-abhisandhih

     na—not; ca—and; karye—in the created; pratipatti—knowledge; abhisandhih—desire.

 

 

     The desire is not to know the created.

 

Purport by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     Here the word "pratipatti" means "knowledge", and the word "abhisandhi" means "desire". The soul enlightened with transcendental knowledge does not desire to learn the truth about the demigod Brahma, for the attainment of that knowledge is not the highest goal of life. However, he does desire to attain knowledge of the Supreme Brahman, for that is the highest goal of life. One attains the goal he strives for. This is explained in Chandogya Upanishad (3.14). Therefore the conclusion is that the divine person leads the devotees to the Supreme Personality of Godhead. That is the opinion of Jaimini Muni.

 

     Now the author of the sutras gives his opinion. He says:

 

 

Sutra 15

 

 

apratikalambanan nayatiti badarayana ubhayatha ca doshat tat-kratush ca

 

     a—not; pratika—form; alambanan—resting; nayati-leads; iti—thus; badarayanah—Vyasadeva; ubhayatha—both; ca—and; doshat—because of fault; tat-kratuh—by the maxim beginning with the words "tat-kratuh"; ca—also.

 

 

     He leads they who take shelter of the Lord as He who has no material form. That is Vyaadeva's opinion. Because both have faults and also because of the maxim beginning with the words "tat-kratuh".

 

Purport by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     The divine person leads to the Supreme the sanishthas and all other devotees who do not think that the Supreme is material. These devotees are different from they who worship the Lord as the names and forms of this world. That is the opinion of Vyasadeva. He does not accept the view that the divine person leads the worshipers of the demigod Brahma, nor does he accept the view that the divine person leads all the worshipers of the Supreme. Why not? The sutra explains, "ubhayatha ca doshat", which means "because both views contradict the statements of scripture".

     The first view contradicts the following words of Chandogya Upanishad (8.12.3):

 

 

param jyotir upapadya

 

 

     "He meets the effulgent Supreme Person."

     The second view contradicts the description in Chandogya Upanishad (5.10) of the goal attained by they who have knowledge of pancagni-vidya and who travel on the path beginning with light. Another reason is given in the maxim of Chandogya Upanishad (3.14.1) that declares a person attains a destination appropriate to the nature of his faith. They who identify the Supreme with the words and other things in the material world cannot travel by the path beginning with light, for this would contradict the maxim of Chandogya Upanishad. However, in the scriptures it is affirmed that they who worship the Lord in the words of the Vedic mantras attain their desires independently. In the Chandogya Upanishad (7.1.5) it is said:

 

 

sa yo nama brahmety upaste yavan namno gatam tatrasya kama-carah

 

 

     "He who worships the Lord as the sounds of the Vedic mantras attains the goal of the mantras. He attains his desire."

 

     However, they who are followers of pancagni-vidya travel by the path of light until they reach Satyaloka. They do this because they worship the Supersoul. When they attain perfect knowledge of the Supreme, the are able to rise above the realm of Satyaloka. This is so, for the Shruti-shastra declares that they who travel on that path never return to the material world.

 

 

 

 

Adhikarana 9

A Special Situation

 

 

Introduction by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     Now will be explained the truth that the Lord Himself takes certain exalted nirapeksha devotees back to His own abode. In the Gopala-tapani Upanishad (1.22 and 24) it is said:

 

 

etad vishnoh paramam padam ye

     nityodyuktah samyajante na kaman

tesham asau gopa-rupah prayatnat

     prakashayed atma-padam tadaiva

 

 

     "To they who always diligently worship Lord Vishnu's transcendental form, the Lord, in His original form as a cowherd boy, shows His lotus feet.

 

 

omkarenantaritam ye japanti

     govindasya panca-padam manum tam

tesham asau darshayed atma-rupam

     tasman mumukshur abhyasen nityam shantyai

 

 

     "To they who chant the five-word mantra with Om and Govinda, the Lord reveals His own form. Therefore, to attain transcendental peace, they who desire liberation should regularly chant this mantra."

 

     Samshaya (doubt): Are the nirapeksha devotees carried to the spiritual world by the ativahika demigods, or by the Supreme Lord Himself?

 

     Purvapaksha (the opponent speaks): The scriptures affirm:

 

 

dvav eva margau

 

 

     "There are two paths."

 

     The conclusion is that they who are enlightened with transcendental knowledge travel by the path beginning with light. In that way they enter the spiritual world. That is affirmed by the Shruti-shastra. That is how the Supreme Lord becomes the cause of their liberation.

 

     Siddhanta (conclusion): In the following words the author of the sutras gives His conclusion.

 

 

Sutra 16

 

 

vishesham ca darshayati

 

     vishesham—special; ca—also; darshayati—shows.

 

 

     It reveals a special situation also.

 

Purport by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     The general situation is that the souls enlightened with transcendental knowledge are carried to the spiritual world by the ativahika demigods. However, those nirapeksha devotees who are especially distressed in separation from the Lord are carried there by the Supreme Lord Himself, for the Lord becomes impatient and cannot tolerate any delay in bringing them back to Him. This is a special situation. The Shruti-shastra reveals the truth of this situation in Gopala-tapani Upanishad (1.22 and 24). The Supreme Lord Himself also explains (Bhagavad-gita 7.6 and 7):

 

 

ye tu sarvani karmani

     mayi sannyasya mat-parah

ananyenaiva yogena

     mam dhyayanta upasate

 

tesham aham samuddharta

     mrityu-samsara-sagarat

bhavami na cirat partha

     mayy aveshita-cetasam

 

 

     "But those who worship Me, giving up all their activities unto Me and being devoted to Me without deviation, engaged in devotional service and always meditating upon Me, having fixed their minds upon Me, O son of Pritha, for them I am the swift deliverer from the ocean of birth and death."*

 

     The word "ca" (also) in this sutra means that for the liberated souls there are two paths, one where the material body is cast off, and the other where contact with the material body is maintained. It is not possible to say that the nirapeksha devotees follow the path that begins in light. Also, in the Varaha Purana the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself says:

 

 

nayami paramam sthanam

     arcir-adi-gatim vina

garuda-skandham aropya

     yatheccham anivaritah

 

 

     "My devotees need not follow the path beginning in light. Riding on Garuda's shoulders, I personally take them to My supreme abode."

 

     In this way the truth has been explained.

 

 

 

 

Pada 4

 

 

Invocation

 

 

akaitave bhakti-save 'nurajyan

     svam eva yah sevakasat karoti

tato 'ti-modam muditah sa devah

     sada cid-ananda-tanur dhinotu

 

 

     May the Supreme Personality of Godhead, whose form is eternal and full of knowledge and bliss, and who, pleased with His devotees sincere devotion, gives Himself to them, fill us with transcendental happiness.

