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atha jivanam taratamyam
samye saty api jivanam
taratamyam ca sadhanat
atha—now; jivanam—of the living entities; taratamyam—gradations of importance; anu—minute; chaitanya—consciousness; rupatva—possessing; jnanitva—the state of possessing knowledge; adya—geginning with; visheshatah—particularly; samye—equality; sati—being so; api—although; jivanam—of the living entities; taratamyam—gradation; ca—and; sadhanat—because of activities, or because of advancement in devotional service.
6. In both conditioned and liberated states, the jivas are situated in higher and lower statuses.
Although all living entities are equally conscious and full of knowledge, according to the small capacity of an individual soul, they nevertheless manifest that original spiritual nature in varying degrees. The extent to which that original nature is uncovered is determined by their purity and devotion to the Supreme Lord.
TEXT 2 (a)
tatranuktam uktam shvetashvataraihh
shatadha kalpitasya ca
bhago jivah sa vijneyah
sa canantyaya kalpate
tatra—there; anuktam—not described; uktam—described; shvetashvataraih—in the Shvetashvatara Upanishad; bala-agra—the tip of a hair; shata-bhagasya—of one hundreth; shatadha—into one hundred parts; kalpitasya—divided; ca—and; bhagah—minute portion; jivah—the living entity; sah—that; vijneyah—to be understood; sah—that; ca—and; anantaya—for the unlimited; kalpate—worthy.
The Shvetashvatara Upanishad (5.9) describes the individual spirit soul: "When the upper point of a hair is divided into one hundred parts and again each of such parts is further divided into one hundred parts, each such part is the measurement of the dimension of the spirit-soul."
chaitanya-rupatvam jnanitvadikam ca shat-prashnyam
esha hi drashta sprashta shrota ghrata rasayita manta boddha karta vijnanatma purushah. iti.
chaitanya-rupatvam—state of being conscious; jnanitva—state of possessing knowledge; adikam—beginning with; ca—and; shat—six; prashnyam—in the Prashna Upanishad; eshah—he; hi—indeed; drashta—the seer; sprashta--the one who touches; shrota—the hearer; ghrata—the one who smells; rasayita—the one who tastes; manta—the one who thinks; boddha—the one who understands; karta—the doer; vijnana—full of knowledge; atma—soul; purushah—person; iti—thus.
The Prashna Upanishad (4.9) explains the soul's consciousness, knowledge and and other qualities: "It is the individual soul who perceives the activities of the senses. It is he who sees, touches, hears, smells, tastes, thinks, and understands."
TEXT 3 (a)
adina gunena deha-vyapitvam ca. shri-gitasu
yatha prakashayaty ekah
kritsnam lokam imam ravih
kshetram kshetri tatha kritsnam
adina—beginning with; gunena—qualities; deha—in the body; vyapitvam—omnipresence; ca—and; gitasu—in Bhagavad-gita; yatha—as; prakashayati—illuminates; ekah—one; kritsnam—the whole; kam—universe; imam—this; ravih—the sun; kshetra—this body; kshetri—the soul; tatha—similarly; kritsnam—all prakashayati—illuminates; bharata—son of Bharata.
The soul pervades the material body, as Bhagavad-gita (13.34) explains: "O son of Bharata, as the sun alone illuminates all this universe, so does the living entity, one within the body, illuminate the entire body with consciousness."
TEXT 3 (b)
aha caiva sutrakarah
gunad balarokavad iti.
guna-nityatvam uktam vajasaneyibhih
avinashi va are ayam atmanuchitti-dharma. iti.
aha—said; ca—and eva—certainly; sutrakarah—the author of Vedanta-sutra; gunat—by spiritual qualities; bala—newly risen; arka—sun; vat—like; iti—thus; guna—of the qualities; nityatvam—eternality; uktam—described; vajasaneyibhih—ty Yajnavalkya; avinashi—without destruction; va—or; are—Oh; ayam—this; atma—soul; anucchitti-dharma—cannot be cut.
The author of Vedanta-sutra explains (2.3.14): "Just as the newly risen sun remains in one place and yet fills the entire sky with light, in the same way the individual soul, although remaining in one place, pervades the entire body by consciousness."
Yajnavalkya Muni (in the Brihad-aranyaka Upanishad, 4.5.14) describes the eternality of the soul: "O Maitreyi, the soul is imperishable, and can never be cut or changed."
TEXT 4 (a)
evam samye 'pi vaisamyam
aihikam karmabhih sphutam
prahah paratrikam tat tu
evam—in this way; samye—in equality; api—although; vaisamyam—inequality; aihikam—in this world; karmabhih—by activities; sphutam—manifested; prahuh—describe; paratrikam—the spiritual world; tat—that; tu—and; bhakti—of devotion; bhedaih—by distinctions; su-kovidah—those learned in the spiritual science.
They who are learned in the spiritual science say that although in one sense all individual souls are equal, they manifest different activities in the material world, and even in the spieitual world, they possess different degrees of pure devotion for the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
TEXT 4 (b)
tatha hi kauthumah pathanti
yatha-kratur asmil loke purusho bhavati tathetah pretya bhavati. iti.
yadrishi bhavana samye siddhir bhavati tadrishi. iti.
tatha hi—moreover; kauthumah—the Kauthumiya recension of the Vedas; pathanti—read; yatha—according to; kratuh—sacrifice; asmin—inthis; loke—world; purushah—a person; bhavati—becomes; tatha—in the same way; itah—from that; pretya—in the next world; bhavati—becomes; iti—thus; smritih—in the Smriti-shastra; yadrishi—in whatever extent; bhavana—devotional meditation; samye—in equality; siddhih—perfection; bhavati—becomes; tadrishi—like that; iti—thus.
The following explanation is found in the Kauthumiya recension of the Vedas: "The degree to which one engages in devotional activities in this world determines his status in the next world."
The Smriti-shastra also confirms: "The extent to which one is devoted to the Supreme Personality of Godhead determines the degree of his spiritual perfection."
TEXT 4 (c)
ye bhavah panca kirtitah
tair devam smaratam pumsam
taratamyam mitho matam
shanti—the neutral-rasa; adya—giginning with; rati—the madhurya-rasa; paryanta—culminating in; ye—those; bhavah—mellows of loving exchange; panca—five; kirtitah—are described; taih—by them; devam—one whould remember; pumsam—of the living entities; taratamyam—gradation; mithah—mutual; matam—are considered.
Neutrality, servitorship, friendship, parenthood, and conjugal love are described as the five mellows of loving exchange with the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Those who meditate upon the Lord in these different mellows attain the appropriate different destinations. In this way, the living entities possess different gradations of good-fortune.