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TEXT 1 (a)
atha shri-krishna-prapter mokshatvam. yatha
jnatva devam sarva-pashapahanir ity adi.
eko vashi sarvagah krishna idya ity adi ca.
atha—now; shri-krishna—of Lord Krishna; prapteh—of the attainment; mokshatvam—the state of liberation; yatha—just as; jnatva—having understood; devam—the Supreme Personality of Godhead; sarva—all; pasha—the ropes of entanglement in material existence; apahanih—destroyed; iti—thus; adi—etc. (The entire verse reads jnatva devam sarva-pashapahanih, kshinaih kleshair janma-mrityu-prahanih tasyabhidhyanat tritiyam deha-bhede, vishvaishvaryam kevala); apta-kamah; ekah—one; vashi—all powerful; sarvagah—all-peravding; krishnah—Lord Krishna; idyah—supremely worshipable; iti—thus; adi—etc. (The entire verse reads eko vashi sarvagah krishna idya eko 'pi san badhudha yo vibhati tam pithastham ye 'nubhajanti diras tesham sukham shashvatam netaresham).
7. Liberation does not mean an impersonal merging, but the attainment of direct association with Lord Krishna:
The Shvetashvatara Upanishad (1.14) explains: "By understanding the truth of the Supreme Personality of Godhead from a bona-fide spiritual master, one becomes free from the entangling ropes of identification with the material
body, as well as the various miseries and the trap of repeated birth and death which spring from that false-identification. By constantly meditating on the Supreme Lord, he becomes free from the subtle material body of mind, intelligence and false-ego. He attains the form of an eternally liberated associate of the Supreme Lord in the spiritual world, and all his desires become fulfilled."
The Gopala-tapani Upanishad (1.21) also explains: "Lord Krishna is the all-powerful, all-pervading Supreme Personality of Godhead, and He is the object of the prayers and worship of the demigods. Intelligent persons worship Him as He resides in His own spiritual abode. They thus attain the eternal transcendental bliss which is not available for others."
TEXT 1 (b)
bahudha bahubhir veshair
bhati krishnah svayam prabhuh
tam ishtva tat-pade nitye
sukham tishthanti mokshinah
bahudha—in many ways; bahubhih—with many; veshaih—forms; bhati—is manifested; krishnah—Krishna; svayam—personally; prabhuh—the Supreme Personality of Godhead; tam—Him; ishtva—having worshipped; tat—His; pade—in the spiritual abode; nitye—eternal; sukham—bliss; tishthanti—situated; mokshinah—liberated.
The Supreme Personality of Godhead is manifested in many forms-—but His original form is Lord Krishna. Those who worship that original form of Lord Krishna become liberated from this material world, and attain transcendental bliss in the Lord's eternal abode.
TEXT 1 (a)
bhaktir asya bhajanam tad iha-mutropadhi-nairasyenamusmin manah-kalpanam etad eva naishkarmyam.
atha—now; eka-anta—unalloyed; bhakteh—of devotional service; moksha—of liberation; hetutvam—the state of being the cause; yatha—just as; shri-gopala-tapanyam—in the Gopala-tapani Upanishad; bhaktih—devotional service; asya—of Him; bhajanam- worship; tat—that; iha—in this world; mutra—in the next world; upadhi—designations; nairasyena—renunciation; amusmin—among us; manah—of the mind; kalpanam—meditation; etat—that; eva—certainly; naishkarmyam—freedom from the bonds of karma.
8. Pure devotional service grants liberation:
The Gopala-tapani Upanishad (1.15) explains: "Devotional service means worship and meditation directed to the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Such devotional service frees one from the desire for sense-gratification both in this life and the next, and breaks the bonds of karma."
TEXT 1 (b)
sevanam bhaktir ucyate
narada-pancaratre-—in the Narada-pancaratra; ca—and; sarva-upadhi-vinirmuktam—free from all kinds of material designations, or free from all desires except the desire to render service to the Supreme Personality of Godhead; tat-paratvena—by the sole purpose of serving the Supreme Personality of Godhead. nirmalam—uncontaminated by the effects of speculative philosophical research or fruitive activity; hrishikena—by purified senses freed from all designations; hrishikesha—of the master of the senses; sevanam—the service to satisfy the senses; bhaktih—devotional service; ucyate—is called.