 

 

Adhikarana 1

The Original Forms of the Liberated Souls

 

 

Introduction by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     In this pada will be described first the original forms of the liberated souls, and then their glory, opulence, bliss, and other features. In the Chandogya Upanishad (8.12.3) the demigod Brahma explains:

 

 

evam evaisha samprasado 'smat sharirat samutthaya param jyotir upasampadya svena rupenabhinishpadyate sa uttamah purushah

 

 

     "By the Supreme Lord's mercy, the enlightened soul leaves his material body and enters the effulgent spiritual world. There he attains his own spiritual body. He becomes the most exalted of persons."

 

     Samshaya (doubt): Does the liberated soul attain a body, like the bodies of the demigods, that is different from himself, or does the manifest his original identity, which is not different from himself?

 

     Purvapaksha (the opponent speaks): he attains a body different from himself. This must be so because the word “abhinishpadyate" (is attained) is employed here. Any other interpretation would make this word meaningless and would also make meaningless the scriptures' statement that liberation is a benefit attained by the soul. If this form is only the original nature of the soul and it had existed all along, then attaining it would not be a benefit granted to the soul. Therefore this form is newly attained by the soul and is different from the soul's original nature.

 

     Siddhanta (conclusion): In the following words the author of the sutras gives His conclusion.

Sutra 1

 

 

sampadyavirbhavah svena-shabdat

 

     sampadya—of he who has attained; avirbhavah—manifestation; svena—svena; shabdat—by the word.

 

 

     Because of the word "svena" it is the manifestation of he who has gone.

 

Purport by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     The individual spirit soul who, by means of devotional service accompanied with knowledge and renunciation, attains the effulgent Supreme, becomes free from the bondage of karma and attains a body endowed with eight virtues. This body is said to be the soul's original form. Why is that? The sutra explains, "svena-shabdat" (because of the word "svena"). The word "svena" here means, "in his own original form". For this reason it cannot be said that this passage means, "the soul arrives there and then accepts that form, which is an external imposition". In that way it is proved that the form here is the original form of the soul. This is not contradicted by the use of the word "nishpadyate", for that word is also used to mean, "is manifested". An example of that usage is seen in the following words of the Shruti-shastra:

 

 

idam ekam su-nishpannam

 

 

     "He is manifested."

 

     Also, it is not that the manifestation of the soul's original form cannot be, because it already exists, a goal of human endeavor. This is so because even though the soul's original form exists, it is not openly manifested. Therefore it is not useless to say that the soul may endeavor to openly manifest the original form of the soul. Therefore the manifestation of that form can be an object of human endeavor.

 

     Here someone may say: When the spirit soul is manifested in its original form and it attains the effulgent Supreme, as described in the words "param jyotir upasampadya", the the liberated state thus attained is characterized mainly by the cessation of all material sufferings.

 

     If this is said, then I reply: No. It is not so. The Shruti-shastra explains that in the liberated state the soul is filled with intense spiritual bliss. This is described in Taittiriya Upanishad (2.7):

 

 

rasam hy evayam labdhvanandi-bhavati

 

 

     "When one understands the Personality of Godhead, the reservoir of pleasure, Krishna, he actually becomes Ťtranscendentally blissful."*

 

     Here someone may object: How do you know that approaching the effulgent Supreme Lord is true liberation?

 

     If this is said, the author of the sutras gives the following reply.

 

 

Sutra 2

 

 

muktah pratijnanat

 

     muktah—liberated; pratijnanat—because of the declaration.

 

 

     He is liberated because of the statement.

 

Purport by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     The liberated soul manifests his original form. Why is that? The sutra explains, "pratijnanat" (because of the statement). The original condition of the soul is described in Chandogya Upanishad (8.7.1). After that description, the following promise is given (8.9.3):

 

 

etam tv eva te bhuyo 'nuvyakhyasyami

 

 

     "Again I will explain it to you."

 

     The the demigod Brahma proceeded to explain that the liberated soul is free from wakefulness, dreaming, and dreamless sleep, the three conditions of material consciousness and also free from the material body, which is created by the karmic reactions of pleasant and unpleasant deeds. The demigod Brahma described this in order to fulfill the promise he made in 8.9.3). Because this passage explains that the soul becomes liberated when he is free from the external material body created by karmic reactions, it should be understood that in the liberated state the soul is manifested in its original form.

 

     In this way it is proved that Chandogya Upanishad (8.12.3) explains that in the liberated state the soul manifests its original form. Now another point will be considered.

 

     Samshaya (doubt): Does the word "jyotih" in Chandogya Upanishad (8.12.3) refer to the sun-globe or to the Supreme Personality of Godhead?

 

     Purvapaksha (the opponent speaks): It refers to the sun-globe. This must be so for the Mundaka Upanishad declares that after passing through the realm of the sun one attains liberation. The sun-globe is also described in that way in the Chandogya Upanishad's description of the path beginning with light.

 

     Siddhanta (conclusion): In the following words the author of the sutras gives His conclusion.

 

 

Sutra 3

 

 

atma prakaranat

 

     atma—the Supreme Personality of Godhead; prakaranat—because of the context.

 

 

     It is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, because of the context.

 

Purport by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     The word "jyotih" here refers to the Supreme Personality of Godhead. It does not refer to the sun-globe. Why is that? The sutra explains, "prakaranat" (because of the context). Although the word "jyotih" can refer to either, because of the context it refers to the Supreme Personality of Godhead. It is like the word "devah", which in the sentence "devo janati me manah" (your lordship knows my heart) means "your lordship".

     The word atma" in this sutra means "the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is all-powerful and full of knowledge and bliss". The word "atma" is derived from the verbal root "at". In this way "atma" means, “He who is splendidly manifest", "He who is attained by the liberated souls", and "He who is all-pervading". It also means "Upanishad", and it has many other meanings also. Further, the word "atma" also shows that the Supreme is a person. This is also seen by the use of the phrase "uttamah purushah" in the Upanishads and Bhagavad-gita. In this way it is seen that the "param jyotih" in Chandogya Upanishad (8.12.3) refers to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord Hari.

 

 

 

 

Adhikarana 2

The Individual Soul Meets the Supreme Personality of Godhead

 

 

Introduction by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     Now another topic will be considered.

 

     Samshaya (doubt): When the liberated soul attains the effulgent Supreme in the spiritual world, is the liberation salokya (residing on the same planet) or sayujya (meeting with the Lord)?