The Narada-pancaratra also explains: "Bhakti, or devotional service, means engaging all our senses in the service of the Lord, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the master of all the senses. When the spirit soul renders service unto the Supreme, there are two side effects. One is freed from all material designations, and, simply by being employed in the service of the Lord, one's senses are purified."
TEXT 2 (a)
navadha caisha bhavati. yad-uktam shri-bhagavate
shravanam kirtanam vishnoh
arcanam vandanam dasyam
iti pumsarpita vishnau
bhaktish cen nava-lakshana
kriyeta bhagavaty addha
tan manye 'dhitam uttamam
navadha—nine-fold; ca—and; esha--this; bhavati—is; yat—which; uktam—spoken; shri—bhagavate—in the Shrimad-Bhaagavatam; shri-prahradah uvaca—Prahlada Maharaja said; shravanam—hearing; kirtanam—chanting; vishnoh—o Lord Vishnu (not anyone else); smaranam—remembering; pada-sevanam—serving the feet; arcanam—offering wership (with shodashopacara, the sixteen kinds of paraphernalia); vandanam—offering prayers; dasyam—becoming the servant; sakhyam—becoming the best friend; atma-nivedanam—surrendering everything, whatever one has; iti—thus; pumsa arpita—offered by the devotee; vishnau—unot Lord Vishnu (not to anyone else); bhaktih—devotional service; cet—if; nava-lakshana—possessing nine different precesses; kriyeta—one should perform; bhagavati—unto the Supreme Personality ofGodhead; addha—directly or completely; tat—that; manye—I consider; adhitam—learning; uttamam—topmost.
The Lord's devotional service consists of nine parts, as the Shrimad-Bhagavatam (7.5.23-24) explains: "Hearing and chanting about the transcendental holy name, form, qualities, paraphernalia and pastimes of Lord Vishnu, remembering them, serving the lotus feet of the Lord, offering the Lord respectful worship with sixteen types of paraphernalia, offering prayers to the Lord, becoming His servant, considering the Lord one's best friend, and surrendering everything unto Him (in other words, serving Him with the body, mind and words) — these nine processes are accepted as pure devotional service. One who has dedicated his life to the service of Krishna through these nine methods should be understood to be the most learned person, for he has acquired complete knowledge."
TEXT 2 (b)
sat-seva guru-seva ca
deva-bhavena ced bhavet
labhyate nanyatha kvacit
sat—of the devotees; seva—servide; guru—of the spiritual master; seva—service; ca—and; deva—of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; bhavena—with meditation; cet—if; bhavet—may be; tada—then; esha—this; bhagavat—of the Supreme Lord; bhaktih—devotional service; labhyate—is attained; na—not; anyatha—otherwise; kvacit—under any circumstance.
If one engages in the service of the devotees and the spiritual master, considering them equal to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, then he may attain the devotional service of the Lord. There is no other way in which this service may be obtained.
TEXT 3 (a)
deva-bhavena sat-seva. yatha taittiriyake
atithi-devo bhava. iti.
deva—as the Supreme Lord; bhavena—with the conception; sat—of the devotees; seva—service; yatha—just as; taittiriyake—in the Taittiriya Upanishad; atithi—as a guest; devah—the Supreme Personality of Godhead; bhava—please become; iti—thus.
That one should serve the devotees, considering them equal to the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself, is described in the Taittiriya Upanishad (1.10): "One should serve devotee in the same way as one serves the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself."
TEXT 3 (b)
taya tad-bhaktir yatha shri-bhagavate
naisham matis tavad urukramanghrim
sprishaty anarthapagamo yad-arthah
mahiyasam pada-rajo- 'bhisekam
nishkincananam na vrinita yavat
taya—by this; tat-bhaktih—this devotional service to Him; yatha—as; shri-bhagavate_in Shrimad-Bhagavatam; na—not; esham—of these; matih—the consciousness; tavat—that long; urukrama-anghrim—the litus feet of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is famous for performing uncommon activities; sprishati—does touch; anrtha—of unwanted things; apagamah—the disappearance; yat—of which; arthah— the purpose; mahiyasam—of the great sous (the mahatmas, or devotees); pada-rajah—by the dust of the litus feet; abhishekam—consecration; nishkincananam—of devotees who have nothing to do with this material world; na—not; vrinita—may accept; yavat—as long as.