 

     Purvapaksha (the opponent speaks): As a person entering a king's capitol resides in the same city as the king but does not attain a private audience with the king, so the liberated soul resides on the same planet with the Lord. Therefore the soul attains salohya liberation

 

     Siddhanta (conclusion): In the following words the author of the sutras gives His conclusion.

 

 

Sutra 4

 

 

avibhagena drishtatvat

 

     avibhagena—without separation; drishtatvat—because of being seen.

 

 

     There is no separation, for that is seen.

 

Purport by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     The liberated soul is not separated from the Lord. In this way the soul attains sayujya liberation. Why is that? The sutra explains, "drishtatvat" (for that is seen). This means, "for this situation is seen in the Shruti-shastra". For example, in Mundaka Upanishad (3.2.8) it is said:

 

 

yatha nadyah syandamanah samudre

     astam gacchanti nama-rupe vihaya

yatha vidvan nama-rupad vimuktah

     parat param purusham upaiti divyam

 

 

     "As flowing rivers abandon their names and forms and meet with the sea, so the enlightened soul, free of what had been his name and form, meets with the effulgent Supreme Person."

 

     That the word "sayujya" means "meeting" is seen in the following passage of the Maha-Narayana Upanishad (25.1):

 

ya evam vidvan udag-ayane pramiyate devanam eva mahimanam gatvadityasya sayujyam gacchati

 

 

     "The soul that dies during the six months when the sun travels in the north attains the glory of the gods. He approaches the sun and attains sayujya with it."

 

     Salokya and the other kinds of liberation are different varieties of sayujya. It is not that when they feel the sentiment of separation from the Lord the liberated devotees are not also, at that same moment, meeting with the Lord. This is so because the Lord is always manifested in their thoughts and continues to touch them with His glories.

     The example (of the rivers entering the ocean) given above should not be taken to mean that the liberated souls become identical with the Lord. When water from one place enters water of another place, the two waters do not actually merge and become identical. They remain separate. This is seen in the fact the the volume of water in the ocean increases as the rivers flow into it.

 

 

 

 

Adhikarana 3

The Qualities of the Liberated Soul

 

 

Introduction by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     Now the author will describe the pleasures experienced by the liberated soul. In order to describe these pleasures the author will describe the liberated soul's spiritual form and its host of advantages, which begin with the blessing at all its desires are at once fulfilled. First the liberated soul's advantages and virtues will be described.

 

     Samshaya (doubt): When he meets the effulgent Supreme Lord, does the individual spirit soul manifest a form glorious with many virtues and advantages, or does the soul manifest a form of spiritual consciousness, or does the soul manifest a form with both virtues and consciousness, for these two can certainly exist together in a single form?

 

     Purvapaksha (the opponent speaks): Here Jaimini Muni gives his opinion.

 

 

Sutra 5

 

 

brahmena jaiminir upanyasadibhyah

 

     brahmena—given by the Supreme Personality of Godhead; jaiminih—jaimini; upanyasa—references; adibhyah—beginning with.

 

 

     Jaimini Muni thinks it is with what is given by the Supreme Personality of Godhead, for there are references and other proofs.

 

Purport by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     The liberated soul is glorious with a host of virtues and advantages, beginning with sinlessness and the attainment of every desire, which are all gifts from the Supreme Personality of Godhead. How is this known? The sutra explains, “upanyasadibhyah" (for there are references and other proofs). The reference here is to the demigod Brahma's description (in Chandogya Upanishad 8.7.1) of the individual spirit soul's virtues. The word "adi" (beginning with) refers to the Chandogya Upanishad's description of the liberated soul's activities, such as his eating and enjoying pastimes. In this way the liberated soul is by nature filled with glories and virtues. That is the opinion of Jaimini Muni. In the Smriti-shashtra this is also described in the passage beginning with the words, "yatha na hriyate jyotsna".

 

 

Sutra 6

 

citi tan-matrena tad-atmakatvad ity audulomih

 

     citi—in consciousness; tan-matrena—of that only; tad-atmakatvat—because of the nature; iti—thus; audulomih—Audulomi.

 

 

     It is consciousness alone, for that is its nature. That is the opinion of Audulomi Muni.

 

Purport by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     When its material ignorance is burned away by transcendental knowledge and it attains its spiritual form and meets the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the individual spirit soul is manifested as pure consciousness alone. Why is that? The sutra explains, "tad-atmakatvad" (for that is its nature). In the Brihad-aranyaka Upanishad (4.5.13), in the second story of Maitreyi, it is said:

 

 

sa yatha saindhava-ghano 'nantaro 'bahyah kritsno rasa-ghana evam va are ayam atmanantaro 'bahyah kritsnah prajnana-ghana eva

 

 

     "as salt has neither inside nor outside, but is a mass of taste and nothing else, so the soul also has neither inside nor outside, but is a mass of knowledge and nothing else."

 

     In this way it is concluded that the soul is consciousness alone and nothing else. The scriptural statements affirming that the soul is sinless and has other virtues are merely meant to teach that the soul has not material qualities, such as material happiness, qualities that are all temporary and subject to change. That is the opinion of Audulomi Muni.

 

     Now the author of the sutras gives His opinion.

 

 

Sutra 7

 

 

evam apy upanyasat purva-bhavad avirodham badarayanah

 

     evam—thus; api—eveb; upanyasat—from the reference; purva—of the previous; bhavat—from the nature; avirodham—not contradicting; badarayanah—Vyasa.

 

 

     Even though there are these references, it does not contradict what was before. That is the opinion of Vyasadeva.

 

Purport by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     Even though it is true that the soul consists of pure consciousness, that truth does not contradict the soul's possession of the eight virtues. That is the opinion of Vyasadeva. Why is that? The sutra explains, “upanyasat purva-bhavad avirodham" (even though there Ťare these references, it does not contradict what was before).

     This means that Audulomi's quote from scripture does not contradict Jaimini's previous quotation of the words of the demigod Brahma. The conclusion is that both scriptural statements are clear and without reservations, and therefore both are equally compelling evidence, and therefore both are equally true statements about the liberated soul.

     Vyasadeva certainly accepts the statement of Brihad-aranyaka Upanishad (4.5.13) that the soul is consciousness alone, consciousness untouched by material qualities. Indeed, this view does not at all contradict Jaimini's opinion.

     The statement that the soul is pure consciousness is meant to show that it has not the slightest trace of matter in its nature. That statement is not at all opposed to the statement that that the soul has eight transcendental virtues, just as the statement that a block of salt is taste only does not at all contradict the statement that the block of salt has hardness, a certain shape, and other qualities visible to the eyes and the other senses. In this way it is shown that the soul, which consists of transcendental knowledge certainly possesses the eight virtues, which begin with sinlessness.

 

 

 

 

Adhikarana 5

The Soul's Desires Are Fulfilled

 

 

Introduction by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     Now the author of the sutras will describe the truth that all the desires of the liberated soul are at once fulfilled. In the Chandogya Upanishad (8.12.3) it is said:

 

 

sa tatra paryeti jakshan kridan ramamanah stribhir va yanair va jnatibhir va

 

 

     "Laughing and enjoying pastimes, he is happy in the company of wives, relatives, and chariots."

 

     Samshaya (doubt): Does the liberated soul's meeting with his relatives and the others happen because of an endeavor of his part or does it happen spontaneously simply by his desire?

 

     Purvapaksha (the opponent speaks): In the material world even kings and other powerful people, of whom it is said that their every desire is fulfilled, must still exert some effort to attain that fulfillment. In the same way the liberated souls attain their desires by willing accompanied with action.

 

     Siddhanta (conclusion): In the following words the author of the sutras gives His conclusion.

 

 

Sutra 8

 

 

sankalpad eva tac chruteh

 

     sankalpat—by desire; eva—indeed; tat—that; chruteh—because of the Shruti-shastra.

 

 

     Indeed it is by desire, because of the Shruti-shastra.

 

Purport by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     Simply by willing the liberated souls attain what they wish. How is that known? The sutra explains, "tac chruteh" (because of the Shruti-shastra). In the Chandogya Upanishad (8.2.1) it is said:

 

 

sa yadi pitriloka-kamo bhavati sankalpad evasya pitarah samuttishthanti. tena pitrilokena sampanno mahiyate.

 

 

     "If desires to go to Pitriloka, simply by his will he finds the pitas standing before him. In this way he finds himself glorified by the residents of Pitriloka."

 

     In this way the Shruti-shastra affirms that he attains his wishes by merely willing that they be fulfilled. Any other view cannot be accepted here. In the previously quoted passage of Brihad-aranyaka Upanishad (4.5.13), the statement was qualified by other evidence from the scriptures. In this passage, however, we see not other statements of scripture that might qualify or change the clear statement of these words. However, this kind of liberation, where the soul's own happiness and glory and power are prominent, is not liked by they who are eager to taste the nectar of service to the Supreme Lord. They reject it and they speak many words criticizing it.

 

 

 

 

Adhikarana 6

The Supreme Lord is the Master of the Liberated Souls

 

 

Introduction by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     Now the author the sutras will show that the liberated soul, whose every desire is fulfilled, takes shelter of the Supreme Personality of Godhead alone.

 

     Samshaya (doubt): Is the liberated soul subject to the orders of anyone other than the Supreme Personality of Godhead, or is the soul not subject to the orders of anyone other than the Supreme Personality of Godhead?

 

     Purvapaksha (the opponent speaks): As a person who enters a king's palace must obey the orders of many people there, so the liberated soul who has entered the palace of the Supreme Personality of Godhead must also obey the orders of many others.

 

     Siddhanta (conclusion): In the following words the author of the sutras gives His conclusion.

 

 

Sutra 9

 

 

ata eva cananyadhipatih

 

     atah eva—therefore; ca—also; ananya—without another; adhipatih—master.

 

 

     Therefore there is no other master.

 

Purport by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     Because (atah), by the grace of the Supreme Personality of Godhead all the liberated soul's desires are at once fulfilled, the Supreme Personality of Godhead is the liberated soul's only master (ananyadhipatih). There is no other master for him. Taking shelter of the Supreme Lord, the liberated soul shines with great splendor. If this were not so then there would be no difference between the liberated soul and the soul trapped in the world of repeated birth and death.

     By worshiping the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the liberated soul attains the condition where his every desire is at once fulfilled. Feeling merciful to him, the Supreme Lord gives limitless transcendental bliss to the soul who thus takes shelter of Him. In this way the Lord becomes very pleased. That the Lord thus fills the liberated soul with bliss will be explained in sutra 4.4.20. It has already been demonstrated that the individual spirit soul is part and parcel of the Supreme Lord, and the Supreme Lord is the supreme controller and enjoyer.

     Because the liberated soul is in a position where his every Ťdesire is at once fulfilled, his only master is the Supreme Lord. He has no other master. For this reason ordinary prescribed duties and prohibitions no longer apply to him. If they did apply to him he would no longer be in a position where his every desire is at once fulfilled. This view is held by some philosophers.

 

 

 

 

Adhikarana 7

The Spiritual Body

 

 

Introduction by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     Now the author of the sutras will show that the liberated soul has a spiritual body.

 

     Samshaya (doubt): Does the liberated soul who has attained the association of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, as described in Chandogya Upanishad (8.12.3), have a spiritual body or does he not? Can he have any body he wishes, or can he not?

 

     Purvapaksha (the opponent speaks): Here Badari Muni gives his opinion.

 

 

Sutra 10

 

 

abhave badarir aha hy evam

 

     abhave—in non-existence; badarih—Badari Muni; aha—says; hi—because; evam—thus.

 

 

     Badari Muni says there is none, for thus it is said.

 

Purport by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     Badari Muni thinks that the liberated soul has no body. The body and its paraphernalia are all created by past karma. Because he is free from all past karma, the liberated soul does not have a body. Why is that? The sutra explains, "aha hy evam" (thus it is said). The word "hi" here means “because". In Chandogya Upanishad (8.12.1) it is said:

 

 

na ha vai sa-sharirasya satah priyapriyayor apahatir asti. ashariram vava santam priyapriye na sprishatah

 

 

     "He who has a body cannot become free of pleasure and pain. Only one who has no body is untouched by pleasure and pain."

 

     This means that as long as the body is present it is not possible to be free of sufferings. That is why the Upanishad explains:

 

 

asmat sharirat samutthaya

 

 

     "The soul then leaves the body."

 

     Also, in Shrimad-Bhagavatam it is said:

 

dehendriyasu-hinanam

     vaikuntha-pura-vasinam

 

 

     "They who live in the spiritual world have neither bodies nor senses."

 

 

Sutra 11

 

 

aha hy evam jaiminir vikalpamananat

 

     aha—says; hi—because; evam—thus; jaiminih—Jaimini Muni; vikalpa—opinion; amananat—by thought.

 

 

     Jaimini Muni has that opinion, because it is said thus and because that view is accepted.

 

Purport by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     Jaimini Muni thinks the liberated soul has a body. Why is that? The sutra explains, "vikalpamananat" (because that view is accepted). In the Bhuma-vidya passage of the Chandogya Upanishad (7.26.2) it is said that the liberated soul can manifest many different bodies simultaneously:

 

 

sa ekadha bhavati dvidha tridha bhavati pancadha saptadha navadha caiva punash caikadasha smritah. shatam ca dasha caikash ca sahasrani ca vimshatih.