The Shrimad-Bhagavatam (7.5.32) confirms that this is the only way to attain the Lord's devotional service: "Unless they smear upon their bodies the dust of the lotus feet of a Vaishnava completely freed from material contamination, persons very much inclined toward materialistic life cannot be attached to the lotus feet of the Lord, who is glorified for His uncommon activities. Only by becoming Krishna conscious and taking shelter at the lotus feet of the Lord in this way can one be freed from material contamination."
deva-bhavena guru-seva yatha taittiriyake
acarya-devo bhava. iti.
deva—as the Supreme Personality of Godhead; bhavena—considering; guru—of the spiritual master; seva—service; yatha—just as; taittiriyake—in the Taittiriya Upanishad; acarya—the spiritual master; devah—as the Supreme Personality of Godhead; bhava—please be; iti—thus.
That one should also serve the spiritual master as the Supreme Personality of Godhead is confirmed in the Taittiriya Upanishad (1.10): "One should serve the spiritual master in the same way one serves the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself."
TEXT 4 (b)
yasya deve para bhaktir
yatha deve tatha gurau
tasyaite kathita hy arthah
shvetashvatara-upanishadi—in the Shvetashvatara Upanishad; yasya—of whom; deve for the Supreme Personality of Godhead; para—supreme; bhaktih—devotion; yatha—just as; deve—for the Lord; tatha—in the same way; gurau—for the spiritual master; yasya—of him; ete—they; kathitah—explained; hi—certainly; arthah—the meaning of the Vedic literatures; prakashante—become manifested; maha-atmanah—for such a great soul.
The Shvetashvatara Upanishad (6.23) also explains: "Only unto those great souls who have implicit faith in both the Lord and the spiritual master are all the imports of Vedic knowledge automatically revealed."
TEXT 4 (c)
taya tad-bhaktir yatha shri-bhagavate
tasmad gurum prapadyeta
jijjnasuh shreya uttamam
shabde pare ca nishnatam
tatra bhagavatan dharman
tushyed atmatmado harih
taya—by that; tat—for the Supreme Personality of Godhead; bhaktih—devotion; yatha—just as; shri-bhagavate—in the Shrimad-Bhagavatam; tasmat—therefore; gurum—to the spiritual master; prapadyeta—one should surender; jijnasuh—eager to know; shreyah uttamam—the supreme goal of life; shabde pare—in the transcendental messages of the Vedas; ca—also; nishnatam—expert; brahmani—of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; upasamashrayam—taken shelter; tatra—in this regard; bhagavatan—of the Supreme Lord; dharman—the devotional service; shikshet—should teach; guru-atma-daivatah—one who has taken the service of the guru as his life and soul; amayaya—with non-duplicitous; anuvrittya—behavior; yaih—by this; tushyet—may be satisfied; atma—the Supreme Lord; atma-dah—giving Himself; harih—Hari.
That one should be devoted to the Spiritual Master in the same way that he is devoted to the Supreme Lord is described in the Shrimad-Bhagavatam (11.3.22-23): "Any person who is seriously desirous of achieving real happiness must seek out a bona-fide spiritual master and take shelter of him by initiation. The qualification of a spiritual master is that he must have realized the conclusion of the scriptures by deliberation and arguments and thus be able to convince others of these conclusions. Such great personalities who have taken complete shelter of the Supreme Godhead, leaving aside all material considerations, are to be understood as bona-fide spiritual masters. One who takes the instructions of such a bona-fide spiritual master as his life and soul, and sincerely worships and serves him, considering him equal to the Supreme as worshipable as the Supreme Personality of Godhead, greatly satisfies the Supreme Lord, who then gives Himself to such a sincere devotee. The Lord gives such a devotee the power to preach His message."
sakshat-kritya harim tasya
dhamni nityam pramodate
avapta—attained; panca—five; samskarah—purificatory rites; labdha—attained; dvi-vidha—two-fold; bhaktitah—devotional service; sakshat-kritya—directly attaining; harim—Lord Hari; tasya—of Him; dhamni—in the spiritual abode; nityam—eternally; pramodate—rejoices.