 

 

     "He becomes one. Then he becomes two. Then three. Then five. Then seven. Then nine. Then eleven. He becomes one hundred and ten. He becomes one thousand and twenty."

 

     Because the individual spirit soul is atomic in nature, it cannot expand itself to become many different bodies, so these bodies must be possessions of the atomic soul. Nor can it be said that this statement of the Upanishad is not true, for this is in a passage describing the process of liberation. The body described here must actually exist, and also it must not have been created by past karmic reactions. This will be explained later with a quote from the Smriti-shastra.

 

     In the next sutra Vyasadeva gives His opinion.

 

 

Sutra 12

 

 

dvadashaha-vad ubhaya-vidham badarayano 'tah

 

     dvadasha—twelve; aha—days; vat—like; ubhaya—both; vidham—kinds; badarayanah—Vyasadeva; atah—therefore.

 

 

     Vyasadeva says it is of both kinds, like the twelve days.

 

Purport by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     Lord Vyasadeva thinks that because the liberated soul's Ťevery desire is at once fulfilled both conditions must be true. This is so because statements describing both conditions are found in the scriptures. Therefore it should be accepted that the liberated soul may have a body, and again he may not have a body. This is like the twelve days. A twelve-day yajna becomes, by the wish of the yajamana, either a satra, which has many yajamanas, or an ahina, which has many yajamanas. There is no contradiction in this. In the same way the liberated soul may, by his own wish, either have a body or not have a body. That is the meaning. The truth is that they who by the power of transcendental knowledge have broken the bonds of material existence are in a situation where all their desires are at once fulfilled. Those amongst them who desire to have a body can at once have any body they wish. This is described in Chandogya Upanishad (7.26.2). They who do have no desire to have a body do not have a body. This is described in Chandogya Upanishad (8.12.1). They who desire always to employ a spiritual body in the service of the Supreme Lord eternally manifest such a body by their spiritual powers. That is how it should be understood. In the Brihad-aranyaka Upanishad (2.4.14) it is said:

 

 

yatra tv asya sarvam atmaivabhut tat kena kam pashyet

 

 

     "Everything there is spiritual. What is the nature of the seer? What is the nature of the seen?"

 

     In the Madhyandina-shruti it is said:

 

 

sa va esha brahma-nishtha idam shariram martyam atishrijya brahmabhisampadya brahmana pashyati brahmana shrinoti brahmanaivedam sarvam anubhavati

 

 

     "Devoted to the Supreme Lord, the individual soul leaves his mortal body and meets the Lord. By the Lord's grace he sees. By the Lord's grace he hears. By the Lord's grace he perceives everything."

 

     In the Smriti-shastra it is said:

 

 

vasanti yatra purushah

     sarve vaikuntha-murtayah

 

 

     "Everyone there has a spiritual form like that of the Supreme Personality of Godhead."

 

     The spiritual desire of the soul is cultivated from the very beginning of his devotional activities. This is described in the "yatha kratuh" maxim and also in the following words of the Smriti-shastra:

 

 

gacchami vishnu-padabhyam

     vishnu-drishtyanudarshanam

 

 

     "I walk with Lord Vishnu's feet. I see with Lord Vishnu's eyes."

     In the Smriti-shastra it is again said:

 

 

muktasyaitad bhavishyati

 

 

     "This is the nature of the liberated soul."

 

 

 

 

Adhikarana 8

The Bliss of the Liberated Souls

 

 

Introduction by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     Now will be shown the truth that through his spiritual body the liberated soul enjoys spiritual pleasures. That he enjoys spiritual pleasures is affirmed by the following words of Taittiriya Upanishad (2.1.1):

 

 

so 'shnute sarvan kaman

 

 

     "He enjoys all pleasures."

 

     Now the author of the sutras begins His explanation that this is so in both situations (possessing or not possessing a body).

 

     Samshaya (doubt): Is it possible for the liberated soul to enjoy pleasures, or is it not possible?

 

     Purvapaksha (the opponent speaks): Because he has neither body nor senses, the liberated soul cannot enjoy any pleasures. If a yogi somehow has the power to enjoy pleasures, still he will not do so because, being filled with spiritual bliss, he has no thirst for them.

 

     Siddhanta (conclusion): In the following words the author of the sutras gives His conclusion.

 

 

Sutra 13

 

 

tanv-abhave sandhya-vad upapatteh

 

     tanu—of a body; abhave—in the absence; sandhya—a dream; vat—like; upapatteh—because of reasonableness.

 

 

     In the absence of a body it is like a dream, for that is reasonable.

 

Purport by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     Even in the absence of a body pleasure is still possible. The sutra explains, "It is like a dream, for that is reasonable." The word "sandhya" here means “dream". As in a dream one can enjoy pleasures without a body, so the liberated soul can also enjoy pleasures without a body. Thus it is said.

 

     Of course, when a body is present the pleasure is much greater. The author of the sutras explains this in the following words.

 

Sutra 14

 

 

bhave jagrad-vat

 

     bhave—in existence; jagrat—waking; vat—like.

 

 

     In the existence it is like being awake.

 

Purport by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     The word "bhave" here means, "when there is a body". When there is a body the pleasure is like that in the waking state. Our opponent  claims that the liberated soul does not desire to enjoy the delicious tastes and other pleasures mercifully offered to him by the Supreme Lord. However, the truth is that the liberated soul, desiring to render devotional service, certainly does desire to enjoy the pleasures that the Lord in His kindness offers. He does this out of love for the Lord. In this way it should be understood.

 

 

 

 

Adhikarana 9

The Liberated Soul Is Full of Transcendental Knowledge

 

 

Introduction by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     Now will be shown the truth that the liberated soul has all transcendental knowledge. In the Chandogya Upanishad (7.26.2) it is said:

 

 

na pashyo mrityum pashyati na rogam nota-duhkhitam sarvam hi pashyah pashyati sarvam apnoti sarvashah

 

 

     "The liberated soul does not see death. He does not see disease. He does not see suffering. Still, he sees everything. He attains everything everywhere."

 

     In this way it is said that the liberated soul has knowledge of everything.

 

     Samshaya (doubt): Is this correct, or not?

 

     Purvapaksha (the opponent speaks): In the Brihad-aranyaka Upanishad (4.3.21) it is said:

 

 

prajnenatmana. . .

 

 

     "Embraced by the all-knowing Supreme Personality of Godhead, the individual soul is oblivious to all that is within and all that is without."

 

     Therefore it is certainly not correct (to say that the individual spirit soul is all-knowing).

 

     Siddhanta (conclusion): In the following words the author of the sutras gives His conclusion.

 

 

Sutra 15

 

 

pradipa-vad aveshas tatha hi darshayati

 

     pradipa—a lamp; vat—like; aveshah—entrance; tatha—so; hi—because; darshayati—reveals.

 

 

     Its entrance is like a lamp, furthermore it reveals.

 

Purport by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     As with its rays of light a lamp enters many places, so the with his expansion of knowledge the liberated soul enters many things to be known. Furthermore (tatha hi), the words of Shvetashvatara Upanishad (4.18) give the following revelation Ť(darshayati):

 

 

prajna ca tasmat prashrita purani

 

 

     "By the Supreme Lord's mercy the soul's ancient knowledge is revived."

 

     This verse should be interpreted, "By the Supreme Lord's mercy the soul's ancient knowledge is revived."

 

     Here someone may object: It is not correct to say that the liberated soul is all-knowing. Brihad-aranyaka Upanisad (4.3.21) explains that the liberated soul is oblivious to everything and thus does not know anything at all.   

 

     If this is said, the author of the sutras gives the following reply.

 

 

Sutra 16

 

 

svapyaya-sampattyor anyatarapekshyam avishkritam hi

 

     svapyaya—deep sleep; sampattyoh—of the moment of death; anyatara—either; apekshyam—in relation to; avishkritam—manifested; hi—because.

 

 

     It refers either to dreamless sleep or to the death-swoon, for thus is it revealed.

 

Purport by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     These words of Brihad-aranyaka Upanishad (4.3.21) do not show that the liberated soul is oblivious and has no knowledge at all. Rather, these words refer either to dreamless sleep or to the death-swoon, (svapyaya-sampattyor anyatarapekshyam). The word "svapyaya" here means, "dreamless sleep", and the word "sampatti" here means, "the moment of leaving the body". In the Chandogya Upanishad (6.8.1) sleep is defined in these words:

 

 

svam apito bhavati tasmad enam svapitity acakshate

 

 

     "When one indeed (api) enters (ita) himself (sva), then it is said that he sleeps (svapiti)."

 

     In the Chandogya Upanishad (6.8.6) the time of death is described in these words:

 

 

van manasi sampadyate

 

 

     "At the time of death the voice enters the mind."

 

     In this way the Shruti-shastra describes the state of consciousness during dreamless sleep and the moment of death. However, the Shruti-shastra also explains that in the liberated state the Ťsoul is all-knowing.

     The condition of dreamless sleep is described in these words of the Chandogya Upanishad (8.11.1):

 

 

naham khalv ayam evam sampraty atmanam janaty ayam aham asmiti no evemani bhutani vinasham ivapito bhavati. naham atra bhogyam pashyami.

 

 

     "Sound asleep, he does not even know who he is. He cannot say: I am he. His knowledge of everything perishes. I do not see this as a good or pleasant state of being."

 

     On the other hand, the liberated soul is described in these words of the Chandogya Upanishad (8.12.5):

 

 

sa va esha etena divyena cakshusha manasy etan kaman pashyan ramate ya ete brahmaloke

 

 

     "Seeing with divine eyes the pleasures in the spiritual world, he rejoices in his heart."

 

     The death-swoon, however, is described in these words:

 

 

etebhyo bhutebhyah samutthaya tany evanuvinashyati

 

 

     "Rising, at the moment of death, from the elements of the material body, the soul suddenly loses all consciousness.

 

     Here the word "vinashyati" means, "he cannot see anything". In this way it is proved that the liberated soul is all-knowing.

 

 

 

 

Adhikarana 10

The Liberated Soul Has Not the Power to Create the World

 

 

Introduction by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     In Chandogya Upanishad (8.1.6 and 8.2.1) it is said:

 

 

atha ya iha atmanam anuvidya vrajanty etamsh ca satyan kamams tesham sarveshu lokeshu kama-caro bhavati. sa yadi pitriloka-kamo bhavati.

 

 

     "He who knows the truth of the Supreme Personality of Godhead and places his desires in eternal spiritual happinesses may go, when he leaves this body, to any world he wishes. If he desires to create a Pitriloka planet, then that planet is at once created."

 

     Samshaya (doubt): Does the liberated soul have the power to create a material universe, or does he not?

 

     Purvapaksha (the opponent speaks): Because he is equal to the Supreme Lord, and also because all his desires are at once fulfilled, the liberated soul must also have this power.

 

     Siddhanta (conclusion): In the following words the author of the sutras gives His conclusion.

 

 

Sutra 17

 

 

jagad-vyapara-varjyam prakaranad asannihitatvat

 

     jagat—of the material universe; vyapara—creation; varjyam—except for; prakaranat—because of the context; asannihitatvat—because of the absence of nearness.

 

 

     Except for creating the universe, because of the context and because he is not near to it.

 

Purport by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     The creative power of the liberated soul is described in Chandogya Upanishad (8.2.1). However, the liberated soul has not the power to create a material universe. Only the Supreme Personality of Godhead has the power to create, maintain, and destroy the material universes. This is described in Taittiriya Upanishad (3.1.1). How is this known? The sutra explains, “prakaranad asannihitatvat" (because of the context and because he is not near to it). From the context it is seen that the Supreme Personality of Godhead is the topic discussed in this passage of Taittiriya Upanishad (3.1.1). Neither by a great struggle nor by chanting mantras can the individual spirit soul Ťobtain this kind of power. This is corroborated by the explanation given in Taittiriya Upanishad (2.6.1). Also, the liberated soul is not the subject of discussion in any passage near to (asannihitatvat) these words of Taittiriya Upanishad (2.6.1). If it were otherwise (and the liberated souls had the power to create the material universe), then the author of the sutras would not have defined the the Supreme Personality of Godhead in these words (Vedanta-sutra 1.1.2):

 

 

janmady asya yatah

 

 

     "That Brahman (the Supreme Spirit) is He from whom the creation, sustenance, and destruction of the manifested universe arises."*

 

     Also, if the liberated souls had the power to create universes, there would be many creators and from that there would arise a great chaos and calamity. Therefore the liberated souls have not the power to create material universes.

 

     Here someone may object: In Taittiriya Upanishad 1.5.3) it is said:

 

 

sarve 'smai deva balim avahanti

 

 

     "All the demigods bring offerings to him."

 

     Also, in Chandogya Upanishad (7.25.2) it is said:

 

 

sa svarad bhavati tasya sarveshu lokeshu kama-caro bhavati

 

 

     "He is independent. He can go to any world."

 

     In this way it is seen that because he is worshiped by all the demigods, and because he has all extraordinary powers, the liberated soul can certainly create material universes.