One who has passed through the five purificatory rituals, and been initiated into the vaidhi and raga stages of devotional service, may directly perceive Lord Hari, and attain the eternal bliss of serving Him in the spiritual abode.
TEXT 6 (a)
tatha panca-samskarah. yatha smritau padmottara-khande
tapah pundram tatha nama
mantro yagash ca pancamah
ami hi panca samskarah
tatha—in this way; panca—five; samskarah—purificatory procedures; yatha—just as; smritau—in the Smriti; padma-uttara-khande—in the Uttara-khanda of the Padma Purana; tapah—austerity; pundram—tilaka markings; tatha—in the same way; nama—chanting the Lord's holy names; mantrah—chanting various mantras; yagah—worshipping the Shalagrama-shila and other deities; ca—and; pancamah—the fifth; ami—these; hi—indeed; panca—five; samskarah—purificatory procedures; parama—supreme; aikanti—of causeless devotional service; hetavah—the causes.
These five purificatory procedures are described in the Padma Puriana, Uttara Khanda: "1. Austerity, 2. wearing tilaka markings, 3. Accepting a new name at the time of initiation, 4. chanting various mantras glorifying the Lord, and 5. engaging in the performance of sacrifice, are the five purificatory procedures which grant the Lord's unalloyed devotional service."
TEXT 6 (b)
tapo 'tra tapta-cakradi-
mudra capy upalakshyate
tapah—austerity; atra—here; tapta—hot; cakra—cakra; adi—and other symbols of Lord Vishnu; mudra—the marks; dharanam—wearing; ucyate is described; tena—by this; eva—certainly; hari—of Lord Hari; nama—the holy names; adi—beginning with; mudra—marks of the Lord; ca—and; api—also; upalakshyate—is observed.
In this verse the word austerity means to accept the branded marks of Lord Vishnu (the cakra, lotus, conch and mace) and also the marks of His holy names.
Note: Shrila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura comments that this difficult austerity is not actually needed. The previous great devotees have set the example of marking the body with the Lord's holy names and symbols drawn in sandalwood paste. This is quite sufficient.
TEXT 6 (c)
sa loka-pavano bhutva
tasya lokam avapnuyat
yatha—just as; smritau—in the Smrti-sastra; hari—of Lord Hari; nama—of the holy names; aksharaih—with the letters; candana—with sandalwood paste; adina—and other similar substances; sah—he; loka—of the entire world; pavanah—the purifier; bhutva—having become;tasya—of the Supreme Lord; lokam—the planet; avapnuyat—may attain.
The Smriti-shastra explains: "One who marks his body with the letters of Lord Hari's holy names drawn in sandalwood paste or other similar substances, purifies the entire world and becomes eligible to enter the Lord's spiritual abode."
TEXT 6 (d)
pundram syad urdhva-pundram tac
chastre bahu-vidham smritam
pundram—the word pundram; syat—may be; urdhva-pundram—tilaka markings; tat—that; shastre—in the scriptures; bahu-vidham—in many ways; smritam—is considered; hari—of Lord Hari; mandiram—the temple; tat—the Lord's; pada—of the lotus feet; akrti—with the form; adya—etc.; ati—very; shubha—auspicious; avaham—causing.
The word pundram in the previous quote from the Padma Purana (6a) means tilaka markings, many varieties of which have been described in the scriptures. By marking the body with tilaka, or with the forms of the Lord's lotus feet, or other auspicious marks, the body is sanctified and designated as temple of Lord Hari.
TEXT 6 (e)
namatra gaditam sadbhir
nama—the name; atra—here; gaditam—described; sadbhih—by the saintly devotees; hari—of Lord Hari; bhrityatva—the state of being Lord's Hari's servant; bodhakam—indicating; mantrah—the mantra; ashtadasha—eighteen; varna—letters; adih—beginning with; sva—own; ishta—worshippable; deva—of the deity; vapuh—the form; matah—considered.