 

     If this is said, then the author of the sutras gives the following reply.

 

 

Sutra 18

 

 

pratyakshopadeshan neti cen nadhikarika-mandalasyokteh

 

     pratyaksha—direct; upadeshat—because of the teaching; na—not; iti—thus; cet—if; na—not; adhikarika—of great leaders; mandalasya—of the circle; ukteh—from the statement.

 

 

     Someone may say: "No. It is not so. Because there is a direct teaching," If this is said, I reply: "No. What you say is not true. Because those texts describe great leaders."

 

Purport by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     Here someone may say, "It is not correct to say that Ťthe liberated souls have no power to create material universes, for many passages of the Shruti-shastra directly describe that power." If this is said, then the author of the sutra replies, "No. It is not so." Why not? The sutra explains, “adhikarika-mandalasyokteh" (Because those texts describe great leaders). These texts explain how, by the mercy of the Supreme Lord, the liberated soul can travel to the planets of the great demigods, such as that of the four-faced Brahma, and enjoy many pleasures there. In this way it is said that the great liberated souls, such as Narada Muni and the four Kumaras can travel to the planets of the demigods, and when the do the demigods there honor them with great respect.

     These passages of the Upanishad mean in truth that by the Supreme Lord's mercy the liberated souls can travel to many different worlds and feel pleasure by seeing the Lord's glories and opulences there. These passages should not be wrongly interpreted to mean that the individual spirit soul has the power to create material universes.

 

     Here someone may object: If the liberated soul is thus an enjoyer of various material pleasures, then he is not different from a conditioned soul, for all material pleasures must come to an end.

 

     If this is said, then the author of the sutras gives the following reply.

 

 

Sutra 19

 

 

vikaravarti ca tatha hi sthitim aha

 

     vikara—the changes of material existence; a—not; varti—existing; ca—and; tatha—so; hi—because; sthitim—situation; aha—says.

 

 

     Furthermore it is changeless, for it describes that condition.

 

Purport by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     The word "vikara" here refers to the six kinds of transformation, beginning with birth, that are present in the material world. These transformations do not effect the liberated soul. Neither do these transformations affect the supremely pure Personality of Godhead, his transcendental abode, or anything else that has transcendental qualities like those of the Supreme Lord. Aware of what is the truth about all these worlds, the liberated soul may observe them but he does not really reside in them. The word "hi" in this sutra means, “because". The true nature of the liberated soul is described (sthitim aha) in the following words of Katha Upanishad (2.2.1):

 

 

puram ekadasha-dvaram

     ajasyavakra-cetasah

anushthaya na shocati

     vimuktash ca vimucyate

 

 

     "Although he resides in the city of eleven gates, the city of the unborn and pure-hearted Supreme, he does not lament. He is free. He is liberated."

 

     Although his spiritual form seems to be covered, the soul enlightened with transcendental knowledge is liberated in truth. Although he seems to reside in the world of the three modes, he is liberated. That is the meaning of this verse. In these two ways he is liberated. He has directly attained the goal of life. The covering of material life is like a garland of clouds. It covers the eyes of the conditioned souls, but it does not cover the Supreme Personality of Godhead. In Shruti-shastra it is said:

 

 

vilajjamanaya yasya

     sthatum iksha-pathe 'muya

vimohita vikantthante

     mamaham iti durdhiyah

 

 

     "The illusory energy of the Lord cannot take precedence, being ashamed of her position. But those who are bewildered by her always talk nonsense, being absorbed in thoughts of `It is I' and `It is mine'."*

 

     Therefore the clouds (of material illusion) can never really cover the sun (of the Supreme Personality of Godhead).

 

     Here someone may object: The goal of life is to make manifest the true nature of the individual spirit soul, who is blissful, whose desires are all at once fulfilled, and who has a host of transcendental virtues. That is enough. Why should one labor to understand the Supreme Lord also?

 

     If this is said, the author of the sutras gives the following reply.

 

 

Sutra 20

 

 

darshayatash caivam pratyakshanumane

 

     darshayatah—they show; ca—also; evam—thus; pratyaksha—direct perception; anumane—and logic.

 

 

     Direct perception and logic both reveal it.

 

Purport by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     Although he has the transcendental qualities already described, because he is atomic in size the liberated soul does not, by himself, have bliss that is limitless. It is when he associates with the Supreme Personality of Godhead that the liberated soul attains limitless bliss. This is described in Taittiriya Upanishad (2.7):

 

rasam hy evayam labdhvanandi-bhavati

 

 

     "When one understands the Personality of Godhead, the reservoir of pleasure, Krishna, he actually becomes transcendentally blissful."*

 

     Also, in the Bhagavad-gita (14.27), Lord Krishna explains:

 

 

brahmano hi pratishthaham

     amritasyavyayasya ca

shashvatasya ca dharmasya

     sukhasyasikantikasya ca

 

 

     "And I am the basis of the impersonal Brahman, which is immortal, imperishable, and eternal, and is the constitutional position of ultimate happiness."*

 

     This is like a poor man who takes shelter of a rich man and becomes wealthy.

 

     Here someone may object: in the Mundaka Upanishad (3.1.3) it is said:

 

 

niranjanah paramam samyam upaiti

 

 

     "Freed from matter, the liberated soul becomes equal to the Supreme."

 

     The Shruti-shastra thus explains that the liberated soul is equal to the Supreme. What is the use, then, of even using the word, "the Supreme Lord"? The so-called atomic nature of the individual soul is only a figure of speech. The truth is that the individual soul is all-pervading.

 

     If this is said, then the author of the sutras gives the following reply.

 

 

Sutra 21

 

 

bhoga-matra-samya-lingac ca

 

     bhoga—enjoyment; matra—only; samya—equality; lingat—by the sign; ca—also.

 

 

     Also because of the indication that the equality is only in enjoyment.

 

Purport by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     The word "ca" (also) is used here for emphasis. As a frog jumps, so the word "na" (not) should jump into this sutra from sutra 18. In the Taittiriya Upanishad (2.1.1) it is said:

 

so 'shnute sarvan kaman saha brahmana vipashcita

 

 

     "The liberated soul enjoys all transcendental pleasures in the company of the all-knowing Supreme Personality of Godhead."

 

     The meaning here is that the Upanishad's statement that the liberated soul is equal to the Lord applies only to the soul's enjoyment of transcendental happiness. The liberated soul is not equal in nature to the Supreme Lord. That is the meaning. This objection was previously refuted in sutra 2.3.19. In this way it is proved that the equality of the Supreme and the individual spirit soul is in the matter of enjoyment only, that their natures are different, and that difference is real.

 

 

 

 

Adhikarana 11

The Liberated Soul Never Returns

 

 

Introduction by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     Now will be explained the truth that the liberated soul has the association of the Supreme Personality of Godhead eternally

 

     Vishaya (the subject to be discussed): All scriptural statements describing the soul's entrance into the spiritual realm of the Supreme Lord are here the subject of discussion.

 

     Samshaya (doubt): Does the liberated soul stay in the spiritual world eternally, or does he not stay there eternally?

 

     Purvapaksha (the opponent speaks): The spiritual world is a place like Svargaloka or any other place. As one may fall down from Svargaloka, so one may also fall down from the spiritual world. Therefore the liberated soul does not necessarily stay in the spiritual world eternally.

 

     Siddhanta (conclusion): In the following words the author of the sutras gives His conclusion.

 

 

Sutra 22

 

 

anavrittih shabdad anavrittih shabdat

 

     an—without; avrittih—return; shabdat—because of bthe scriptures.

 

 

     No return, because of the scriptures. No return, because of the scriptures.

 

Purport by Shrila Baladeva Vidyabhushana

 

 

     A devotee who faithfully worships and serves the Supreme Lord and then goes to the Lord's spiritual world, never returns. How is that known? The sutra explains, "shabdat" (because of the scriptures). In the Chandogya Upanishad (4.15.6) it is said:

 

 

etena pratipadyamana imam manavam avartam navartante

 

 

     "They who enter the spiritual world never return to the world of men."

 

     In the Chandogya Upanishad (4.15.1) it is said:

 

 

sa khalv eva vartayan yavad ayusham brahmalokam abhisampadyate. na ca punar avartate.

 

     "Leaving this life, he enters the spiritual world. He never returns."

     In the Bhagavad-gita (8.15 and 16) Lord Krishna declares:

 

 

mam upetya punar janma

     duhkhalayam ashasvatam

napnuvanti mahatmanah

     samsiddhim paramam gatah

 

 

     "After attaining Me, the great souls, who are yogis in devotion, never return to this temporary world, which is full of miseries, because they have attained the highest perfection.*

 

 

a-brahma-bhuvanal lokah

     punar avartino 'rjuna

mam upetya tu kaunteya

     punar janma na vidyate

 

 

     "From the highest planet in the material world down to the lowest, all are places of misery wherein repeated birth and death take place. But one who attains My abode, O son of Kunti, never takes birth again."*

 

     In the Bhagavad-gita (8.15 and 16) Lord Krishna also declares:

 

     Here someone may express the following fear: Lord Hari is all-powerful, the master of all, perhaps at some point in time He may throw the liberated soul out of the spiritual world. Or perhaps the liberated soul may at some time voluntarily leave the spiritual world.

 

     There is no need to fear in this way, for Lord Krishna has explained in Bhagavad-gita (7.17):

 

 

priyo hi jnanino tv artham

     aham sa ca mama priyah

 

 

     "of these, the wise one who is in full knowledge in union with Me through devotional service is the best. For I am very dear to him, and he is very dear to Me."*

 

     Lord Krishna also declares in Shrima-Bhagavatam (9.4.68):

 

 

sadhavo hridayam mahyam

     sadhunam hridayam tv aham

 

 

     "The pure devotee is always in the core of My heart, and I am always in the heart of the pure devotee. My devotees do not know anything else but Me, and I do not know anyone else but them."*

 

     In these words the mutual love of the Lord and His devotee is described.

 

     In Shrimad-Bhagavatam (9.4.65) Lord Krishna declares:

 

 

ye daragara-putraptan

     pranan vittam imam param

hitva mam sharanam yatah

     katham tams tyaktum utsahe

 

 

     "Since pure devotees give up their homes, wives, children, relatives, riches, and even their lives simply to serve Me, without any material improvement in this life or in the next, how can I give up such devotees at any time?"*

 

     In Shrimad-Bhagavatam (2.8.6) it is also said:

 

 

dhautatma purushah krishna-

     pada-mulam na muncati

mukta-sarva-parikleshah

     panthah sva-sharanam yatha

 

 

     "A pure devotee of the Lord whose heart has once been cleansed by the process of devotional service never relinquishes the lotus feet of Lord Krishna, for they fully satisfy him, as a traveler is satisfied at home after a troubled journey."*

 

     In this way the scriptures explain that the Supreme Personality of Godhead will never abandon His devotee and the devotee will always ardently love the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The Supreme Personality of Godhead is always truthful and His desires are always at once fulfilled. He is an ocean of love for they who take shelter of Him. He washes away the ignorance that made His devotees turn from Him. Once He brings back to Himself His dear devotees, who are His parts and parcels, the Supreme Personality of Godhead will not again let them go.

     In the same way the individual soul, who had been searching for happiness and who finally has turned from the pathetic, wretched, pale reflection of happiness he had for many births sought in the material world in many ways, and who now, by the mercy of the bona-fide spiritual master has understood the truth of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, of whom he is a part and parcel, who now has no desire apart from the Supreme Lord, who is now purely engaged in devotional service to the Supreme Lord, and who has now attained the Supreme Lord, whose spiritual form is filled with limitless bliss, and who is the merciful friend and master, will never desire to leave such a Lord. In this way the truth is understood from the scriptures. This truth is understood only by taking shelter of the scriptures. The words of the sutra are repeated to indicate the conclusion of the book.

 

 

Epilogue

 

 

samuddhritya yo duhkha-pankat sva-bhaktan

     nayaty acyutash cit-sukhe dhamni nitye

priyan gadha-ragat tilardham vimoktum

     na svecchaty asav eva su-jnair nishevyah

 

 

     Let the wise worship and serve Lord Govinda, the infallible Supreme Personality of Godhead, who lifts his devotees from the mud of material sufferings, takes them to His eternal and blissful spiritual abode, and out of deep love for them will not leave them for even half a moment.

 

 

shrimad-govinda-pada-

     ravinda-makaranda-lubdha-cetobhih

govinda-bhashyam etat

     pathyam shapatho 'rpito 'nyebhyah

 

 

     Let they whose hearts are greedy to taste the honey of the lotus flower that is glorious Lord Govinda's feet study this Govinda-bhashya. Let a curse fall on the non-devotees who try to study it.

 

 

vidya-rupam bhushanam me pradaya

     khyatim ninye tena yo mam udarah

shri-govindah svapna-nirdishta-bhashyo

     radha-bandhur bandhurangam sa jiyat

 

 

     All glories to graceful and handsome Lord Govinda, who is the dear friend of Shri Radha, who kindly gave me the name Vidyabhushana, and who spoke this commentary to me in a dream.