The word nama means name. This means that when one is initiated by a spiritual master, one should accept a new name indicating that he is a servant of Lord Hari. The mantra referred to is the eighteen syllable Gopala mantra, which is considered non-different from the spiritual form of the Lord.
TEXT 6 (f)
pramanany eshu drishyani
shalagrama—the Shalagrama-shila; adi—beginning with; puja—worship; tu—and; yaga—yaga; shabdena—by the wors; kathyate—is described; pramanani—evidences; eshu—among them; drishyani—are seen; purana—in the Puranas; adishu—and other Vedic literatures; sadhubhih—by the saintly devotees.
By the word yaga, the worship of Shalagrama-sila and other deity forms of the Lord is described. In this way, the saintly devotees find many references in the Puranas and other Vedic literatures to describe the five purificatory processes.
purva dvedha bhaved yaya krishnah
bhutva svayam prasanno
dadati tat tad ipsitam dhama
navadha—nine-fold; bhakti—devotional service; vidhi—the beginning stage of following the rules and regulations without spontaneous attraction; ruci—spontaneous attraction; purva—beginning; bhavet—may be; yaya—by which; krishnah—Krishna; bhutva—having become; svayam—Himself; prasannah—pleased; dadati—grants; tat—this; tat—and that; ipsitam—desired; dhama—abode.
The nine-fold process of devotional service described in Text 2a may be considered in two stages. The first stage is called vidhi-bhakti, or following the rules and regulations of bhakti. The second stage is called ruci, and it is attained when there is spontaneous attraction to Krishna and His service. Lord Krishna becomes personally very satisfied by this loving service, He fulfills all the desires of His servitor and brings him back to the spiritual realm.
vidhina—by the rules and regulations; abhyarcyate—is worshiped; devah—the Supreme Personality of Godhead; catuh—four; bahu—arms; adi—and other; rupa—forms; dhrik—manifesting; ruci-atmakena—by spontaneous attraction; tena—by this; asau—He; nri-lingah—appearing as a human being, the son of Yashoda-devi; paripujyate—is worshipped.
By the process of vidhi-bhakti, the Supreme Personality of Godhead is worshipped in His Narayana feature, manifesting four, or sometimes eight or ten arms. By the process of ruci-bhakti, the Lord is worshipped in His original human-like form as the son of Yashoda.
tulasi—of the tulasi plant; asvattha—of the banyan tree; dhatri—of the amalaki tree; adi—beginning with; pujanam—worship; dhama—in the holy place where the Lord performed His pastimes; nishthata—residence; arunodaya-viddhah—if mixed with the dashami; tu—but; santyajyah—should be abandoned; hari-vasarah—ekadashi; janmashtami—janmashtami; adikam—beginning with; surodaya-viddham—if mixed with the shaptami; parityajet—one should abandon.
One should worship the tulasi plant,the banyan and amalaki trees, and everything else which is in relationship with the Lord. One should not fast on the ekadashi day which partly falls on the dashami, and one should not fast on the janmashtami day which falls on the saptami.
pratishthitash caret karma
loka—of the devotees; sangraham—the association; anvicchan—desiring; nitya—regular; naimittikam—and occasional; budhah—the learned devotees; pratishthitah—fixed; caret--should perform; karma—action; bhakti—devotional service;pradhanyam—principally; atyajan- not abandoning.
A learned and intelligent devotee, fixed in service to the Lord, should reside in a holy place, aspire for the association of advanced devotees, and engage in the regular and special activities of devotional service.
dasha namaparadhams tu
dasha—ten; nama—to the holy name; aparadhan—offenses;tu—also; yatnatah—with geat endeavor; parivarjayet—one whold avoid.
One should carefully avoid the ten offenses in the chanting of the holy name of the Lord.
phalam sadyah prakashayet
krishna—of Krishna; avapti—the attainment; phala—the fruit; bhaktih—devotional service; ekanta—unalloyed; atra—here; abhidhiyate—is described; jnana—with scriptural knowledge; vairagya—and renunciation; purva—formerly; sa—that; phalam—fruit; prakashayet—causes to become manifest.
Unalloyed devotional service, which causes one to attain Krishna, is described here. When that devotion is enriched with renunciation and scriptural scholarship, it very quickly bears fruit.